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Chapter 16 Test



 1. 

Which powers participated in the partitioning of Poland in the late eighteenth century?
A.
Prussia, Russia, and Austria
B.
The Ottoman Empire, Russia, and Prussia
C.
Sweden, Prussia, and Russia
D.
Sweden, Saxony, and Austria
 

 2. 

The discipline of natural philosophy focused on
A.
specific natural laws that governed all matter in material universe.
B.
fundamental questions about the nature, purpose, and function of the universe.
C.
the application of ancient philosophy to theological questions.
D.
theological principles that can be discovered in the study of nature.
 

 3. 

Why did Leopold II cancel his brother Joseph’s radical edicts in the early 1790s?
A.
Leopold was preparing Austria for war.
B.
Leopold was attempting to restore order in Austria.
C.
Leopold was negotiating a second partition of Poland.
D.
Leopold was responding to criticism from Catherine the Great.
 

 4. 

Which of the following correctly characterizes the response of various religious perspectives to Nicolaus Copernicus’s hypothesis?
A.
The Catholic Church declared Copernicus a heretic, while Protestant faiths believed that the hypothesis had no bearing on Christian teaching.
B.
Protestant clerics rejected Copernicus, while Catholics embraced the interpretation as a new foundation for the heavens.
C.
Protestants rejected Copernicus’s idea that the earth moved, while the Catholic Church largely overlooked his theory until declaring the hypothesis false in the seventeenth century.
D.
Lutheran and Catholic officials rejected Copernicus’s hypothesis as heretical to a literal interpretation of Scripture, while Protestants recognized a more modern approach to truth and adopted it.
 

 5. 

Johannes Kepler believed that the elliptical orbit of planets
A.
caused each planet to move at a uniform speed.
B.
demonstrated the presence of Satan’s disruptive influence in the universe.
C.
were interspersed with epicycles and deferents.
D.
produced a musical harmony of heavenly bodies.
 

 6. 

What was the primary goal of Galileo Galilei’s experimental method?
A.
To discover what actually occurred in nature rather than to speculate on what should occur
B.
To expose how the workings of nature demonstrated the presence of God
C.
To uncover the hidden forces that directed nature and that humans could manipulate
D.
To produce benefits for humankind rather than seek abstract knowledge
 

 7. 

How did Isaac Newton’s law of universal gravitation bring the Scientific Revolution to maturity?
A.
It demonstrated that the biological and physical properties of nature operated by different principles.
B.
It proved that the workings of nature could be understood without reference of God.
C.
It synthesized mathematics with physics and astronomy to demonstrate that the entire universe was unified into one coherent system.
D.
It provided evidence that proved the existence of God.
 

 8. 

Soft pastels, ornate interiors, and sentimental portraits are all characteristics of the style known as
A.
classicalism.
B.
baroque.
C.
rococo.
D.
romanticism.
 

 9. 

Copernicus’s theory of the universe
A.
was endorsed by the Catholic Church.
B.
postulated a sun-centered view of the universe.
C.
strengthened the Ptolemaic theory of the universe.
D.
used epicycles to explain planetary motion.
 

 10. 

The most influential aspect of René Descartes’ theories of nature was that
A.
spiritual forces were infused throughout nature.
B.
mind and matter could be reduced to the same substance.
C.
true knowledge required the use of inductive reasoning.
D.
the universe functioned in a mechanistic fashion.
 

 11. 

Francis Bacon formalized the research methods of Tycho Brahe and Galileo into a theory of reasoning known as
A.
dualism.
B.
empiricism.
C.
naturalism.
D.
materialism.
 

 12. 

How did governments respond to the new science?
A.
They viewed new scientific communities as a threat to their control of knowledge.
B.
They rejected the new science as a threat to their religious foundations.
C.
They established academies of science to support and sometimes direct scientific research.
D.
They supported and defended the complete freedom of the scientist against religious officials.
 

 13. 

Although perhaps best known as the longtime companion of Voltaire, Gabriel-Emilie Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, marquise du Châtelet, published
A.
the first translation of Newton's Principia into French.
B.
The Persian Letters.
C.
The Social Contract.
D.
The Theory of Moral Sentiments.
 

 14. 

Who wrote the influential Historical and Critical Dictionary (1697)?
A.
Pierre Bayle
B.
Baruch Spinoza
C.
John Locke
D.
Margaret Cavendish
 

 15. 

What helped to justify the growth of slavery in the eighteenth century?
A.
The defense of social inequalities between men and women by certain philosophes
B.
The bureaucratic reforms of practitioners of enlightened absolutism
C.
The emergence of scientific racism
D.
The common philosophical belief that the masses were like children in need of firm guidance
 

 16. 

Catherine the Great’s goal of domestic reform never came to fruition, owing to
A.
the overthrow and murder of her husband, Peter III, in 1762.
B.
the grant to the nobles of absolute control over their serfs after 1775.
C.
the rebellion led by Emelian Pugachev in 1773.
D.
the first partition of Poland in 1772.
 

 17. 

