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Chapter 14 Test



 1. 

The European voyages of the fifteenth century were derived from a desire to share in the wealth of the
A.
Indian Ocean trade.
B.
Mediterranean Sea trade.
C.
Baltic Sea trade.
D.
Caribbean Sea trade.
 

 2. 

Who was Prester John?
A.
A mythical Christian king in Africa believed to be a descendant of one of the three kings who visited Jesus after his birth
B.
A member of the Portuguese ruling family who helped to organize voyages of exploration and trade down the African coast
C.
An English sea captain who discovered a series of islands off the coast of Africa where slave trading and sugar cultivation were developed
D.
A Dutch missionary who traveled throughout Africa and developed extensive contacts with African rulers
 

 3. 

Which of the following characterizes the role of Europe in the system of world trade prior to the voyage of Columbus?
A.
Europe was the major western node of the trading system that produced high-quality textiles and metalwork desired by others.
B.
Europe provided the banking and financial services that sustained the world trading system.
C.
Europe served as the most important market for products because it produced few goods.
D.
Europe was a minor outpost that produced few products desired by other civilizations.
 

 4. 

In the seventeenth century, the Dutch East India Company
A.
established outposts in New York (New Amsterdam) and elsewhere in the Americas.
B.
handled the shipment of gold and silver bullion from Spanish America to Spain.
C.
established bases in the Caribbean.
D.
took over much of the East Indies from Portugal.
 

 5. 

Which of the following was a major motivation for European exploration?
A.
Desire for material profit
B.
Fear of invasion from the Americas
C.
Fear of invasion from China
D.
Desire to escape from the Black Death
 

 6. 

What group of people benefited the most from large price increases in the sixteenth century?
A.
The nobility
B.
The urban working class
C.
The middle class
D.
The upper-DIFF: Level clergy
 

 7. 

After losing access to slave trading from the Black Sea, the Genoese obtained which of the following as slaves?
A.
Black Africans
B.
French refugees
C.
English prisoners
D.
Portuguese peasants
 

 8. 

How did the introduction of Ptolemy’s Geography mislead European cartographers?
A.
Ptolemy asserted that the world was much smaller than it actually is, indicating that Asia was not far removed from Europe to the west.
B.
Ptolemy indicated that Africa had no southern end and could not offer a route to Asia, leading Europeans to explore westward.
C.
Ptolemy argued that a northern route through Russia offered an easier path to Asia, leading England to begin a process of exploration.
D.
Ptolemy claimed that the world was much larger than it actually is, leading the German and Italian lands to abandon colonizing efforts.
 

 9. 

Who resisted the Portuguese efforts to gain control over Indian Ocean trade?
A.
Princely kingdoms in India
B.
Muslim-controlled port cities
C.
Chinese merchants
D.
The Hindu priestly class
 

 10. 

When Vasco da Gama arrived in the Indian Ocean, how did he navigate these unknown waters?
A.
He consulted with Muslim cartographers.
B.
He kidnapped an African sea captain.
C.
He hired an Indian pilot as his guide.
D.
He took on an African crew for his ships.
 

 11. 

What did Columbus believe he had found when he arrived in the Caribbean?
A.
Islands off the coast of India
B.
Islands off the coast of Japan
C.
New, unexpected lands
D.
Islands in the middle of the Atlantic
 

 12. 

According to his agreement with the Spanish crown, what rewards would Columbus receive if he found a water route to Asia?
A.
He would be given a noble title and one-half of the revenues of his journey.
B.
He would be named viceroy over any territories he discovered and receive one-tenth of the material rewards of the journey.
C.
He would be given the right to claim one-tenth of all lands he discovered as his personal property and be free from all taxation.
D.
He would be named governor of all lands he discovered and receive the right to claim one-tenth of these lands as his personal property.
 

 13. 

What did the Treaty of Tordesillas accomplish?
A.
It divided the Americas, giving Spain everything south of the Caribbean and England everything north of the Caribbean.
B.
It divided the Pacific Ocean, giving Spain everything east of India and Portugal everything west of India.
C.
It divided the Atlantic Ocean, giving Spain control of everything west of an imaginary line and Portugal everything east of the line.
D.
It divided the Americas, giving Portugal all of the sugar-producing regions and Spain all of the silver-producing regions.
 

 14. 

How did Magellan’s circumnavigation of the globe affect Spanish colonization?
A.
The possibility of Asian trade led the Spanish to focus on developing its western colonies in the Americas so that it would be easy to travel on to Asia.
B.
The great distance of the Pacific convinced the Spanish to abandon efforts to trade in Asia and develop their American colonies instead.
C.
The difficult waters of the Straights of Magellan led Spain to focus on developing its colonies in the eastern parts of the Americas.
D.
The greater wealth in Asian trade led the Spanish to give little attention to the Americas until after Asian trade collapsed in the 1580s.
 

