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Pratice Test Chapter 10



Short Answer
 

 1. 

“In the society of the High Middle Ages, function determined social classification.” Discuss this statement in terms of those who worked, those who prayed, and those who fought. Does it adequately describe the reality of society at that time? Why, or why not?
 

 2. 

Describe popular religion during this period. How did church authorities respond to these popular beliefs and practices? What do these popular beliefs and practices reveal about medieval society?
 

 3. 

In medieval times, the nobles were “those who fought.” Is this an adequate description of the European nobility of the period? How did the code of chivalry reinforce this function? Did the family arrangements of the nobles reinforce this function? What other roles did nobles perform?
 

 4. 

Judging from this chapter, how did church reforms and the papacy's drive after about 1000 to centralize the church and increase its influence among laypeople impact the lives of ordinary peasants?
 

 5. 

Most people believed that the role of the clergy was to pray for the rest of society. Is this an accurate description of what the members of the clergy did? Why, or why not? What contributions did the monastic orders make to medieval society? How did monastic organization reflect and reinforce these functions? What did other members of the clergy contribute to society?
 

 6. 

Medieval agriculture was based on the manor. Describe a typical manor. What changes had European agriculture undergone, and with what consequences? How effective was manorbased agriculture in supplying the needs of Europeans at the time?
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 7. 

According to the text, medieval peasants had all of the following psychological reinforcements except
a.
certainty of family support in time of need.
b.
certainty of what their life work would be.
c.
a strong attachment to their home village.
d.
a strong sense of the presence of God.
e.
certainty of a regular food supply.
 

 8. 

Grain yields in medieval Europe were probably the highest on
a.
small farms of free peasants.
b.
large farms worked by hired labor.
c.
large manorial estates.
d.
serfs' plots.
e.
royal lands.
 

 9. 

Typically the parish priest in the rural areas of Europe
a.
used the power of the church to control local landlords.
b.
was a poor peasant.
c.
had little concern for his parishioners, as he pursued career advancement.
d.
rejected the local cults of the saints.
e.
had trained at a monastic seminary.
 

 10. 

The conditions and obligations of European serfs during the High Middle Ages included all of the following except
a.
performance of labor services.
b.
payment of various fees.
c.
military service.
d.
hereditary nonfree status.
e.
payment of arbitrary levies.
 

 11. 

The parish priest was appointed and financed by
a.
his bishop.
b.
the king.
c.
his manorial lord.
d.
the pope.
e.
the abbot of the local monastery.
 

 12. 

Birth by Caesarian section
a.
had not yet been developed.
b.
was performed to save the life of the mother.
c.
was forbidden by the church.
d.
indicated that the child's life was more important than the mother's.
e.
was performed after the death of the mother in order to baptize the child.
 

 13. 

The primary obligation of the serf was to
a.
work on the lord's land.
b.
serve in the lord's army.
c.
pay taxes.
d.
pay rent on his land.
e.
work the royal lands.
 

 14. 

The traditional medieval vision of society included
a.
those who slave, those who pray, and those who rule.
b.
those who slave, those who believe, and those who rule.
c.
those who work, those who pray, and those who rule.
d.
those who work, those who pray, and those who kill.
e.
those who pray, those who fight, and those who work..
 

 15. 

A serf, in order to gain freedom through a cash payment to his or her lord, had to
a.
also bribe the parish priest.
b.
use a third party to make the payment.
c.
agree to leave the area.
d.
petition the papal curia to accept the case.
e.
buy a new serf to replace his labor on the lord's lands.
 

 16. 

The demesne was the
a.
monk in charge of providing charity for the poor.
b.
“inner economy” of noble households.
c.
boundary line between individual peasants' land holdings.
d.
lord's court.
e.
part of the manor that was cultivated for the lord.
 

 17. 

Agricultural productivity was greatly enhanced by the use of all of the following except
a.
iron implements.
b.
animal power.
c.
new disease-resistant crops from the East.
d.
reclaimed lands.
e.
animal manure as fertilizer.
 

 18. 

The word villeins literally means
a.
inhabitants of small villages.
b.
vile ones.
c.
low born.
d.
workers on the land.
e.
villains.
 

 19. 

The _________ was the basic unit of medieval rural organization.
a.
feif
b.
manor
c.
bishopric
d.
parish
e.
county
 

 20. 

All of the following apply to peasant women except that they
a.
inherited the family house and goods.
b.
shared with their men the labors of the fields.
c.
managed the family household.
d.
brought in extra money by working outside the home.
e.
were in charge of brewing ale.
 

 21. 

The training of midwives
a.
usually took place in monasteries.
b.
was controlled by the medical faculties of the universities.
c.
was done through practical apprenticeship.
d.
was nonexistent.
e.
was by male doctors.
 

 22. 

The production of beer and ale was dominated by
a.
monasteries.
b.
burghers.
c.
convents.
d.
women.
e.
city merchants.
 

 23. 

In the early twelfth century, the production of _________ increased greatly.
a.
bronze
b.
tin
c.
copper
d.
iron
e.
brass
 

 24. 

The typical peasant daily diet included all of the following except
a.
bread.
b.
cheese.
c.
beer and ale.
d.
meat.
e.
preserved cabbage (kraut).
 

 25. 

Professional medical care in this period
a.
was available in urban environments.
b.
had declined from earlier periods.
c.
was equally available in rural and urban areas.
d.
relied heavily on female practitioners.
e.
was nonexistent.
 

 26. 

