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Chapter 12 Test



 1. 

According to the text, Thomas More’s Utopia was remarkable for its time because it asserted that
A.
the problems plaguing society could be solved by a beneficent government.
B.
North America would one day be the site of the greatest power in world history.
C.
Native Americans could be saved through conversion to Christianity.
D.
flaws in the divine nature were responsible for human corruption.
 

 2. 

In terms of gender relations, Renaissance humanists argued that
A.
men and women were equals in intellectual pursuits.
B.
the status of women had improved since the Middle Ages.
C.
women’s sphere of activity was private and domestic.
D.
women should have equal opportunity in marital and extramarital sexual relations.
 

 3. 

Which of the following identifies the term race in the Renaissance?
A.
Groupings of people based on skin color
B.
Groupings of people based on noble lineage
C.
Groupings of people based on geographic origins
D.
Groupings of people based on ethnic, national, or religious factors
 

 4. 

The marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile
A.
permitted the monarchs to undermine the provincial elite by unifying the two states into a single, unified kingdom.
B.
unified all of the Iberian Peninsula.
C.
created a dynastic union but did not unify the separate kingdoms into a single state.
D.
undermined the claims of the Holy Roman emperor to be the defender of the church.
 

 5. 

Which of the following inhibited women’s success as painters in the Renaissance
A.
They were allowed to study the male nude.
B.
They could not work in public where the fresco technique was done.
C.
They were permitted to join groups of male artists for informal practice.
D.
They were permitted to attend artistic academies.
 

 6. 

What purposes were served by sumptuary laws?
A.
Sumptuary laws sought to prevent all forms of luxury, reinforce ascetic piety, and undermine the growing wealth of merchants.
B.
Sumptuary laws attacked social inequalities by rejecting luxury products and sought to protect local industries by requiring the use of certain materials.
C.
Sumptuary laws attempted to impose moral standards and challenged the efforts of the clergy to express their status through clothing styles.
D.
Sumptuary laws reinforced social hierarchies, attempted to impose moral standards, and sought to protect local industries.
 

 7. 

According to Machiavelli, government should be judged on whether it
A.
provided the necessary public services.
B.
was based on Christian morality.
C.
protected the liberty of its citizens.
D.
provided order, security, and safety of the populace.
 

 8. 

Who was the wealthy Florentine responsible for the vast patronage of Renaissance artists?
A.
Cesare Borgia
B.
Cosimo de Medici
C.
Giovanni Sforza
D.
Gerolama Orsini
 

 9. 

Which of the following characterizes the interREF: Section of the hierarchies of wealth and orders in the Renaissance?
A.
The nobility retained its status by blocking the newly wealthy from political positions and from marriage into the nobility.
B.
The newly wealthy used their resources to establish new forms of social prestige that the nobility could not copy and which discredited the nobility as social leaders.
C.
The newly wealthy rejected the claims of the nobility to moral superiority of landed wealth.
D.
The nobility retained its status by taking in and integrating the new social elite of wealth.
 

 10. 

Which of the following best characterizes the Renaissance idea of virtù?
A.
The ability to shape the world around oneself according to one’s will
B.
The expression of perfection in the life lived in balance and simplicity
C.
Moral goodness as set out in the Christian Scriptures
D.
The serenity achieved through contemplation and acceptance of life’s hardships
 

 11. 

What was the importance of “fate” to Machiavelli’s analysis in The Prince?
A.
Fate marked the sheer random movement of nature and people that was beyond the ability of any ruler to control.
B.
The most skilled and prepared ruler could not fully escape the operations of fate that might cause a prince to lose his realm.
C.
The idea of fate was but a metaphor for the favor that God randomly bestows on some rulers and denies to others.
D.
The skilled ruler can overcome the operations of fate if he is willing to abandon all moral limitations and scruples.
 

 12. 

Italian humanists stressed the
A.
study of the classics for what they could reveal about human nature.
B.
study of the classics in order to understand the divine nature of God.
C.
absolute authority of classical texts.
D.
role of the church in the reform of society.
 

 13. 