 15. 

How did the English and French seek a route to East Asia?
A.
They sought a northwest passage across North America.
B.
They sought to develop a new land route through Russia and Siberia.
C.
They sought to travel through the Arctic Ocean.
D.
They sought to follow the Portuguese around Africa but then establish trading posts in India.
 

 16. 

In the fifteenth century, two rival Islamic empires dominated the Middle East; the Turkish Ottomans and the
A.
Egyptian Ptolomies.
B.
Mongol Khans.
C.
Egyptian Mameluks.
D.
Persian Safavids.
 

 17. 

What was Hernán Cortés’s crucial advantage in his conquest of the Mexica Empire?
A.
The Mexica were awed by the Spanish technology and submitted to Cortés’s will.
B.
The Mexica mistakenly believed that Cortés was a god.
C.
Cortés had a large, well-trained Spanish army against the untrained and poorly organized Mexica forces.
D.
Cortés was able to exploit internal dissention within the Mexica Empire.
 

 18. 

Portugal’s participation in European expansion was given critical support by
A.
Prince Henry.
B.
Prince Mark.
C.
Prince Juan.
D.
Prince Philip.
 

 19. 

How did the Spanish respond to the trap set by the Inca King Atahualpa?
A.
The Spanish ambushed and captured Atahualpa, holding him for ransom and then executing him.
B.
The Spanish withdrew from the region and cut off its supplies, starving the Inca army into submission.
C.
The Spanish entered the trap but then surprised the Inca with the use of cannons and defeated the Inca army.
D.
The Spanish allowed themselves to be trapped but intentionally infected their captors with smallpox, which ultimately destroyed the Inca army.
 

 20. 

Settlers from the Massachusetts colony dispersed into new communities such as Connecticut and Rhode Island because
A.
the English government tried to keep colonies small so that colonists would be dependent on the crown.
B.
they were searching for good agricultural land.
C.
there was a planned development to drive the Indians out of the region.
D.
there were religious disputes among the colonists.
 

 21. 

How did the Spanish monarchy seek to maintain control over its colonies?
A.
The monarchy offered rewards and tax exemptions to settlers who informed on corrupt officials.
B.
The monarchy established a type of military rule in which colonists were subject to searches and seizures by the military on accusations of corruption.
C.
The monarchy used the Catholic missionaries to provide information to the crown outside of the official administration.
D.
The monarchy established intendants with broad administrative and financial authority who were responsible directly to the monarchy.
 

 22. 

At the time of his death, Columbus believed the islands he found were
A.
settled by a civilization of vast wealth and sophistication.
B.
part of a new continent.
C.
isolated from any other land mass.
D.
off the coast of Asia.
 

 23. 

How did the encomienda system function?
A.
The Spanish crown granted conquerors the right to employ or demand tribute from groups of Native Americans in exchange for providing food and shelter.
B.
The Spanish crown gave the colonists groups of Native Americans as legal slaves in return for tax revenues and promises of obedience.
C.
The Spanish crown adopted the Native Americans as “protected children” in return for promises of labor and tribute.
D.
The Spanish crown placed the Native Americans under the protection of the Catholic missionaries as long as they learned and embraced the Catholic faith.
 

 24. 

Bartolomé de Las Cases asserted that the Indians
A.
had human rights.
B.
had a unique culture that should be respected.
C.
should be denied protection unless they embraced Christianity.
D.
were creatures of Satan who could not be converted or trusted.
 

 25. 

How did French colonies respond to the problem of the low migration DIFF: Levels from France?
A.
Convicted criminals in France were sentenced to relocate to the colonies.
B.
Colonial officials encouraged French traders to form ties with and marry native women.
C.
Officials permitted religious freedom in the colonies so that French Protestants would move there.
D.
the French crown paid prostitutes to relocate to the colonies in order to attract male settlers.
 

 26. 

How did English colonies differ from other major European colonies in their treatment of African women?
A.
Colonial officials encouraged English men to marry and father children with slave women in order to increase the population of the colonies.
B.
African slave women were banned from English colonies for fear that they would seduce English men.
C.
Colonial law required that children born of Englishmen and African women be sent out of the colony.
D.
English masters rarely freed the children that they fathered with female slaves.
 

 27. 

How did Portuguese merchants obtain most of their slaves in Africa?
A.
They traded for slaves with local leaders.
B.
They captured slaves in warfare.
C.
They seized slaves in raiding parties.
D.
They seized people on the coastline.
 

 28. 

