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Pratice Test Chapter 11



Short Answer
 

 1. 

The economic changes of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries are often referred to as revolutionary, even capitalistic. Why? What were the roots of this commercial revolution? How did the business community respond to the new economic situation? How were commerce and trade organized and facilitated? What were the roles of the merchants' and artisans' guilds?
 

 2. 

A word associated with late medieval towns is liberty. What did this mean for individuals? For the towns? How did individuals and towns gain their liberty?
 

 3. 

Discuss the reasons for the rash of heresies in Catholic Europe in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
 

 4. 

One of the most critical aspects of the emergence of the new monarchies was the development of royal justice. How did the kings of France and England establish the primacy of royal justice over local justice? In what ways were they similar? How were they different? What was the impact of the expansion of systems of royal justice?
 

 5. 

Although Europe in the Middle Ages is often imagined as isolated and inward-looking, in fact European courts and cities by the 1100s were sophisticated cultural centers in contact with and influenced by societies as far away as China. Use evidence from the text to demonstrate this point.
 

 6. 

Perhaps the most remarkable event of the High Middle Ages was the emergence of towns. What was urban life like? Who lived in the towns and what did they do? What was the role of the guilds? What was the primary function of the towns?
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 7. 

Which of the following statements best characterizes women's relationship to the urban craft guilds?
a.
Craft guilds excluded women from membership.
b.
Women could be craft guild members but could not achieve the mastership.
c.
The only craft guilds to accept women were the silk spinning guilds of Paris.
d.
Women made up a substantial portion of craft guild membership.
e.
Craft guild members were almost exclusively women.
 

 8. 

The term territorial lordship refers to the
a.
multiple independent principalities in Germany.
b.
pope's claim of infallibility.
c.
local officials of England.
d.
emergence of centralized monarchies in England and France.
e.
the special status of lords in the unorganized eastern European frontier zones.
 

 9. 

Anglo-Saxon England was divided into local units called
a.
shires.
b.
counties.
c.
nations.
d.
fiefs.
e.
manors.
 

 10. 

The marriage of Henry II and _________ would prove important to the future relationship of England and France.
a.
Maria of Gascony
b.
Eleanor of Aquitaine
c.
Elizabeth of York
d.
Mary of Norfolk
e.
Helen of Burgundy
 

 11. 

Frederick Barbarossa's sworn peace associations (landfrieden)
a.
paved the way for the establishment of centralized monarchy in Germany.
b.
enhanced the independence and power of the German nobility.
c.
indicated the contempt with which the emperor regarded noble rights.
d.
greatly reduced the power of the seigneurial and manorial courts.
e.
aided in the German colonization of the Baltic littoral.
 

 12. 

__________ refers to money collected from knights in lieu of the performance of military service.
a.
Ransom
b.
Dona
c.
Danegeld
d.
Wergeld
e.
Scutage
 

 13. 

The Parlement of Paris was
a.
an assembly of the French nobility.
b.
an assembly of representatives of all three “estates” (clergy, nobles, all others) in France.
c.
the French king's financial bureau.
d.
the first Gothic cathedral ever constructed.
e.
a high court that heard appeals from local administrators and feudal courts.
 

 14. 

An important difference between the early Dominican and Franciscan orders in Germany was that
a.
Dominicans had an urban orientation, while the Franciscans had a rural one.
b.
Franciscans focused on preaching, while Dominicans focused on solitary contemplation.
c.
Franciscans were mendicants (beggars) who emulated apostolic poverty, while Dominicans sought donations and riches to increase the glory of God.
d.
Dominicans endorsed the doctrine of original sin, while Franciscans did not.
e.
Dominicans tended to recruit university graduates, while Franciscans brought in less
educated men.
 

 15. 

The explosive growth of international trade resulted in the evolution of new business arrangements of individual firms, which included all of the following operations except
a.
a sedentary merchant running the home office, organizing the firm's international trade.
b.
carriers who transported the goods.
c.
mercenary military units to protect the firm's investments.
d.
company agents living in foreign cities.
e.
bills of exchange.
 

 16. 

King John of England signed the Magna Carta in 1215 because
a.
he wanted to ensure that commoners would not be deprived of their rights.
b.
he wished to ensure unity between king and nobility as he embarked on the Fourth Crusade.
c.
he did not understand that it limited his royal prerogatives.
d.
he wished to subordinate the barons completely to his will.
e.
the barons, disillusioned by heavy taxation and military defeats, forced him to do so.
 

 17. 

