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Chapter 15 Test



 1. 

How did famines affect the European population in the seventeenth century?
A.
The population continued to grow despite widespread malnutrition.
B.
Large segments of the population immigrated to the American colonies.
C.
The population remained relatively stable as the little food available was distributed evenly to all social classes at a “just price.”
D.
Malnutrition made people susceptible to deadly diseases, which reduced the population significantly.
 

 2. 

When speaking of “moral economy,” historians are referring to
A.
a vision of the world in which community needs predominate over competition and profit.
B.
the right of the church to regulate economic activity in order to promote virtue and righteousness.
C.
the goal of the state to compel all able-bodied men and women into productive activity that will bring wealth to the community.
D.
a set of laws that forbid “sinful” activity such as prostitution and drinking alcoholic beverages.
 

 3. 

In Eastern Europe between 1500 and 1650, the growth of commercial agriculture was accompanied by the
A.
growth of a class of small landowners.
B.
consolidation of serfdom.
C.
establishment of an independent peasantry.
D.
establishment of many privileged towns as market centers.
 

 4. 

Political power in the Dutch Republic was
A.
held by the central government.
B.
controlled by an oligarchy of wealthy businessmen.
C.
held by the stadholder and his royal courtiers.
D.
exercised by a democratically elected States-General.
 

 5. 

How did the Peace of Westphalia mark a turning point in European history?
A.
German lands were finally unified under the German emperor.
B.
Religious toleration was adopted throughout the Holy Roman Empire.
C.
Central Europe emerged as an economic powerhouse.
D.
Large-scale armed conflicts over religious faith came to an end.
 

 6. 

How did the nature of armed forces change in the latter half of the seventeenth century?
A.
Gunpowder technologies were used for the first time in field operations.
B.
Improvements in artillery made the use of cavalry obsolete.
C.
Army officers became obedient to monarchs instead of serving their own interests.
D.
The size of armies decreased as they professionalized and became more efficient.
 

 7. 

In the seventeenth century, why did rulers hesitate to crush rebellions?
A.
Local rebels rarely caused much damage.
B.
City and regional officials might side with the rebels.
C.
Local rebels easily hid when troops arrived.
D.
Armies were expensive to deploy, and rulers feared creating martyrs.
 

 8. 

Louis XIV selected councilors from the
A.
newly ennobled or upper middle class.
B.
military commanders.
C.
university professors.
D.
senior clergy.
 

 9. 

The Baroque style flourished in the context of the
A.
Commercial Revolution.
B.
Scientific Revolution.
C.
Protestant Reformation.
D.
Catholic Reformation.
 

 10. 

The guiding force behind Cardinal Richelieu’s domestic policies was
A.
reform of the church.
B.
a belief in decentralization.
C.
the subordination of all institutions to the monarchy.
D.
the sovereignty of the people.
 

 11. 

How did the Peace of Utrecht resolve the problem of succession to the Spanish throne?
A.
The leader of the Spanish House of Alva was placed on the throne by the nobility on offering guarantees that he would protect noble rights.
B.
The monarchy was abolished and Spain declared a republic.
C.
The German Habsburg Duke of Austria was placed on the throne after the death of his cousin, the Spanish Habsburg Charles II.
D.
Louis XIV of France’s grandson, Philip, was placed on the French throne with the agreement that the French and Spanish thrones would never be united.
 

 12. 

How did Cardinal Richelieu increase the power of the centralized French state?
A.
He reorganized the French economy according to mercantilist policies.
B.
He encouraged Louis XIII to establish an elaborate palace and ground at Versailles.
C.
He extended the use of intendants, commissioners for each of France’s thirty-two districts.
D.
He concentrated on repairing and expanding the country’s infrastructure, building new roads and canals.
 

 13. 

The English political philosopher Thomas Hobbes held that
A.
kings ruled by divine right.
B.
a constitutional monarchy was possible only in England.
C.
mankind is inherently good and requires no formal government.
D.
the power of the ruler was absolute and prevented civil war.
 

 14. 

What mistaken belief did the Count-Duke of Olivares hold that brought disaster to Spain?
A.
Spain must ally with England in order to establish naval domination of the Atlantic and secure access to trade routes.
B.
Spain must return to the imperial tradition of the sixteenth century in order to solve its economic and political difficulties.
C.
Spain must secure peace with all of its neighbors in order to reduce the expenses borne by the royal treasury.
D.
Spain must require all Jews and Muslims to leave Spain in order to purify the kingdom and earn God’s favor.
 

 15. 

What was the consequence of Prince Francis Rákóczy’s rebellion for Habsburg rule?
A.
Hungary was never fully integrated into a centralized, absolute Habsburg state.
B.
The German nobility established itself as dominant within the Habsburg lands.
C.
The Bohemian nobility was crushed and replaced with new nobles loyal to the Habsburgs.
D.
The Habsburgs lost control over most of their lands in northern Italy.
 

 16. 