Which of the following best characterizes the immigration patterns (forced and unforced) of Europeans and Africans to the Americas between 1500 and 1800?
A.
Africans and Europeans migrated to the Americas in roughly equal numbers.
B.
About four times as many Africans migrated to America as did Europeans.
C.
About twice as many Europeans migrated to the Americas as did Africans.
D.
African and European men migrated to the Americas in about equal numbers but European women migrated much more frequently than African women.
 

 29. 

What was the primary cause of the emergence of inflation in Spain in the sixteenth century?
A.
Gold and property was seized from Moors and Jews as they were forced out of Spain.
B.
The inflow of silver from the Americas
C.
State debts defaulted on by the monarchy
D.
The inability of Spanish agriculture and manufacturing to meet the growing demand for goods
 

 30. 

In chronological order, what were the three successive commercial empires established by Europeans in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries?
A.
The Spanish, the French, and the Dutch
B.
The Portuguese, the Spanish, and the Dutch
C.
The English, the Spanish, and the French
D.
The Spanish, the French, and the English
 

 31. 

How did Europeans initially justify the enslavement of Africans?
A.
Europeans, who were culturally and racially superior, offered guidance to the inferior Africans.
B.
Africans were an alien group unlike any other and were out of necessity placed into bondage.
C.
Africans were a people biologically distinct from the Europeans, and Africans’ physical characteristics produced less intelligent, more primitive people.
D.
Enslavement benefited Africans by bringing Christianity to them.
 

 32. 

Shakespeare’s history plays, such as Richard II,
A.
expressed an English national consciousness.
B.
glorified the classical ideal.
C.
were usually set in Italy.
D.
were very unpopular at the time.
 

 33. 

How did justifications for slavery change from the fifteenth to eighteenth century?
A.
Arguments supporting slavery increasingly relied on economic justifications of the superiority of slave labor.
B.
Arguments supporting slavery drew increasingly on the need to civilize the savage Africans and less on ideas of race.
C.
Arguments supporting slavery began to focus more on science and nature and less on religion.
D.
Arguments supporting slavery emphasized the political needs of empires rather than cultural or religion issues.
 

 34. 

How did the Turks’ expansion of the Ottoman Empire and their conquest of the Byzantine Empire and its capital Constantinople in 1453 influence European exploration?
A.
It opened new trade routes to China over Central Asia.
B.
It forced Europeans to search for alternate trade routes to China, bypassing the overland routes now controlled by the Ottoman Empire.
C.
It enhanced the influence of the Italian city-states of Venice and Genoa in the Eastern Mediterranean.
D.
It enhanced the trade routes with China and East Asia through the Middle East.
 

 35. 

Which European nation—with the help of Genoese financiers, merchants, and navigators—initiated an exploration along the Atlantic Coast of Africa in search of new sources of gold, silver, and copper?
A.
Portugal
B.
France
C.
England
D.
Sweden
 
 
Source-Based Questions
 

 36. 

“Except, that everyone gives the title of barbarism to everything that is not according to his usage.” How did Michel de Montaigne offer a counterpoint, expressed in the quote above, to Europe’s growing imperial activities?
A.
He argued that integration with local cultures would pollute European culture.
B.
He asserted that Christianity could not be taught to non-Western people.
C.
He rejected the notion that one culture is superior to another.
D.
He claimed that Europe produced all of the goods it needed and colonial products only led to luxury and moral corruption.
 

 37. 

What motivations for exploration by Europeans are expressed in the following two quotes? Bartholomew Diaz: “To serve God and his Majesty, to give light to those who were in darkness, and to grow rich as all men desire to do.” Hernán Cortés: “I have come to win gold, not to plow the fields like a peasant.”
A.
Increasing scientific research and social development
B.
Developing new alliances with indigenous populations and creating trade
C.
Accumulating wealth and converting indigenous populations to Christianity
D.
Cooperating with new cultures in order to advance humanity
 

 38. 

“Within a few days after our departure from every such town, the people began to die. . . . [B]y report of the oldest men in the country [this had] never happened before. . . . [The people] were persuaded that it was the work of our God.” This quote from Thomas Hariot’s report refers to what effect of European colonization?
A.
The spread of European disease among Native Americans
B.
The conversion of Native Americans to Christianity
C.
European mortality rates
D.
Native American religion
 

 39. 

Based on Map 14.1: The Fifteenth-Century Afro-Eurasian Trading World, Afro-Eurasian trade during this period was centered on what body of water?

mc039-1.jpg
A.
The Pacific Ocean
B.
The Mediterranean Sea
C.
The Atlantic Ocean
D.
The Indian Ocean
 

 40. 

According to Map 14.3: Seaborne Trading Empires in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, what nations dominated the global sea trade routes during this period?

mc040-1.jpg
A.
South Asian nations
B.
Slavic Eastern European nations
C.
Mediterranean European nations
D.
Atlantic Coastal European nations
 



 
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