The cults of local saints
a.
originated with local believers.
b.
were created by the church leadership.
c.
indicate the weakness of religious feelings.
d.
were endorsed by the papacy.
e.
weakened as veneration of Mary intensified.
 

 27. 

The center of community life in the village was the
a.
manor house.
b.
tavern.
c.
church.
d.
mill.
e.
market.
 

 28. 

According to medieval theology, the most powerful intercessor with Christ was
a.
St. Elmo.
b.
St. Peter.
c.
the pope.
d.
the Holy Spirit.
e.
the Virgin Mary.
 

 29. 

The popular belief in ghosts led to
a.
the church's affirmation of purgatory.
b.
a great witch hunt.
c.
an internal crusade against heresy.
d.
the rise of the cult of the Virgin Mother.
e.
the Albigensian heresy.
 

 30. 

The average medieval manor got a yield of __________, compared 50 or more to 1 today.
a.
2 to 1
b.
5 to 1
c.
10 to 1
d.
3 to 1
e.
15 to 1
 

 31. 

Aristocratic children
a.
were put to work as soon as they could walk.
b.
attended monastery schools from the age of five.
c.
were not baptized until they reached “the age of reason” and could publicly profess the Christian faith.
d.
generally did not leave home until the age of twenty-one.
e.
were allowed freedom to play and explore until about age seven.
 

 32. 

The term ministerials refers to
a.
a large class of unfree knights in Germany.
b.
the parish clergy in the Holy Roman Empire.
c.
the expanded papal bureaucracy.
d.
church officials who also served lay rulers.
e.
proclamations issued by local bishops.
 

 33. 

The most prevalent means of limiting family size during the High Middle Ages was
a.
infanticide.
b.
oblation.
c.
abstinence.
d.
abortion.
e.
condoms.
 

 34. 

Oblation refers to
a.
the “donation” of children to a monastery.
b.
pilgrimage to the shrine of a local saint.
c.
a noble's gift establishing a monastery.
d.
the eighth sacrament.
e.
baptism.
 

 35. 

One source of tension in noble families was the
a.
generation gap between father and son.
b.
mother's dominance of family affairs.
c.
increasing value of women's marriage portions.
d.
abolition of oblation.
e.
practice of wet-nursing.
 

 36. 

The typical peasant household consisted of
a.
a simple nuclear family.
b.
a family and a few servants.
c.
a three-generation family.
d.
ten or more members, bound by kinship ties.
e.
fifteen or more members, bound by kinship ties.
 

 37. 

The practice of oblation seems to have
a.
declined drastically by the High Middle Ages.
b.
had little impact on the composition of monastic populations.
c.
been denounced by the church leadership.
d.
provided the nobility with a humane option for superfluous children.
e.
been tantamount to infanticide.
 

 38. 

Who generally had legal jurisdiction over ordinary peasants and low-ranking knights?
a.
The king.
b.
The local constable.
c.
The local bishop.
d.
The parish priest.
e.
Their lord.
 

 39. 

All of the following were managerial positions in typical monasteries except
a.
cellarer.
b.
almoner.
c.
novice master.
d.
ministerial.
e.
abbot.
 

 40. 

Aristocratic widows
a.
usually returned to their parents' homes.
b.
often controlled family properties and exercised great authority.
c.
were forced to enter convents.
d.
had no legal rights.
e.
became legal wards of their adult sons, if such existed.
 

 41. 

Typically, peasant children helped with the chores when
a.
they were about seven.
b.
they were about five.
c.
they were about eight.
d.
they were about three.
e.
they were able to walk.
 

 42. 

The primary source of recruitment for monasteries and convents was
a.
adults who joined for personal and religious reasons.
b.
noble children given as childoblates.
c.
serfs seeking to escape the unfree system of serfdom.
d.
parish priests who yearned for the contemplative life.
e.
noble men and women who retired from their manors.
 

 43. 

In the ancient world, participation in religious rituals was
a.
a public and social duty.
b.
a private matter.
c.
not taken seriously.
d.
a purely state matter.
e.
limited to the aristocracy.
 

 44. 

The career of Hildegard of Bingen was
a.
relatively typical for religious women of her class.
b.
remarkable for its intellectual creativity and political influence.
c.
limited to administrative achievements in her convent.
d.
representative of the influence of the friar orders.
e.
cut short by her love affair with Peter Abelard.
 

 45. 

In Italy and the Mediterranean land saints tended to be
a.
popolani.
b.
nobles.
c.
merchants.
d.
kings.
e.
clergy.
 

 46. 

Daily life in monasteries centered on
a.
intellectual pursuits.
b.
the liturgy.
c.
the oblates.
d.
estate management and operations.
e.
the training of priests.
 

 47. 

In medieval monasteries, manual labor was performed by the
a.
lay brothers.
b.
choir monks.
c.
almoners.
d.
sacristan monks.
e.
nuns.
 

 48. 

The Leech Book of Bald was a/an
a.
inventory of estates.
b.
catalog of animals.
c.
heretical tomb.
d.
medical treatise.
e.
ribald collection of stories.
 

 49. 

In the twelfth century, the economic situation of the older Benedictine monastic houses
a.
steadily improved.
b.
steadily worsened.
c.
grew more stable.
d.
vacillated unpredictably.
e.
aroused envy in other orders.
 

 50. 

The ancestors of Jean Mouflet of Sens were
a.
nobles.
b.
merchants.
c.
artisans.
d.
serfs.
e.
Jews.
 



 
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