Mercantilist theory postulated that
A.
government should not interfere in the economy.
B.
imports and exports should be equally balanced.
C.
economic activity should be regulated by and for the state.
D.
free trade would maximize the wealth of all nations.
 

 17. 

The primary cause of the English Glorious Revolution was
A.
conflict between Charles II and Parliament over taxation.
B.
a fear of the establishment of Catholic absolutism by James II.
C.
defeat suffered in the War of the Spanish Succession.
D.
the 1640 uprising in Ireland.
 

 18. 

How did Frederick William the Great Elector of Prussia persuade the Junker nobility to accept taxation without consent in order to fund the army?
A.
He confirmed the Junkers’ privileges, including their authority over the serfs.
B.
He permitted the Junkers to seize church lands as compensation.
C.
He threatened the Junkers with military attack.
D.
He offered the Junkers the exclusive right to sit in the royal councils.
 

 19. 

How did Frederick William I, king of Prussia, sustain agricultural production while dramatically expanding the size of his army?
A.
He required women to work in the fields when their husbands served in the military.
B.
He purchased African slaves to sustain agricultural production while Prussian men trained for the military.
C.
He ordered all Prussian men to undergo military training, after which they could return home and serve as army reservists.
D.
He required monks, priests, and other clerics to perform agricultural work when needed by local nobles.
 

 20. 

How did the princes of Moscow seek to legitimize their authority as rulers of an independent state?
A.
They adopted French coronation rituals.
B.
They modeled their rule on the Mongol khans.
C.
They eliminated all taxes.
D.
They claimed to be both political and religious leaders.
 

 21. 

One of the largest rebellions in seventeenth-century Russia was that led by
A.
Michael Romanov.
B.
Ivan the Terrible.
C.
Stenka Razin.
D.
Peter the Great.
 

 22. 

Typically, French classicism
A.
challenged existing concepts concerning art.
B.
presented subject matter associated with classical antiquity.
C.
had little support from the royal government.
D.
emphasized individualistic renderings of society.
 

 23. 

What was one of the social consequences of Peter the Great’s bureaucratic system?
A.
Clergy were allowed to hold bureaucratic offices.
B.
Only ethnic Russians were permitted to serve in the bureaucracy.
C.
Women were allowed to serve in a few judicial positions.
D.
People of non-noble origin were able to rise to high positions.
 

 24. 

After his victory in 1709 at Poltava, Peter the Great built a new, Western-style city on the Baltic called
A.
Narva.
B.
Moscow.
C.
Leningrad.
D.
St. Petersburg.
 

 25. 

Within the Ottoman government, who staffed the top DIFF: Levels of the bureaucracy?
A.
The royal family
B.
The sultan’s slave corps
C.
Islamic religious officials
D.
Military commanders
 

 26. 

Why did the English government arrive at a crisis situation by 1640?
A.
Charles I imposed unwelcome laws and reforms on the country.
B.
Charles I married a Presbyterian princess.
C.
James I frequently lectured the House of Commons about his divine authority.
D.
Charles I sought to impose the Scottish religion on England.
 

 27. 

What was the outcome of the heightened central control established by absolutist and constitutional governments?
A.
Reduced taxation
B.
Growth in armed forces
C.
Smaller and less expensive bureaucracies
D.
Problems with local leaders
 

 28. 

The final collapse of Spain as a great military power was symbolized by the defeat at the Battle of Rocroi and the resulting Treaty of
A.
Utrecht.
B.
the White Mountain.
C.
the Pyrenees.
D.
Westphalia.
 

 29. 

How did William Laud, the archbishop of Canterbury, create conflict in Britain in the 1630s?
A.
He launched a purge against the remaining Catholics in England, seeking to force them to flee to Ireland.
B.
He sought to impose a new prayer book modeled on the Anglican Book of Common Prayer on Presbyterian Scotland.
C.
He imposed new church taxes in order to secretly funnel money to the monarchy.
D.
He implemented Puritan reforms into the Anglican Church.
 

 30. 

In return for financial support, what did Charles II of England secretly promise Louis XIV of France?
A.
England would lift trade restrictions against French products.
B.
England would provide troops to France in the event of war with Austria.
C.
English laws would be strengthened to protect the property of French nobles in England.
D.
English laws against Catholics would be eased and England gradually re-Catholicized.
 

 31. 

French foreign policy under Cardinal Richelieu focused primarily on the
A.
prevention of the Habsburgs from unifying the territories surrounding France.
B.
destruction of English naval power.
C.
destruction of the economic power of the Low Countries.
D.
protection of Protestants in neighboring territories.
 

 32. 

Oliver Cromwell’s Protectorate was ultimately a
A.
popular democracy.
B.
parliamentary government.
C.
constitutional monarchy.
D.
military dictatorship.
 

 33. 

Which of the following characterizes the English Revolution of 1688?
A.
The revolution restored the monarchy after the disastrous era of Oliver Cromwell’s Protectorate.
B.
The revolution secured equal rights for all Christians, including Catholics,
C.
The revolution did not constitute a democratic revolution since sovereignty was placed in the Parliament, which only represented the upper classes.
D.
The revolution marked the emergence of democratic politics, with the establishment of natural rights and the defense of private property.
 

