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Chapter 18 Test



 1. 

What caused the pattern of late marriage in early modern Europe?
A.
The prevalence of the extended family structure
B.
The fear of overpopulation
C.
The availability of premarital sex
D.
It was a necessary precondition of economic independence.
 

 2. 

During a young man’s period of apprenticeship, he would
A.
face the same sexual exploitation that threatened girls.
B.
be permitted to marry while training.
C.
earn little money and work hard.
D.
become a master after seven years of training.
 

 3. 

A young woman entering domestic service could expect
A.
to be protected against abuse by municipal and state laws.
B.
to work hard on an endless array of jobs.
C.
to attend weekly religious lessons at the local church.
D.
to have a great deal of free time in which to enjoy town life.
 

 4. 

Until at least 1750, the practice of late marriage did not lead to a large number of illegitimate children because
A.
sexual activity prior to marriage was extremely rare and harshly punished by the church.
B.
poor nutrition dramatically diminished women’s ability to become pregnant and to carry a child to term.
C.
unmarried pregnant women commonly aborted their fetuses.
D.
of community pressure on a couple to marry when the woman became pregnant.
 

 5. 

What was the purpose of the raucous public rituals in which young men in a village would publicly humiliate a couple that had experienced adultery or abuse?
A.
To make fun of traditional values that the young men rejected
B.
To ridicule the church and its leaders for their failures
C.
To regulate personal behavior and maintain community standards
D.
To call for a renewed dedication of Christian holiness
 

 6. 

What place did prostitutes generally hold among the common people in towns?
A.
They were social outcasts condemned for their immoral behavior.
B.
They were accepted members of the community of the laboring poor.
C.
They were seen as spiritually corrupted members of the community who had to be eliminated when identified.
D.
They were respected individuals praised for their willingness to challenge conventional standards.
 

 7. 

How were same-sex relations among women regarded in comparison to same-sex relations among men?
A.
Same-sex relations among women were considered a youthful indiscretion that carried no particular stigma or condemnation, while those among men were harshly condemned as an attack on manly virtue.
B.
Same-sex relations were encouraged among unmarried women and men as a way to squelch sexual passions.
C.
Same-sex relations among men were accepted in imitation of Greek and Roman models, but those among women were harshly condemned as unnatural.
D.
While considered unnatural, same-sex relations among women attracted less anxiety and condemnation than those among men.
 

 8. 

What was the underlying reason for the illegitimacy explosion of 1750–1850?
A.
Social and economic transformations made it harder for families and communities to supervise behavior.
B.
The decline of traditional moral standards owing to the Enlightenment
C.
Decreasing availability of birth control in the countryside
D.
The sexual exploitation of poor girls by wealthy men
 

 9. 

Wet-nursing practices included
A.
working women typically sending their babies to a wet nurse in the neighborhood.
B.
rural wet-nursing conducted within the framework of a putting-out system.
C.
upper-middle-class women nursing their own children to prove their motherly devotion.
D.
weaning a baby from nursing within the first year.
 

 10. 

Some scholars have argued that the neglectful attitudes toward children in preindustrial Europe were conditioned mostly by
A.
high infant mortality rates.
B.
church doctrine.
C.
Enlightenment philosophy.
D.
economic pressure on new migrants to the cities.
 

 11. 

In the seventeenth and the eighteenth century, foundling homes
A.
were closed by governments to force families to care for children.
B.
were dissolved by the church to try to force women to refuse premarital sex.
C.
only accepted children from single women in ill health.
D.
had extremely high death rates.
 

 12. 

Which of the following describes the treatment of children in the seventeenth and early eighteenth century?
A.
Children were seen as beloved by God and not to be harshly rebuked.
B.
The disciplining of children was often severe in order to conquer the child’s will.
C.
Children were largely undisciplined until they reached the age of education, around seven years of age.
D.
Both Protestant and Catholic law forbade striking a child for any cause.
 

 13. 

What did the new discourse about children that emerged in the 1760s emphasize?
A.
A call for greater tenderness toward children
B.
Continuation of the practice of swaddling babies and using corsets to mold their bones
C.
An expansion of foundling hospitals
D.
Warnings against women nursing their own children
 

 14. 

