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Chapter 17 Test



 1. 

Which of the following describes the enclosure movement of the eighteenth century?
A.
The land was divided into long, narrow strips that were not enclosed by fences or hedges.
B.
The land was not divided but worked communally as villages labored in large fields side by side.
C.
The land was divided into plots bounded by fences to farm more effectively.
D.
The land was not divided, so the lord of the manor could directly control agricultural techniques and introduce farming innovations.
 

 2. 

Which of the following characterizes the condition of peasants in Western Europe in the eighteenth century?
A.
They were bound to a lord’s feudal manor and worked the lord’s land as part of a long series of feudal obligations.
B.
They were technically free but suffered under a system of debt obligation to feudal lords that prevented them from owning their own land.
C.
They were free to own small plots of land but never enough to fully support themselves, requiring them to continue to work the land of the local lord, who owned a vast majority of it.
D.
They were generally free from serfdom and owned land that they could pass on to their children.
 

 3. 

In the eighteenth century, advocates for agricultural innovation argued that
A.
the rights of the nobility over land needed to be reinforced, since until that time only nobles could force through innovations.
B.
landholdings and common lands needed to be consolidated and enclosed in order to farm more efficiently.
C.
the key to agricultural innovation was to provide support for the peasants against the lords, as the lords resisted innovation that they feared would diminish their authority.
D.
farming should be strictly separated from herding for sheep and cattle, as herds diminished the lands’ productivity by trampling and flattening loose soil.
 

 4. 

Which of the following correctly characterizes the transformation of the English and Scottish countryside in the enclosure era?
A.
Forced to sell their land following enclosures, most of the nobility left the countryside and moved to the cities.
B.
The large pools of urban laborers were forced to work in the countryside, for the growing agricultural innovations required more workers for the land.
C.
The elimination of common rights and access to land turned small peasant farmers into landless wage earners.
D.
While enclosure affected some land usage, most land remained deeply tied to traditional feudal structures.
 

 5. 

The English Navigation Acts mandated that all English imports and exports be transported on English ships, and they also
A.
restricted English banks from making foreign loans.
B.
gave British merchants a virtual monopoly on trade with British colonies.
C.
created an alliance with the Dutch against the French.
D.
prevented the American colonists from building ships.
 

 6. 

What was Jethro Tull’s contribution to English agriculture in the eighteenth century?
A.
He demonstrated that slow oxen that produced more manure were preferred for plowing than swifter-moving horses.
B.
He critiqued accepted farming methods and developed better methods through empirical research.
C.
He caused a rural rebellion and ultimately the demise of the enclosure movement after burning his fields rather than enclosing them.
D.
He paved the way for peasants to own land—after he became the first non-noblemen to be England’s largest landowner.
 

 7. 

In the eighteenth century, European public health measures
A.
improved water supply and sewage systems.
B.
completely eradicated famine owing to increased supply lines.
C.
banned foreign soldiers from entering towns.
D.
blocked off roads and canals to prevent the spread of disease.
 

 8. 

Population growth in Europe in the eighteenth century occurred
A.
only in a few regions that were able to avoid warfare.
B.
primarily in regions that saw substantial agricultural innovations.
C.
primarily in prosperous regions that were establishing colonial lands in Asia and the Americas.
D.
in all regions.
 

 9. 

How did the problem of food shortages change in the eighteenth century?
A.
Increased road and canal building permitted food to be more easily transported to regions with local crop failure and famine.
B.
Advances in agricultural methods produced abundant food supplies and eradicated famine.
C.
A return to the open-field system evened out food distribution and helped to prevent food shortages.
D.
The European colonies became an alternate source for food that could be used to overcome poor harvests.
 

 10. 

Holland’s leadership in farming methodology can be attributed to
A.
the absence of marshes and swamps in the Netherlands.
B.
the necessity to provide for a densely populated country.
C.
the increased migration of peasants from cities to the country.
D.
the strong nobility of the Dutch.
 

 11. 

What was a competitive advantage of the rural putting-out system?
A.
The rural poor worked for low wages
B.
Production in the countryside could be carefully supervised by merchant capitalists
C.
Rural workers were highly skilled in a number of crafts
D.
The workers purchased the raw material themselves, saving the merchant capitalist money.
 