 34. 

Cardinal Jules Mazarin’s struggle to increase royal revenues to meet the cost of war led to the uprisings of 1648–53, known as the
A.
Jacquerie.
B.
Vendée.
C.
Fronde.
D.
Levée en Masse.
 

 35. 

France’s strong economy was created by the mercantilist policies of
A.
the Duke of Saint-Simon.
B.
Cardinal Mazarin.
C.
Count-Duke of Olivares.
D.
Jean-Baptiste Colbert.
 

 36. 

The Junkers were
A.
Dutch merchants who made up the oligarchy that controlled the government of the Netherlands.
B.
Prussian nobles who reluctantly worked with Frederick William to consolidate the Prussian state.
C.
Members of the janissary corps who filled the posts of the Ottoman bureaucracy and military.
D.
Russian administrators who accepted the westernization policies of Peter the Great.
 

 37. 

The Ottomans divided their subjects into religious communities or
A.
Cossacks.
B.
Estates.
C.
millets.
D.
Moriscos.
 

 38. 

The Glorious Revolution and the concept of representative government found its best defense in the Second Treatise of Civil Government by
A.
Thomas Hobbes.
B.
John Locke.
C.
Peter Paul Rubens.
D.
Jean Racine
 

 39. 

In the Netherlands, tensions were always present between supporters of the staunchly republican Estates and supporters of
A.
the Stuarts.
B.
the Hohenzollerns.
C.
the House of Orange.
D.
the Bourbons.
 

 40. 

In music, the baroque style reached its culmination in the work of
A.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
B.
Johann Sebastian Bach.
C.
Frédéric Chopin.
D.
Peter Paul Rubens
 

 41. 

After a defeat at Narva, Peter the Great constructed a new army and eventually beat the Swedish in 1709 at
A.
St. Petersburg.
B.
Naseby.
C.
Poltava.
D.
Novgorod.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 42. 

In Primary Source 15.3, how does Olearius depict the Russian government?
A.
The tsar and the great nobles share power.
B.
The tsar or the grand prince rules the land alone, and all the people are his subjects.
C.
The tsar rules with the advice of the great church officials.
D.
The tsar is a symbol of the nation, but the real power lies with the great nobles.
 

 43. 

In Primary Source 15.3, how does Olearius view Russians as a people?
A.
They do not drink a great deal or get drunk often.
B.
They are naturally tough and born for slavery.
C.
They never become enraged, even though they are treated harshly.
D.
They are peace-loving and do not care for war.
 

 44. 

In Two Treatises of Government (Primary Source 15.5), John Locke notes that
A.
the government must levy taxes as it sees fit.
B.
the government must obtain the consent of the majority for taxes.
C.
the government must be free to set taxes at whatever DIFF: Level is necessary.
D.
the government cannot run efficiently if it must always check with the people.
 

 45. 

In Primary Source 15.5, how does Locke understand the process by which a government functions?
A.
Once a government has been appointed, it is free to make those laws that seem necessary for efficient government.
B.
The people are in full liberty to resist those who, without authority, would impose anything upon them.
C.
The best government is that provided by a group of capable administrators acting in the name of the people.
D.
Because people seldom agree about political issues, it is best to have a monarch with long experience in government making decisions.
 

 46. 

Which lands shown on Map 15.1: Europe after the Thirty Years’ War belonged to the Spanish Habsburgs?

mc046-1.jpg
A.
Spain, Portugal, the Spanish Netherlands, the United Provinces, Franche-Comté, and Milan
B.
France, the Spanish Netherlands, the United Provinces, Franche-Comté, Milan, and Naples
C.
Spain, Naples, the Papal States, Tuscany, Milan, and the Republic of Venice
D.
Spain, Portugal, the Spanish Netherlands, Franche-Comté, Milan, and Naples
 

 47. 

Compare the map “Europe after the Thirty Years’ War” to the map “Europe after the Peace of Utrecht.” Which state changed hands between 1648 and 1715?

mc047-1.jpg

mc047-2.jpg
A.
Sardinia
B.
Bohemia
C.
Croatia
D.
Silesia
 

 48. 

On the map “The Growth of Austria and Brandenburg-Prussia to 1748,” what territories did Prussia acquire between 1640 and 1688?

mc048-1.jpg
A.
Magdeburg and Mark
B.
Cleve and Mark
C.
Brandenburg and Prussia
D.
Eastern Pomerania and Magdeburg
 

 49. 

On the map “The Growth of Austria and Brandenburg-Prussia to 1748,” what territories did Austria acquire after the decisive victory over the Ottoman Empire (1718)?

mc049-1.jpg
A.
Slavonia, Transylvania, and Hungary
B.
Croatia, Slavonia, and Carniola
C.
Carinthia, Styria, and Carniola
D.
Banat, Serbia, and Wallachia
 



 
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