In his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, John Locke claimed that
A.
sovereign authority rests in the hands of the people.
B.
all people are born with certain ideas and ways of thinking.
C.
human development is determined by education and society.
D.
governments are formed by contracts among free individuals.
 

 18. 

The concept of the reading revolution refers to the
A.
acquisition of literacy by the masses.
B.
spread of literacy among women.
C.
invention of the printing press.
D.
shift from reading religious texts aloud as a family to reading diverse texts individually.
 

 19. 

What was the core concept of the Enlightenment?
A.
The methods of natural science should be used to examine all aspects of life.
B.
Understanding nature requires an equal balance of science and faith.
C.
Human beings are inherently corrupt.
D.
All of reality can be reduced to mind and matter.
 

 20. 

In general, what was Voltaire’s attitude toward government?
A.
He believed in democracy, like most philosophes.
B.
He believed that a good monarch was the best one could hope for in government.
C.
He saw the despot or autocrat as designated by God.
D.
He believed in enlightened despotism as long as he could be the despot.
 

 21. 

Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed that
A.
women should play an active role in public life.
B.
women were best suited to a passive role in social relations.
C.
civilization was the foundation of freedom.
D.
without rational thought, human society would crumble.
 

 22. 

According to its editor, the fundamental goal of the Encyclopedia was to
A.
“popularize the scientific revolution.”
B.
“improve the material life of Europeans.”
C.
“change the general way of thinking.”
D.
“undermine French absolutism.”
 

 23. 

Madame du Châtelet, Voltaire’s longtime companion,
A.
believed that women’s limited contribution to science was the result of unequal education.
B.
was the first woman admitted into the Royal Academy of Sciences.
C.
was the powerful mistress of Louis XV.
D.
inspired Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s ideas on education and emotion.
 

 24. 

Rousseau’s concept of the general will asserts that
A.
enlightened monarchs protect the interests of the entire society and should be relied on for reform.
B.
the people’s political wishes can be conveyed only by direct democracy.
C.
the general will is not necessarily the will of the majority.
D.
public opinion polling can be a valuable support to democracy.
 

 25. 

How did Enlightenment thinkers differ from those of the Middle Ages and Renaissance?
A.
Enlightenment thinkers rejected the basic tenants of Christianity and embraced a vision of a world without God.
B.
Enlightenment thinkers drew inspiration from classical antiquity, whereas the Middle Ages and Renaissance focused on the Bible.
C.
Enlightenment thinkers relished artistic production, while the Middles Ages and Renaissance focused on penance and prayer.
D.
Enlightenment thinkers believed that their era had surpassed antiquity, which demonstrated the possibility of human progress.
 

 26. 

A striking feature of the salons was that
A.
clerics were banned.
B.
philosophes, nobles, and members of the upper middle class intermingled.
C.
they were often sponsored by the government.
D.
members of the working classes often attended.
 

 27. 

In Historical and Critical Dictionary, Pierre Bayle demonstrated that
A.
the Bible was a fraudulent document promoted by the Catholic Church.
B.
the mind and body are united into one substance.
C.
all knowledge can be questioned and doubted.
D.
human beliefs are unified in their singular origins from God.
 

 28. 

Voltaire was a deist who viewed God as akin to a
A.
loving father who intervened when necessary in human affairs.
B.
clockmaker who set the universe in motion and then ceased to intervene in human affairs.
C.
king who required Christians to be intolerant of any who did not worship him correctly.
D.
farmer who carefully tended his crops from planting through harvest.
 

 29. 

What was the Republic of Letters?
A.
A cosmopolitan network involving Western Europe and its colonies as well as Eastern Europe and Russia
B.
An organization established to assist with Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d’Alembert’s Encyclopedia
C.
A governmental system advocated by Rousseau in The Social Contract
D.
A source of funding for philosophes developed by Catherine the Great
 

 30. 

Which book by the baron de Montesquieu is considered the first major work in the French Enlightenment?
A.
The Spirit of Laws
B.
The Persian Letter
C.
On Crimes and Punishments
D.
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations
 

 31. 

The idea of the public sphere that emerged during the Enlightenment refers to
A.
a government bureau that regulated the work of the philosophes.
B.
an idealized space where individuals gathered to discuss social and political issues.
C.
the marketplaces at which peasants gathered to gossip and share news.
D.
the practice of legislatures to permit citizens to make addresses before deputies.
 

 32. 

The enlightened policies of Frederick the Great included
A.
freeing the Prussian serfs.
B.
curtailing the privileges of the nobility.
C.
simplifying Prussia’s laws.
D.
censoring the publications of scholars.
 

 33. 

Catherine the Great of Russia came to power in 1762 through
A.
inheritance of the throne from her mother.
B.
Frederick II of Prussia’s invasion of Russia.
C.
a military coup.
D.
election by the general public.
 

 34. 

How did the idea of “race” transform Europeans’ idea of their superiority over other peoples?
A.
European superiority was increasingly defined as culturally superior as well as religiously superior.
B.
European superiority was increasingly defined as biologically superior as well as culturally superior.
C.
European superiority was increasingly defined as culturally superior rather than religiously superior.
D.
European superiority was increasingly defined as religiously superior rather than biologically superior.
 