 12. 

Within the family, the operation of the loom
A.
was somewhat dangerous, and children were forbidden from helping with it.
B.
generally only occupied one person, leaving other family members to farm or seek outside employment.
C.
was reserved for the male head of household.
D.
was considered a woman’s job, as were most of the sewing crafts.
 

 13. 

The spinning of thread for the loom
A.
required the work of several spinners for each loom, which led merchants to employ the wives and daughters of agricultural workers at terribly low wages.
B.
was established as a unique craft in which communities and even regions specialized, especially sheepherding regions.
C.
was quickly turned into a mechanized process, which freed more women to take up operation of the loom.
D.
marked a new type of industry in which the merchants created unambiguous standards for spun thread that reduced conflicts between merchants and spinners.
 

 14. 

Merchant capitalists complained bitterly about
A.
the high cost of production in the rural countryside.
B.
their inability to supervise and direct the work of rural laborers.
C.
the constant claims by guilds to authority over rural production.
D.
government efforts to protect spinners and weavers from labor abuses.
 

 15. 

The industrious revolution was a result of
A.
the reduction of holidays and festivals by the state in order to create more workdays during the year, combined with laws requiring the closing of taverns two hours past sunset.
B.
efforts by Protestant and Catholic churches to combat sin by promoting a gospel of prosperity and industry that would keep workers productively at their labors.
C.
merchant capitalists gaining greater authority over workers and forcing them into factories, where their work activity could be more closely monitored and controlled.
D.
poor families choosing to reduce leisure time and the production of goods for household consumption in order to earn wages to buy consumer goods.
 

 16. 

In seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Europe, guild masters
A.
permitted easy access to guilds in order to maintain a strong labor force.
B.
allowed both men and women entry into all guilds.
C.
guarded their guild privileges jealously.
D.
denied themselves the right to train their sons or wives in their crafts.
 

 17. 

According to recent scholarship, during the eighteenth century the guild system
A.
was in the process of collapse as new technologies made guild regulations obsolete.
B.
inhibited the development of the economy through its rigid rules and their strict application.
C.
provided the foundation for Great Britain’s economic growth, since the guilds were strongly supported under British law.
D.
remained flexible as masters adopted new technologies and circumvented impractical rules.
 

 18. 

Which of the following describes the role of women in guilds in the eighteenth century?
A.
Guilds dropped all restrictions that forbade women from serving as masters or laborers.
B.
Masters began to hire more female workers, often in defiance of guild rules.
C.
Guilds permitted women to serve as workers but forbade any women from becoming masters.
D.
Guilds reinforced the regulations forbidding all work by and mastership for women.
 

 19. 

At the center of Adam Smith’s arguments in The Wealth of Nations was the belief that
A.
the pursuit of self-interest in competitive markets would improve the living conditions of citizens.
B.
capitalism could only flourish if workers’ wages were kept low.
C.
guilds provided a structural stability to the economy that permitted the free market to function effectively.
D.
the government had a responsibility to protect consumers and the general public from price gouging and fraud.
 

 20. 

Between 1650 and 1790, a crucial component of the global economy was established when European nations developed
A.
the African trade
B.
the Atlantic economy.
C.
the colonial economy.
D.
the East Indian trade.
 

 21. 

From 1701 to 1763, what was at stake in the wars between Great Britain and France?
A.
The position as Europe’s leading maritime power, with the ability to claim profits from Europe’s overseas expansion
B.
The ability of each to establish effective systems to supply expanding militaries
C.
The preeminent position in continental Europe with the ability to shape domestic policy in many nations
D.
The control over slave trade routes to support colonial development in the Caribbean
 

 22. 

What was the result of the War of the Austrian Succession?
A.
A French victory that forced Britain to abandon its last remaining land claims on the North American continent
B.
A British victory that forced the French to retreat from North America
C.
An Austrian victory that forced Prussia to abandon much of its territory
D.
An inconclusive standoff that set the stage for further warfare
 

 23. 

