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Chapter 13 Test



 1. 

The Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis ended the conflict known as the
A.
Wars of the Roses.
B.
Hundred Years’ War.
C.
Habsburg-Valois Wars.
D.
Thirty Years’ War.
 

 2. 

In the early sixteenth century, anticlericalism focused primarily on which of the following issues?
A.
The immorality of priests who were drunkards and neglected the rule of celibacy
B.
Priests who were literate
C.
Clerics who dispersed any collected revenues to their parishioners
D.
The heresy of priests who preached messages contrary to church doctrine
 

 3. 

Which of the following best describes Martin Luther’s doctrine of salvation?
A.
Salvation came through faith in God and works that demonstrated that faith.
B.
Salvation came through the performance of the Holy Sacraments.
C.
Salvation came through God’s predestined selection of those he chose to save.
D.
Salvation came through faith alone as a free gift of God’s grace.
 

 4. 

What aided Martin Luther as his call for reform emerged?
A.
Luther did not need political support and, therefore, was able to develop his ideas without political interference.
B.
Luther understood the power of the new printing press and authorized the publication of his works.
C.
Luther led a unified reform movement that was able to coordinate its actions in several different territories and kingdoms.
D.
Luther’s status as a nobleman brought him respect and legitimacy that he could use to defend his ideas.
 

 5. 

How did Luther benefit from his appearance before the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms?
A.
Luther obtained permission to continue to call for reform as long as he remained loyal to papal authority.
B.
Luther gained a larger audience for his reform ideas, and others began to challenge the church’s teachings and practices.
C.
Luther guaranteed the personal protection of the emperor for the rest of his life as long as he remained within imperial lands.
D.
Luther was granted permission to call for church reform of institutional corruption as long as he accepted official papal doctrine.
 

 6. 

The Colloquy of Marburg
A.
failed to resolve the differences among Protestants on the issue of the Eucharist.
B.
established the basic tenants of Catholic reform in opposition to the Protestant Reform movement.
C.
created the basic tenants of Calvinism that could then be adapted to specific national contexts.
D.
required all Protestants to adopt a common reformed liturgy and standards for clerical behavior.
 

 7. 

What did the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre lead to?
A.
The end of Protestant power in France
B.
New efforts to bring civil order to France
C.
A lengthy civil war
D.
An international peace conference
 

 8. 

Luther believed that the church consisted of
A.
the entire body of clergy.
B.
the elect.
C.
all those who supported his views.
D.
a spiritual priesthood of all Christian believers.
 

 9. 

Luther’s ideas about Roman exploitation of Germany
A.
appealed to the national sentiment of German princes.
B.
were met with dismay by the ruling elite.
C.
led to administrative reform in the empire.
D.
found an audience only among the peasantry.
 

 10. 

How did the choice to embrace or reject the reform movement occur in a territory or region in the Holy Roman Empire?
A.
Individual parishes selected their leaders, who would decide whether to reform the parish.
B.
Local religious councils determined whether or not to embrace reform.
C.
Individual priests decided whether or not to embrace the reform movement and introduce new doctrines and practices.
D.
The political leader(s) of the territory or region determined whether to introduce reforms.
 

 11. 

Why did Protestants allow the dissolution of marriages in divorce?
A.
They believed that individuals were responsible for their own salvation and therefore should be allowed the choice to stay in a marriage or not.
B.
They viewed marriage as a contract for mutual support, and married partners who failed to provide support endangered their souls and the entire community.
C.
They believed that the “priesthood of all believers” required that all be treated equally before the law to make decisions about their marriages.
D.
They viewed marriage as a temporary arrangement in this world that had no significance for the afterlife.
 

 12. 

As a result of the Peace of Augsburg, the people of Germany
A.
remained Catholics.
B.
were able to practice the religion of their choice.
C.
converted to Lutheranism.
D.
became either Lutheran or Catholic, depending on the preference of their prince.
 

 13. 

Luther viewed celibacy as
A.
opposed to human nature and God’s commandments.
B.
the ideal act of spiritual devotion.
C.
required for all Lutheran pastors.
D.
a gift only the spiritually mature could enjoy.
 

 14. 

