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Chapter 11 Test



 1. 

The period of climate change in Europe between 1300 and 1450 is known as the
A.
Great Schism.
B.
“little ice age.”
C.
Black Death.
D.
Great Flood.
 

 2. 

What battle provided the English and King Edward III a tremendous victory over mounted French knights in 1347?
A.
Orléans
B.
Normandy
C.
Avignon
D.
Crécy
 

 3. 

What English weapon provided an advantage against the mounted French Knights in the battles of Poitiers and Agincourt?
A.
Battle axe
B.
Longbow
C.
Sword
D.
Crossbow
 

 4. 

How were the consequences of the “little ice age” experienced in Europe?
A.
Economic disruptions in one region had serious implications for its trading partners in other, distant regions.
B.
Economic disruptions were responded to effectively by drawing on a broad pool of potential resources.
C.
Economic disruptions were experienced severely in specific regions but sufficiently isolated to inhibit a general economic downturn.
D.
Economic disruptions were not severely felt, for economic risk had been widely diversified.
 

 5. 

How did minority groups suffer during the subsistence crises of the fourteenth century?
A.
Jews and lepers were accused of poisoning wells to kill Christians, and, as a result, many were killed, beaten, or heavily fined.
B.
Muslims and Jews were denied rations for city storage supplies, resulting in widespread death from starvation among these populations.
C.
Muslims and Jews would only receive grain supplies if they gave over their children to be raised as Christians.
D.
Lepers and gypsies were considered unworthy of sharing in limited food supplies, and so were slaughtered.
 

 6. 

What changes around 1300 permitted a significant expansion in the movement of goods?
A.
Improvements in ship design permitted year-round sailing.
B.
The end of knightly warfare permitted trade to develop along peaceful, secure trade routes.
C.
The development of fixed currency of known value gave merchants greater ability to negotiate prices.
D.
Expansion of banking houses allowed merchants to draw on credit more effectively.
 

 7. 

In general, during the plague, the clergy
A.
fled to monasteries in the countryside.
B.
cared for the sick and buried the dead.
C.
refused to administer sacraments to plague victims.
D.
let nuns take care of the sick.
 

 8. 

The highly infectious nature of the plague was enhanced by
A.
an influx of peasants seeking medical care.
B.
urban congestion and lack of sanitation.
C.
the total absence of healthcare facilities.
D.
starving peasants’ consumption of black rats.
 

 9. 

Who benefited from the Black Death?
A.
Merchants: They benefited from the demands for goods and food in devastated areas and expanded their efforts to form more uniform trade networks.
B.
Workers: Those who survived demanded high wages after the Black Death, increasing the standard of living for the broad mass of people.
C.
Nobles: They gained more secure control over their land and over the serfs due to the protection they had provided during the plague.
D.
Kings: They were able to capture more land for their realms because many areas were depopulated and undefended because of the plague.
 

 10. 

The establishment of new colleges and universities in the years following the Black Death
A.
greatly weakened the international nature of medieval culture.
B.
were generally similar to the internationally oriented earlier universities.
C.
enhanced the role of the papacy in European affairs.
D.
led to the foundation of the Dominican and Franciscan orders.
 

 11. 

During the Hundred Years’ War, the English kings were supported by some French barons because the latter
A.
disapproved of the Babylonian Captivity.
B.
were promised estates in England.
C.
wanted to stop the French monarchy’s centralizing efforts.
D.
were economically dependent on the English wool trade.
 

 12. 

How did the flagellants respond to the Black Death?
A.
They dedicated themselves to caring for the ill and burying the dead, risking infection themselves as a form of Christian service.
B.
They fled to mountain retreats they had prepared in case of war, where stored food permitted them to survive in hiding.
C.
They whipped and scourged their bodies as penance, believing that the Black Death was God’s punishment for humanity’s wickedness.
D.
They prayed and fasted with the hope that God would bring the plague to an end.
 

 13. 

One important mode of influencing public opinion, used by the English and French kings during the Hundred Years’ War, was
A.
publishing broadsheets.
B.
distributing free grain to the populace.
C.
purchasing votes.
D.
instructing priests to deliver patriotic sermons.
 

 14. 