The British won the American component of the Seven Years’ War owing to
A.
ineffective French military leadership.
B.
France’s lack of allies.
C.
the size and strength of British naval power.
D.
the support of all Native American tribes to the British cause.
 

 24. 

In the eighteenth century, the biggest increase in British foreign trade was with
A.
France.
B.
the British colonial empire.
C.
the European continent.
D.
Asia.
 

 25. 

Which of the following characterizes eighteenth-century colonial trade in Europe?
A.
It became insignificant to the French after the loss of their colonies in New France (Canada).
B.
The Spanish empire collapsed, for Spain lacked the resources to sustain its military presence in the colonies.
C.
Spanish landowners in the colonies instituted slavery among all the Indian populations in order to force them to work on their estates.
D.
Britain’s mercantilist system achieved remarkable success as trade with its colonies grew substantially.
 

 26. 

Which of the following characterizes the regions to which slaves were carried from Africa to the Americas?
A.
About 90 percent of slaves were transported to Brazil or the Caribbean, with only 3 percent brought to North America.
B.
Brazil received about one-half of the slaves carried across the Atlantic, while the Caribbean and North America each received about 25 percent.
C.
The Spanish colonies of South America received about 35 percent of slaves from Africa, while Brazil received about 15 percent and the Caribbean and North America each received about 25 percent.
D.
The Caribbean received about 50 percent of the slaves, while North American and Spanish South America received about 25 percent each.
 

 27. 

Why did European slave traders in Africa adopt the “shore method” of trading in the eighteenth century?
A.
It secured for Europeans supplies of slaves by establishing fortified trading posts on the coast, thus preventing wasted days at sea looking for slaves to purchase.
B.
It gave Europeans more control over the slave trade by sending ashore slave-hunting teams to seize slaves and force them aboard.
C.
It relieved Europeans of the moral difficulty of separating families by having all slaves separated into unrelated groups of fifteen before the ships captains purchased them.
D.
It permitted Europeans to move easily along the coast, obtaining slaves at various slave markets and then departing quickly for the Americas.
 

 28. 

In Africa, the slave trade primarily resulted in
A.
greater prosperity and a growing population.
B.
more wars and likely fewer people.
C.
more consumer goods and greater prosperity.
D.
larger empires and more wars.
 

 29. 

By the eighteenth century, the elite of Spanish colonial society
A.
created an exaggerated sense of their “Spanish-ness” to distinguish themselves from the local peoples.
B.
largely abandoned European cultural forms and practices in order to create a new Latin American culture.
C.
came to believe that their circumstances gave them different interests and characteristics from those in Spain.
D.
had so thoroughly merged with local populations as to be indistinguishable from them.
 

 30. 

Christianity in colonial societies in the Americas
A.
remained almost exclusively connected to European colonists, for few native people adopted the religion.
B.
took on distinctive characteristics through a complex process of cultural exchange that made Christianity more comprehensible to indigenous peoples.
C.
remained a foundation of European culture and tradition on which European settlers could depend to defend traditional European practices.
D.
so fully embraced native customs and traditions that European Christians came to consider the Christianity practiced in the Americas to be heretical.
 

 31. 

What was the status of Jews in European colonies in the eighteenth century?
A.
They were considered heretical people subject to enslavement and lacking all rights.
B.
They were welcomed in colonies desperate for European settlers as full citizens equal with Christian settlers.
C.
They settled in the colonies but were forbidden from practicing the Jewish faith.
D.
They faced political and economic forms of discrimination but were considered to be white Europeans and thus could not be enslaved.
 

 32. 

Why did the Dutch fail to maintain their dominance in Asia?
A.
The Dutch East India Company failed to diversify its trade to meet changing consumption patterns in Europe.
B.
The Dutch government found that sustaining the colonies in Asia cost more than the profits that could be made and withdrew military protection.
C.
The Dutch economy was devastated by wars with Great Britain and France and lacked capital for continued colonization.
D.
The Dutch missionaries forcefully pressed Christianity onto local leaders, leading to successful rebellions against the colonies.
 

 33. 

Who provided the labor force for Britain’s initial colonization of Australia?
A.
Convicted prisoners
B.
Indentured servants
C.
Slaves
D.
Aboriginal people
 

 34. 