What was a danger that threatened young girls who were living away from home in domestic service?
A.
Increased risk of contracting infectious diseases
B.
Reduced chances of marriage on returning home
C.
Risk of sexual attack by males in the households they served
D.
Malnutrition from subsisting on a city diet
 

 15. 

Which of the following characterizes education for children outside the home in the early modern era?
A.
As a consequence of the Reformation, the number of schools for common people declined.
B.
Under the absolute monarchies, national school systems were created to educate nearly all of the children of commoners.
C.
Schools remained largely unpopular because of their requirements that all children learn Latin.
D.
Schools for the children of common people taught basic literacy, religion, and some arithmetic for boys and needlework for girls.
 

 16. 

Why did Protestant countries take the lead in expanding education to all children?
A.
They sought to challenge Catholic domination of scholarship and knowledge.
B.
They were inspired by the Protestant idea that every believer should be able to read the Bible.
C.
They believed Catholicism benefited from ignorance.
D.
They sought to counter the appeal of witchcraft to the peasantry.
 

 17. 

In the eighteenth century, the diet of the poorer classes consisted largely of bread and
A.
dairy products.
B.
vegetables.
C.
wild game.
D.
meat.
 

 18. 

As literacy expanded among the common people, what was a staple of popular literature other than the Bible?
A.
The almanac
B.
The chapbook containing Bible stories, prayers, and stories about the lives of the saints
C.
Fairy tales, medieval romances, and fantastic adventures
D.
Practical literature on rural crafts, household repairs, and useful plants
 

 19. 

How did the Enlightenment affect attitudes toward popular culture?
A.
Enlightened authors embraced popular culture as an authentic expression of the human condition unaffected by Christian theology.
B.
Governments sought to use the critical perspectives of the Enlightenment to control and manage popular culture.
C.
As the educated public adopted the Enlightenment’s critical worldview, they increasingly saw popular culture as superstitious and vulgar.
D.
Enlightened authors approached popular culture from an anthropological perspective that permitted them to analyze it without condemning it.
 

 20. 

In addition to supervising labor and birth, what was a typical task of the midwife?
A.
Treating mental patients
B.
Treating female medical difficulties
C.
Assisting physicians
D.
Selling contraceptives
 

 21. 

How did the diet of townspeople compare to that of the peasantry?
A.
The townspeople ate more varied diets, since markets provided choices of meats, vegetables, and fruits.
B.
The townspeople ate diets with many more spices and flavor additives.
C.
The townspeople ate more monotonous diets, since only a few foods could survive the long transport to market in edible condition.
D.
The townspeople ate diets loaded with meat and vegetables, while bread and beans, the diet of the peasants, played a minor role.
 

 22. 

Why did sugar and tea become commonly consumed products by all social classes in the eighteenth century?
A.
Everyone wanted to support colonial expansion by consuming colonial products.
B.
There was a steady drop in prices owing to the expanded use of colonial slave labor.
C.
Drinking tea was seen as a sign of an increasingly egalitarian society.
D.
The pace of work slowed, which allowed time for drinking tea.
 

 23. 

What was the result of the consumer revolution of the eighteenth century?
A.
A vast increase in personal indebtedness, as individuals borrowed money in order to purchase consumer items
B.
A new type of society in which people derived their self-identity as much from their consuming practices as from their work lives
C.
The development of increasingly stark class distinctions based on consumption
D.
Notions of community values and expected norms, since people could now purchase the same consumer items.
 

 24. 

The growth in eighteenth-century consumerism in clothing was encouraged by what two factors?
A.
The growth of fashion merchants who dictated changing styles and the declining production costs based on female labor
B.
The royal courts establishing fashion standards and improved market distribution networks
C.
The creation of the mechanical loom and the role of the servant class in spreading fashion
D.
The use of new dyes and materials from colonial products and the enforcement of new class restrictions on clothing usage
 

 25. 

What was the greatest achievement of eighteenth-century medical science?
A.
Control of venereal disease
B.
Elimination of the bubonic plague
C.
Conquest of smallpox
D.
Invention of anesthesia for surgery
 

 26. 