How did the English induce panic among the French troops at the Battle of Crécy?
A.
By coordinating their attack with naval forces and striking the French all at once
B.
By allying with the Flemish and trapping the French troops along the coast as the tide was arriving
C.
By using the longbow to send a torrent of arrows into the French, followed by artillery from the ring of cannon
D.
By using trained dogs in battle, which drove the French horses toward a cliff
 

 15. 

Which of the following characterizes Joan of Arc’s experience in the French military?
A.
She was forbidden from entering the battlefield but offered strategic advice from the royal court.
B.
The king made her co-commander of the army, and she led it to a string of victories.
C.
Her enthusiasm could not overcome her inexperience, and her military blunders cost thousands of lives.
D.
The king used her as a propaganda tool to show divine favor for his military activities, while firmly controlling the army behind the scenes.
 

 16. 

In issuing the Statute of Laborers (1351), what were English lords attempting to do?
A.
Grant limited rights to workers
B.
Fix the number of guild members
C.
Forbid the creation of craft unions
D.
Freeze salaries and wages at pre-1347 levels
 

 17. 

How did the cannon affect the power of monarchies?
A.
Only central governments could afford cannons, enhancing the military power of the central states over its nobility.
B.
Because cannons were seen as a dishonorable form of battle, nobles generally vacated their military posts, leaving monarchies with largely unfettered power.
C.
The flexibility of cannon permitted many nobles to obtain them, sparking a long period of internal civil war.
D.
Cannons were easily copied, which diluted kings’ military power since they had to spread troops across the realms in case of threat from other countries as well as their own nobility.
 

 18. 

What characteristic distinguished the English Parliament from other representative assemblies?
A.
The English Parliament had a clear bicameral legislature with some representation for the commoners.
B.
The nobles participated in the legislature rather than simply bringing their cases directly to the king.
C.
The English Parliament provided a clear source of authority so that the politics of the royal court never gained significant political weight.
D.
The frequency of the English Parliament’s meetings established the sense and expectation that its authorization was required for certain types of legislation.
 

 19. 

What were the achievements of the Avignon popes before the Great Schism?
A.
They established political dominance throughout Italy and established a bureaucracy to govern the region.
B.
They established direct papal control over the monastic orders and their clerical wealth.
C.
They reformed the financial administration of the church and centralized its government.
D.
They forced Islam out of its remaining footholds in Spain and the Balkans.
 

 20. 

During the Great Schism, how did the powers of Europe align themselves?
A.
Along economic lines, with wealthier countries gaining more from the division
B.
Along traditional political alliances, with France and her allies supporting the French pope and the others favoring the Italian pope
C.
Along religious lines, with regions influenced by Celtic Christianity supporting the French pope and others regions supporting the Italian pope
D.
Along political lines, with the powers that had traditional monarchies supporting the French pope and the city-states supporting the Italian pope
 

 21. 

Why did Jan Hus gain so many followers?
A.
His attack on the political power of monasteries and the wealth of clergy resonated with many people who were angry over the behavior of the clergy during the Black Death.
B.
His attack on indulgences and papal offers of remission of sins resonated with many people who resented the costs of the Crusades.
C.
His attack on papal authority and his call for the translation of the Bible into Czech resonated with many people who opposed to the church’s wealth and were experiencing an emerging Czech nationalism.
D.
His attack on the Holy Roman emperor’s attempts to seize church lands resonated with many people who resented nobles’ abuses of their peasants.
 

 22. 

In which of the following ways did Charles VII of France expand his authority?
A.
He expelled the English from all French soil except Calais.
B.
He eliminated nobles’ militias and troops.
C.
He eliminated papal authority in French cities.
D.
He suppressed peasant revolts by placing troops throughout his dominion.
 

 23. 

Confraternities were part of a movement in which
A.
nuns were authorized to perform the sacraments in regions in which no priest resided.
B.
monks left monasteries in order to serve parishes without regular priests.
C.
laymen and laywomen increasingly took control of parish affairs.
D.
priests lived communally in order to save the church unnecessary expenses.
 

 24. 

What was theologian John Wyclif’s main argument?
A.
The conciliar movement was heretical.
B.
Scripture alone should determine church belief and practice.
C.
Popes should be elected by all members of the clergy.
D.
Priests should be allowed to marry.
 

 25. 

The religious life of Bridget of Sweden demonstrates that
A.
Christians still suffered discrimination in parts of European society.
B.
some expressions of piety and religious devotion included mystical experiences.
C.
women who took leadership of spiritual communities were often accused of witchcraft.
D.
the nobility increasingly left leadership in local Christian communities to members of the merchant classes.
 