The proletarianization of peasants in the eighteenth century forced them to
A.
move to the cities to seek work.
B.
become landless rural wage earners.
C.
join the army or navy.
D.
emigrate.
 

 35. 

Arthur Young, an eighteenth-century agricultural experimentalist, advocated
A.
the retention of open-field farming with the addition of crop rotation and other innovations.
B.
large-scale enclosure as a necessary means to achieve progress.
C.
the development of a primary education system as a means of lessening rural poverty.
D.
government intervention as a means of lessening rural poverty.
 

 36. 

The treaty that ended the Seven Years’ War in Europe and the colonies in 1763 and ratified British victory on all colonial fronts was the
A.
Peace of Utrecht.
B.
Treaty of Paris.
C.
Peace of Westphalia.
D.
Treaty of London.
 

 37. 

In the eighteenth century, the West’s largest and richest city was
A.
Paris.
B.
Berlin.
C.
London.
D.
Vienna.
 

 38. 

Wealthy Spanish landowners kept indigenous workers on their estates through a system of
A.
slave labor in which workers had no rights.
B.
indentured servitude in which workers had a specified numbers of years to work before gaining their freedom.
C.
debt peonage in which landowners advanced food, shelter, and some money, in this way keeping the workers in perpetual debt.
D.
collusion with government officials to prevent workers from leaving an estate.
 

 39. 

People of Spanish ancestry born in the Americas were referred to as
A.
Mestizos.
B.
Mulattoes.
C.
Creoles.
D.
Peninsulares.
 

 40. 

Britain’s great rival for influence in India in the eighteenth century was
A.
France.
B.
Portugal.
C.
the Netherlands.
D.
Spain.
 

 41. 

Between 1700 and 1835, Europe’s population
A.
tripled.
B.
increased by 50 percent.
C.
doubled.
D.
experienced almost no growth.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 42. 

In Primary Source 17.1, Arthur Young, writing at the end of the eighteenth century on the benefits of enclosure, believes that
A.
the only solution for rural overpopulation is for peasants to move to towns.
B.
enclosures will provide the same amount of employment but under better conditions.
C.
enclosures will increase the amount of employment compared with open fields.
D.
the only solution for rural overpopulation is cottage industry.
 

 43. 

Why does Daniel Defoe believe that cottage industry is the answer to rural poverty (Primary Source 17.2)?
A.
The entire family can work together and pool their earnings.
B.
A man can continue to work in agriculture while his wife and children supplement his wages with their earning.
C.
A man and his wife can continue to work in agriculture while the children earn extra money by working in the cottage industry.
D.
A man who cannot find work of any kind can live off the earnings of his wife and children.
 

 44. 

As noted in Primary Source 17.3, Adam Smith thought that a proper division of labor would make it possible for a small number of men to do the work of many more because it
A.
allows the worker to work harder without tiring himself.
B.
permits the overseer to control the manufacturing process.
C.
makes it possible for an unskilled worker to be part of the manufacturing process.
D.
keeps workers from spending more time than necessary on the manufacture of the product.
 

 45. 

Map 17.2:The Atlantic Economy in 1701 shows trade from Europe, Africa, the Americas, and Asia. What goods were sent from Europe and Africa to the Americas?

mc045-1.jpg
A.
Slaves and gold
B.
Silks, spices, and porcelain
C.
Manufactured goods and gold
D.
Manufactured goods and slaves
 

 46. 

Map 17.1: Industry and Population in Eighteenth-Century Europe suggests a relationship between population density and the growth of textile production. This leads to the conclusion that textile production was concentrated in

mc046-1.jpg
A.
large cities.
B.
less-populated areas where other kinds of work were scarce.
C.
France.
D.
rural areas with relatively dense populations.
 

 47. 

Map 17.2: The Atlantic Economy in 1701 shows trade from Europe, Africa, the Americas, and Asia. What was sent from the Americas to Europe?

mc047-1.jpg
A.
Gold and silver
B.
Furs, tobacco, and gold
C.
Tobacco, silver, spices, and porcelain
D.
Tobacco, silver, sugar, and furs
 



 
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