 35. 

What change within the Jewish community accompanied the Haskalah Enlightenment movement?
A.
Interactions between Jews and Christians increased, and rabbinic controls diminished.
B.
Jews increasingly converted to Christianity as Judaism demanded faith over reason.
C.
The Jewish community isolated itself from the Christian community as racial thinking emerged.
D.
The Jewish community sought to create an independent state that would not be subject to Christian laws.
 

 36. 

To improve the rural economy and the lives of peasants, Empress Maria Theresa of Austria
A.
increased church influence on the agricultural population.
B.
ordered the adoption of scientific farming techniques.
C.
abolished serfdom.
D.
reduced nobles’ power over their serfs.
 

 37. 

Joseph II’s conversion of peasant labor obligations to cash payments
A.
had the support of the nobles.
B.
transformed a barter economy into a cash economy.
C.
was opposed by both nobles and peasants.
D.
remained in effect long after his death.
 

 38. 

Galileo was placed on trial for heresy owing to publication of
A.
The Sidereal Messenger.
B.
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres.
C.
Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World.
D.
Principia Mathematica.
 

 39. 

Who was Denis Diderot’s co-editor of the Encyclopedia?
A.
Voltaire
B.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
C.
Pierre Bayle
D.
Jean le Rond d'Alembert
 

 40. 

Who was the author of On Crimes and Punishments, a passionate plea for the reform of the penal system?
A.
Adam Smith
B.
Immanuel Kant
C.
Benjamin Franklin
D.
Cesare Beccaria
 

 41. 

Which country spearheaded the trend in scientific expeditions?
A.
England
B.
Austria
C.
Italy
D.
Spain
 
 
Source-Based Questions
Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 42. 

“Weep, wretched natives of Tahiti, weep. But let it be for the coming and not the leaving of these ambitious, wicked men. One day you will know them better. One day they will come back, bearing in one hand the piece of wood you see in that man’s belt, and, in the other, the sword hanging by the side of that one, to enslave you, slaughter you, or make you captive to their follies and vices. One day you will be subject to them, as corrupt, vile and miserable as they are.” This selection from Denis Diderot’s “Supplement to Bougainville’s Voyage” (Primary Source 16.5) reflects his concern that
A.
the people encountered by European explorers should recognize that Europeans had nothing to offer them.
B.
the people encountered by European explorers should recognize that they had much to offer to the Europeans.
C.
the people encountered by European explorers should recognize that contact with Europeans would be mutually advantageous.
D.
the people encountered by European explorers should recognize that contact with Europeans would be mutually disadvantageous.
 

 43. 

In Primary Source 16.1: The Sidereal Messenger, Galileo wrote about constructing a telescope and using it to view the surface of the moon. His observations led him to
A.
venerate the moon as an example of God’s handiwork.
B.
decide that the moon was indeed smooth, free from inequalities, and exactly spherical.
C.
report that although he could see the moon more clearly than with his naked eye, he could not come to any conclusions about it.
D.
assert that the moon was uneven, similar to the surface of the earth.
 

 44. 

The presentation by the Reverend Samuel Pullein to the Royal Society of England regarding “An Account of a Particular Species of Cocoon, or Silk-Pod, from America” (Primary Source 16.2), was
A.
an unscientific report by an enthusiastic amateur.
B.
an attempt to persuade the Royal Society to fund a commercial enterprise.
C.
a careful investigation of the silk pod and whether it might serve as a source of silk.
D.
an effort to inject religious concerns into scientific discussions.
 

 45. 

“Guard yourself, my son, whichever side you take in this dispute among the philosophers, against the inevitable obstinacy to which the spirit of partisanship carries one. . . . The search for truth is the only thing in which the love of your country must not prevail, and it is surely very unfortunate that the opinions of Newton and of Descartes have become a sort of national affair.” This quotation from Primary Source 16.3: Foundations of Physics refers to
A.
the controversy concerning who first put forth the idea that the earth orbits around the sun.
B.
the controversy concerning who should be credited with discovering the concept of the universal force of gravity.
C.
the controversy concerning whether Descartes’ or Newton’s systems should be considered the superior method of scientific investigation.
D.
the controversy concerning whether all ideas and thoughts are the result of sensory impressions.
 

 46. 

According to Map 16.1: The Partition of Poland, which power or powers benefited most from the partitions?

mc046-1.jpg
A.
Prussia
B.
Russia
C.
Austria
D.
Ottoman Empire
 

 47. 

According to Map 16.1: The Partition of Poland, which power or powers participated in the partition of 1793?

mc047-1.jpg
A.
Prussia and Austria
B.
Prussia, Russia, and Austria
C.
Austria
D.
Prussia and Russia
 

 48. 

According to Map 16.1: The Partition of Poland, where was Warsaw, the capital of the former Poland, located after the partition of 1795?

mc048-1.jpg
A.
In the territory absorbed by Austria
B.
In the territory absorbed by Russia
C.
In the territory absorbed by Prussia
D.
In the territory jointly administered by Prussia and Russia
 



 
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