 26. 

Which of the following groups joined in the Jacquerie rebellion in France, killing nobles and destroying noble property?
A.
Knights
B.
Peasants and small merchants
C.
Bishops
D.
Bankers
 

 27. 

What was the typical goal of a woman pursuing a charge of rape?
A.
To restore her honorable reputation
B.
To gain financial compensation
C.
To punish the perpetrator
D.
To prove her innocence to the church
 

 28. 

How did attitudes toward same-sex relations change from the early to High Middle Ages?
A.
In the early Middle Ages, Roman traditions opposing same-sex relations were adopted by European rulers, but such laws or their application diminished by the High Middle Ages.
B.
The influence of classical Greek culture in the High Middle Ages opened the era to an acceptance of same-sex relationships that previously the church had harshly condemned.
C.
Monastic life in the early Middle Ages had an active component of same-sex relationships, but the reforms of the thirteenth century banished such practices.
D.
Authorities in the early Middle Ages were little concerned with same-sex relationships, but in the High Middle Ages such relationships became capital crimes.
 

 29. 

“Fur-collar crime” refers to
A.
peasants who snuck onto noble lands and killed wild game to bring home and serve to their families.
B.
a late reemergence of the Viking-style raids by Russian sailors known for their long, heavy coats.
C.
groups of nobles who roamed the English countryside stealing from the rich and poor and demanding protection money.
D.
merchants who forged account books in order to force peasants and laborers to pay for goods they had never received.
 

 30. 

The Statute of Kilkenny attempted to
A.
force the Irish to move into cities and villages where the English landowners could better control and tax them.
B.
institute a tax on Irish grazing practices so that English landlords could profit from their common lands.
C.
protect the Irish from abuse by English landlords who instituted unauthorized fees and taxes.
D.
maintain the ethnic purity of the English living in Ireland by preventing intermarriage or cultural assimilation.
 

 31. 

How does Dante’s Divine Comedy demonstrate the tensions of the fourteenth century?
A.
It sympathizes with traditional noble values but recognizes the emerging merchant class as the source of future economic growth.
B.
It romanticizes noble culture but praises the growing centralized monarchies for bringing stability.
C.
It is a deeply Christian poem but also harshly criticizes some church officials.
D.
It seeks to appeal to the common man but is written in the learned language of Latin.
 

 32. 

Which of the following was characteristic of the rebellions that swept across Europe in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries?
A.
They were primarily political movements.
B.
They resulted in important reforms.
C.
They involved both rural and urban laboring people.
D.
They were treated with leniency by nobles.
 

 33. 

What was the cause of the Hundred Years’ War between England and France?
A.
The French seizure of the port of Calais
B.
The English execution of Joan of Arc
C.
King Edward III of England’s endorsement of Urban VI as the rightful pope
D.
King Philip VI of France’s seizure of Aquitaine
 

 34. 

The immediate cause of the English peasant rebellion of 1381 was
A.
the collection of a tax on all adult males.
B.
the excommunication of John Wyclif.
C.
the French victory at the Battle of Poitiers.
D.
a sharp rise in grain prices.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
 

 35. 

“Not only did talking to or being around the sick bring infection and a common death, but also touching of the sick or anything touched or used by them seemed to communicate this very disease to the person involved.” In this quote from Giovanni Boccaccio, what knowledge of the Black Death is he sharing?
A.
Any contact with the sickened individual, or items that the sick had contact with, would result in the infection of those initiating the physical contact.
B.
The sick individual’s clothing and bedding needed to be cleaned regularly.
C.
The only way to avoid infection was to join a group of flagellants and be scourged and whipped, in order to be saved by God.
D.
People need absolution from God before they have contact with the infected and the sick.
 

 36. 

According to Map 11.1: The Course of the Black Death in Fourteenth-Century Europe, the plague spread through Europe following the expansion of what?

mc036-1.jpg
A.
The Hundred Years’ War
B.
The power of the monarchy
C.
Trade and commerce routes
D.
The Avignon papacy
 

 37. 

According to Map 11.3: Fourteenth-Century Revolts, where was the largest number of popular revolts during this period?

mc037-1.jpg
A.
England and France
B.
Spain and Portugal
C.
Scotland and Ireland
D.
Hungary and Poland
 



 
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