Archbishop Thomas Becket was murdered because he
a.
challenged the belief that faith and reason are in constant opposition.
b.
supported Philip the Fair's attempts to tax the French clergy.
c.
opposed Henry II's attempt to make the English clergy subject to royal justice.
d.
preached against the growing tide of antiSemitism in Europe.
e.
was thought to be a homosexual.
 

 18. 

The power known in Germany as Landgericht gave
a.
manorial courts the right to decide legal cases involving trespass, boundary disputes, and so on.
b.
the bishops the right to decide all cases involving clergy.
c.
the dukes and other high noble officials the right to decide all cases of crimes against property.
d.
the emperor the right to override decisions of the noble courts.
e.
the dukes and other high-ranking nobles the authority to decide serious criminal cases (arson, armed assault, rape, murder, and so on).
 

 19. 

The constant reissuing of the Magna Carta from 1215 to 1485 resulted in the document acquiring an enduring importance, signifying that
a.
all Englishmen were created equal.
b.
all Englishmen, including the king and government, must obey the law.
c.
local interests would always prevail against increasing royal power.
d.
English common law would only apply to English men and women.
e.
the English church was independent of the pope.
 

 20. 

According to the text, the troubadour poetry of southern France was influenced by which of the following outside cultures?
a.
Byzantium.
b.
Islam.
c.
The Vikings.
d.
Ancient Greece.
e.
Abyssinian Christianity.
 

 21. 

The term faubourg refers to
a.
an old Roman army camp.
b.
a fort constructed to resist Viking raids.
c.
a settlement of peasants that grew up around a monastery.
d.
city walls.
e.
a settlement of merchants outside a fort or walled town.
 

 22. 

The English economy in the High Middle Ages was heavily dependent on the production and export of
a.
wool.
b.
cotton.
c.
purple dyes.
d.
linen.
e.
iron cookware and tools.
 

 23. 

Towns and cities in the Low Countries and Italy usually were governed by
a.
the leaders of the merchant guilds.
b.
royal governors.
c.
elected popular assemblies.
d.
the clergy.
e.
The Holy Roman emperor.
 

 24. 

The Hanseatic League was
a.
a coalition of the northern Italian cities.
b.
formed to combat heresy in northern Europe.
c.
created to challenge Venice for control of trade with the East.
d.
a trading union of northern European cities.
e.
an order of knights who fought in the Crusades.
 

 25. 

In the letter entitled Unam Sanctam
a.
King Philip the Fair of France challenged the clergy's tax exemptions.
b.
King Edward I of England challenged the clergy's tax exemptions.
c.
King Edward I of England requested an annulment of his marriage to Anne Boleyn.
d.
Pope Gregory VII ordered clergy to observe the church's requirement that priests be celibate.
e.
Pope Boniface VIII asserted that even Christian kings should submit to the pope.
 

 26. 

At the Battle of Legnano
a.
Edward I of England defeated Philip the Fair's attempt to conquer Normandy.
b.
Roger de Hauteville defeated a Muslim attempt to reconquer Sicily.
c.
a league of northern Italian towns defeated Frederick Barbarossa, the Holy Roman emperor.
d.
the Hanseatic League defeated pagan Lithuania.
e.
Prince Yuri Dolgoruky of Muscovy expelled the Mongols from Russia.
 

 27. 

Secular authorities joined the church in efforts to combat heresy primarily because
a.
religious uniformity was deemed vital for a society to survive.
b.
they feared for the immortal souls of their subjects.
c.
kings did not want church leaders to exercise any power in their states.
d.
most heretical movements refused to pay taxes.
e.
heresy was inimical to trade.
 

 28. 

The Albigensians believed that
a.
salvation came from the sacraments.
b.
God had created spiritual things and the Devil had created material things.
c.
sacraments given by immoral priests were tainted.
d.
women were the scourge of God.
e.
God might take the form of an animal.
 

 29. 

In general, troubadour poetry
a.
reflected the ideals of the aristocracy.
b.
reflected the ideals of the merchant class.
c.
retarded the development of vernacular languages.
d.
found expression only in France.
e.
reflected the ideals of the peasantry.
 

 30. 

Beginning in the __________, profound change occurred in public attitudes towards homosexuality.
a.
late twelfth century
b.
early eleventh century
c.
late fifth century
d.
early tenth century
e.
early thirteenth century
 

 31. 

The Inquisition was an attempt to
a.
root out and destroy heresy.
b.
inventory the wealth of England.
c.
regulate university curricula.
d.
counteract the influence of the mendicant orders.
e.
compile an encyclopedia of theological knowledge.
 



 
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