Which of the following was one of the central components of the Italian Renaissance?
A.
Christian humility
B.
A concern for the improvement of society in general
C.
A glorification of individual genius
D.
The attempt to use art to educate the urban masses
 

 14. 

How did Pico della Mirandola understand the uniqueness of humankind?
A.
As creatures in the image of God, humans were superior to the rest of creation, including the angels and other heavenly beings.
B.
Humans, lacking a fixed placed, were the one part of the created world that could freely choose to rise to the heavens or sink into the realm of animals.
C.
Lacking a specific role in God’s creation, humans were actually below animals but had the potential for greatness denied to animals.
D.
Humans were established by God as just below the angels and given to rule over everything on earth.
 

 15. 

What was the Star Chamber?
A.
A court that dealt with noble threats to royal power in England.
B.
A court dominated by the great nobles of England.
C.
A court that was the English equivalent of the Spanish Inquisition.
D.
A court that dealt with the finances of the English government.
 

 16. 

Which of the following characterizes Girolamo Savonarola?
A.
He came to power in Florence as a general suppressing a popular revolt but lost authority when the merchants rejected his efforts to restrict their wealth.
B.
He came to power in Florence denouncing vice and corruption, but as people tired of his moral denunciations, he lost authority.
C.
He was appointed ruler in Florence by the pope but lost authority when he challenged papal interference in Florence’s banking industry.
D.
He was appointed chief administrator in Florence by the ruling oligarchs but lost power when he failed to defeat the French invasion.
 

 17. 

Which of the following did Francesco Petrarch believe?
A.
A new era would dawn as writers stripped Christianity of the classical Roman influences that had polluted the church’s teachings.
B.
The writers of ancient Greece had reached a perfection in literature and philosophy that the writers of ancient Rome had corrupted.
C.
The recovery of classical texts would bring about a new golden age of intellectual achievement.
D.
The barbarian invaders had brought a new, vigorous energy to Western culture that needed to be integrated into the classical tradition.
 

 18. 

In early Renaissance Italy, art
A.
manifested corporate power.
B.
was commissioned by nobles only.
C.
was seen as subversive by the church.
D.
did not depict living people.
 

 19. 

Who was the most prominent metal smith who helped develop metal movable print?
A.
Leonardo da Vinci
B.
Johann Gutenberg
C.
Johann Fust
D.
Desiderius Erasmus
 

 20. 

Why did a unified Italian state fail to develop in the fifteenth century?
A.
Political loyalty and feeling centered on a passionate attachment to the individual city-state.
B.
The papacy prevented any movement toward unification, fearing a threat to its political authority.
C.
France and the Holy Roman Empire had too many land claims in the region to permit any unification.
D.
Italians were too culturally and linguistically diverse to realistically contemplate unification.
 

 21. 

The Tudor Henry VII of England won broad, popular support by
A.
reforming the church.
B.
promoting peace and social order at the local level.
C.
restricting the wages of the working classes.
D.
lowering taxes and subsidizing the wool industry.
 

 22. 

What Florentine artist was commissioned by Pope Julius II to build his tomb and paint the Sistine Chapel?
A.
Botticelli
B.
Da Vinci
C.
Raphael
D.
Michelangelo
 

 23. 

On the Iberian Peninsula, what was the social position of African slaves?
A.
They intermingled with the people they lived among and sometimes intermarried with them.
B.
They were socially segregated as a lesser class lacking any rights.
C.
They isolated themselves into tight-knit communities that sought to achieve independence from their masters.
D.
They were kept in guarded, military-style barracks that limited their ability to move within the society.
 

 24. 

What was the basis of financial support for the evolution of the renaissance artists?
A.
Monasteries
B.
Art guilds
C.
Universities and academic institutions
D.
The patronage of wealthy individuals and rulers
 

 25. 

Why did a woman’s work receive less compensation than a man’s work?
A.
The traditional work associated with women was unskilled and, therefore, more widely performed.
B.
Women were largely secluded in their homes; therefore, their work was seen as strictly domestic and not worthy of compensation.
C.
Women did not seek to organize in guilds so that they could better influence wages and prices for their work.
D.
It was understood that a woman was either married or to be married and, therefore, not responsible for supporting a family.
 