How did the closing of the monasteries and convents affect upper-class women?
A.
Upper-class women were freed from the numerous restraints of convent life.
B.
Marriage became virtually the only occupation for upper-class women.
C.
Upper-class women were able to participate in art and literature, which were denied to them in the convent.
D.
Families were forced to take over the care and support of women who had no productive role.
 

 15. 

Why did Elizabeth I have her cousin and heir Mary, Queen of Scots, executed?
A.
Mary became implicated in a plot to assassinate Elizabeth.
B.
To demonstrate the consequences of supporting Catholicism
C.
Mary had married Philip II of Spain against Elizabeth’s wishes.
D.
Elizabeth resented Mary’s beauty and ability to dominate men.
 

 16. 

John Calvin rejected the idea of free will because he believe it would
A.
undermine the idea of human sinfulness.
B.
eliminate the idea of the divine right of kings.
C.
detract from the sovereignty of God.
D.
undermine the need for the crucifixion of Christ.
 

 17. 

Martin Luther’s first response to the Peasants’ War was
A.
a call to the nobles to crush the peasants.
B.
to undertake penance for the peasants’ sins.
C.
a call for peasants and nobles to unite in a crusade against the Turks.
D.
to side with the peasants.
 

 18. 

How did the Calvinists understand the idea of work or labor?
A.
Work was the consequence of sin entering the world; it marked the shame of humankind.
B.
Hard work, well done, was pleasing to God, and all work with a religious aspect was dignified.
C.
Work marked the duty to which God called the unlearned, freeing the superior minds to contemplation.
D.
Hard work was the duty of criminals and non-Christians so that Christians could pursue holiness.
 

 19. 

Why did most ordinary Poles oppose the Lutheran reform movement?
A.
They were exempt from most church taxes.
B.
They saw the Catholic Church as a counterweight to the power of the Polish monarchy.
C.
They believed themselves specially selected by God to preserve the Catholic faith.
D.
They held strong anti-German feelings.
 

 20. 

The Calvinist doctrine of predestination led to a
A.
mood of fatalism among Calvin’s followers.
B.
withdrawal from the world of business and politics.
C.
mass exodus from the city of Geneva.
D.
confidence among Calvinists in their own salvation.
 

 21. 

In Hungary, Lutheranism was
A.
embraced by the high nobility as attacking their clerical rivals.
B.
destroyed by Turks when they seized control of the realm.
C.
rejected by nearly all people as a heresy of the hated Germans.
D.
spread by Hungarian students who had studied at the University of Wittenberg.
 

 22. 

The dissolution of the English monasteries
A.
resulted from Henry VIII’s desire to confiscate their wealth.
B.
resulted in a more equitable distribution of land.
C.
deeply disturbed the English upper classes.
D.
was the result of rebellious activities by the monks.
 

 23. 

How widespread was the influence of the Inquisition?
A.
The Inquisition was filled with internal rivalries and conflicts that prevented it from effectively working outside of a few famous cases.
B.
The Inquisition effectively destroyed heresy within the Papal States but had little influence elsewhere.
C.
The Inquisition had considerable success in all Catholic lands where political leaders supported it.
D.
The Inquisition’s success at rooting out heresy was so effective that many Protestant leaders invited it to work in Protestant lands.
 

 24. 

The Reformation in England was primarily the result of
A.
the dynastic and romantic concerns of Henry VIII.
B.
the missionary activity of the Lollards.
C.
the terrible conditions then existing in the English churches.
D.
efforts by Luther and his followers.
 

 25. 

In addition to reforming the church, what was the other goal of the Council of Trent?
A.
Eliminating the Bohemian church
B.
Reinforcing the power of monarchs
C.
Recognizing bishops as completely independent of secular rulers
D.
Securing reconciliation with the Protestants
 

 26. 

The Pilgrimage of Grace attested to
A.
the continued strength of Catholicism in Southern Europe.
B.
the popularity of John Calvin.
C.
popular opposition, in northern England, to Henry VIII’s reformation.
D.
popular support of Luther in his conflict with the pope.
 

 27. 

The Edict of Nantes
A.
permitted French Huguenots to worship wherever they wished as long as they continued to pay taxes to the Catholic Church.
B.
ordered all French Huguenots to convert to Catholicism or leave France.
C.
required all Catholic priests in France to swear an oath of loyalty to the king.
D.
granted French Huguenots the right to worship in 150 towns.
 

 28. 

In religious affairs, Elizabeth I of England followed a policy that
A.
supported the efforts of the Puritans.
B.
emphasized personal and public religious conformity.
C.
was a middle course between Catholic and Protestant extremes.
D.
favored Catholics over Protestants.
 

 29. 

What were Lutheran and Calvinist attitudes toward secular rulers?
A.
Lutherans and Calvinists believed that secular rulers must be obeyed and respected no matter what their religious beliefs.
B.
Lutherans taught respect for authority while Calvinists encouraged opposition to political authorities who were considered ungodly.
C.
Lutherans taught opposition to ungodly leaders while Calvinists taught obedience to all secular authorities.
D.
Lutherans and Calvinists believed that secular leaders who violated the laws of nature must be opposed, while all others must be obeyed.
 

 30. 

How did inquisitorial legal procedure differ from the accusatorial legal procedure?
A.
An accuser could be sued if charges were not proven
B.
A suspect would not be told the charges against him
C.
Intense questioning of the suspect did not occur
D.
The subject could not be tortured
 

 31. 

What was the fate of most people brought before the Inquisition and accused of witchcraft?
A.
They were found guilty and executed.
B.
They were found innocent and exonerated of any wrongdoing.
C.
They were found guilty and their property seized.
D.
They were sent home with a warning and ordered to do penance.
 

 32. 

France supported the Protestant princes of Germany in order to
A.
spread Protestantism.
B.
prevent English influence from increasing in Germany.
C.
contain Protestantism east of the Rhine.
D.
prevent Charles V from increasing his power.
 

 33. 

The overriding goal of the Catholic religious orders established in the sixteenth century was
A.
institutional reform.
B.
reconciliation with Protestantism.
C.
to combat heresy and Protestantism.
D.
to uplift the moral condition of both clergy and laity.
 

 34. 

What is the name given to French Protestants?
A.
Augustinians
B.
Huguenots
C.
Jesuits
D.
Carmelites
 

 35. 

What new religious order for women emerged in the sixteenth century?
A.
Ursuline Order
B.
Society of Jesus
C.
Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office
D.
Colloquy of Marburg
 

 36. 

What was the name given the Catholic and Huguenot moderates in France?
A.
Hussites
B.
Anticlerics
C.
Flagellants
D.
Politiques
 
 
Source-Based Questions
 

 37. 

“To those whom he devotes to condemnation, the gate of life is closed by a just and irreprehensible, but incomprehensible, judgment. How exceedingly presumptuous it is only to inquire into the causes of the Divine will; which is in fact, and is justly entitled to be, the cause of everything that exists.” This quote from John Calvin identifies what concept?
A.
Self-sufficiency
B.
Predestination
C.
Self-determination
D.
Autonomy
 

 38. 

“So we call Spiritual Exercises every way of preparing and disposing the soul to rid itself of all inordinate attachments, and, after their removal, of seeking and finding the will of God in the disposition of our life for the salvation of our soul.” What is Ignatius Loyola discussing in this quote?
A.
Methods of supporting the Catholic faith
B.
A method to combat the spread of Protestant teachings
C.
A training program using structured meditation to develop spiritual discipline
D.
Methods used by the Inquisition for trials
 

 39. 

Based on Map 13.1: The Global Empire of Charles V, ca. 1556, what was the only Christian kingdom that opposed Charles V?

mc039-1.jpg
A.
Scotland
B.
Denmark
C.
France
D.
Ireland
 

 40. 

According to Map 13.2: Religious Divisions in Europe, ca. 1555, where did the French Calvinists (called Huguenots) live?

mc040-1.jpg
A.
Major cities
B.
Rural areas
C.
Northern France
D.
Southern France
 

 41. 

What region of Europe shown in the map experienced the most diversity in religious faith around 1555?

mc041-1.jpg
A.
Southern Europe
B.
Scandinavia
C.
The British Isles
D.
Eastern-Central Europe
 



 
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