 26. 

What individuals believed the merging of Christian and classical traditions could provide reform for the church and deepen the spiritual lives of people?
A.
Patricians
B.
Conversos
C.
Christian humanists
D.
Jacobites
 

 27. 

The most important factor in the emergence of the Italian Renaissance was the
A.
decline of religious feeling.
B.
political disunity of Italy.
C.
great commercial revival in Italy.
D.
creation of powerful, centralized monarchies.
 

 28. 

The Spanish Inquisition was an attempt to
A.
target Jewish converts to Christianity who were believed to continue Jewish religious practice.
B.
inventory and secure the wealth of Europe.
C.
regulate university curricula.
D.
counteract the influence of the mendicant orders.
 

 29. 

What educational book by Baldassare Castiglione provided a treatise on training a young man in the discipline and fashion needed for the courtly ideal of being a gentleman?
A.
The Prince
B.
Education of a Christian Prince
C.
Utopia
D.
The Courtier
 

 30. 

The Spanish conversos were which of the following?
A.
American Indians who returned to Spain to demonstrate that they could and would embrace Christianity
B.
Jewish Christians, some of whom held prominent positions in the state, church, and business
C.
Albigensian heretics who had fled to Spain to avoid the Inquisition in France
D.
Muslim converts to Christianity following the fall of Granada
 

 31. 

On the Iberian Peninsula, who were the people referred to as the “New Christians”?
A.
Germanic and Scandinavian converts
B.
Orthodox Byzantine mercenaries
C.
Jewish and Muslim converts
D.
Christians who had been re-baptized
 

 32. 

What French word was coined by historian Giorgio Vasari to describe the “rebirth” of the culture of classical antiquity?
A.
Renaissance
B.
Detente
C.
Ancien Régime
D.
Reconnaissance
 

 33. 

The Concordat of Bologna, between Francis I of France and Pope Leo X, gave the French monarch the authority to
A.
administer monasteries in Italy.
B.
select bishops and abbots.
C.
select the pope.
D.
administer Italian city-states.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
 

 34. 

According to Map 12.1: The Italian City-States, ca. 1494, which European monarch invaded multiple Italian city-states in 1494?

mc034-1.jpg
A.
Henry VII of England
B.
Ferdinand of Spain
C.
Charles VIII of France
D.
Maximilian I of the Holy Roman Empire
 

 35. 

According to Map 12.3: The Unification of Spain and the Expulsion of the Jews, Fifteenth Century, where did the Jewish population of the Spanish kingdom migrate to after their ordered expulsion by Isabella and Ferdinand?

mc035-1.jpg
A.
Ireland
B.
Scandinavia
C.
Rural France
D.
Cities in the Mediterranean and Southern Europe
 

 36. 

“The city in this present year two hundred seventy shops belonging to the wool merchants’ guild . . . eighty-three rich and splendid warehouses of the silk merchants’ guild. . . . The number of banks amounts to thirty-three; the shops of the cabinet-makers, whose business is carving and inlaid work, to eighty-four . . . there are forty-four goldsmiths’ and jewellers shops.” What city is Benedetto Dei describing in this quote?
A.
Venice
B.
Naples
C.
Rome
D.
Florence
 

 37. 

“Assiduous in the science and skill of dealing with arms and horses and musical instruments, as well as in the pursuit of letters and the fine arts.” Who authored this self-described quote about his important qualities?
A.
Leon Battista Alberti
B.
Niccolo Machiavelli
C.
Giorgio Vasari
D.
Desiderius Erasmus
 

 38. 

“Everyone gets a fair share, so there are never any poor men or beggars. Nobody owns anything, but everyone is rich—for what greater wealth can there be than cheerfulness, peace of mind, and freedom from anxiety? Instead of being worried about his food supply, upset by the plaintive demands of his wife, afraid of poverty for his son.” This quote describes the ideal society in what humanist’s work?
A.
Desiderius Erasmus
B.
Thomas More
C.
Niccolo Machiavelli
D.
John Locke
 



 
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