How did the new fashion practices demonstrate changes in gender distinctions?
A.
Men increasingly moved away from ostentatious fashions and toward plain dark suits, while women acquired larger and more expensive wardrobes.
B.
Men adopted the wide variety of clothing options that consumer society made available, while women retained the conservative dress of the ideal virtuous women.
C.
Men increasingly embraced a colorful clothing style to display their wealth, while women adopted a practical garb appropriate for managing the household.
D.
Men increasingly emulated court dress in order to demonstrate their social assent while women adopted religious clothing to demonstrate their piety.
 

 27. 

Edward Jenner received financial prizes from the British government for
A.
discovering the first effective method of inoculation against smallpox.
B.
discovering that cowpox could be used to vaccinate against smallpox.
C.
introducing inoculation against smallpox to western Asia.
E. introducing inoculation against smallpox to colonial North America.
 

 28. 

In the eighteenth century, what was the focal point of community cohesion?
A.
The lord’s manor
B.
The marketplace
C.
The tavern
D.
The parish church
 

 29. 

The dissolution of the Jesuit order in 1773 is a striking indication of the
A.
decline of religious feeling in the eighteenth century.
B.
resurgent power of the papacy.
C.
power of the state over the church.
D.
vitality of the Protestant revival.
 

 30. 

In the eighteenth century, what did the strength of popular religion in Catholic countries reflect?
A.
The desires of secular authorities
B.
Its importance in community life
C.
The decline of papal and clerical abuses
D.
The role of the parish clergy in the state bureaucracy
 

 31. 

The religious revival movement known as Pietism
A.
promoted a strict legal code for Christian obedience.
B.
praised a stern moralism that imposed guilt on the believer.
C.
called for a warm, emotional religion that everyone could experience.
D.
focused on an intensely intellectual approach to faith and belief.
 

 32. 

In the eighteenth century, what problems did the Church of England face?
A.
Officials of both church and state used it to provide high-paying jobs to favorites and ignored the spiritual needs of the people.
B.
Widespread rejection of Christian teaching as the Enlightenment became established
C.
The loss of most of its land to enclosures, so that it became increasingly dependent on the state for support
D.
The inability to recruit new priests as more opportunities opened for educated men in commerce and trade
 

 33. 

Why was John Wesley’s Methodism particularly appealing?
A.
He favored overthrowing abusive governments.
B.
He advocated tender loving care for children.
C.
He refuted the doctrine of predestination, insisting that anyone who earnestly sought salvation could gain it.
D.
He allowed alcohol consumption, which other sects did not.
 

 34. 

How did the evangelicals within the Church of England respond to the rise of Methodism?
A.
They sought to have Methodism outlawed and its practitioners arrested.
B.
They copied Methodism’s practices in order to appeal to more of the common people.
C.
They hired a new collection of younger priests to attract more youth.
D.
They required that all parishes must instruct the young in literacy and church doctrine.
 

 35. 

Why did the persecution of witches slowly come to an end by the late eighteenth century?
A.
Common people in the countryside adopted Enlightenment ideas and practices.
B.
Most people were preoccupied with the consumer revolution.
C.
The spread of literacy undermined the old superstitions.
D.
Elites increasingly dismissed fears of witchcraft and refused to prosecute suspected witches.
 

 36. 

Why did surgeons in the eighteenth century face incredible difficulties?
A.
They had only limited opportunities to practice surgical techniques.
B.
Surgery was performed in utterly unsanitary conditions, which meant the simplest wound could become infected and lead to death.
C.
They were reluctant to improve their knowledge of anatomy.
D.
All operations were performed with anesthesia, but it was difficult to use and caused many deaths.
 

 37. 

Eighteenth-century blood sports such as bullbaiting and cockfighting were
A.
strictly forbidden by laws passed against abuse of animals.
B.
popular with the European masses.
C.
regarded by almost all Europeans as examples of primitive behavior that should be condemned in an Age of Enlightenment.
D.
principally sponsored by betting syndicates that viewed them as highly lucrative sources of income.
 

 38. 

Europeans believed grain and bread should be available at
A.
a just price—one that was fair to both consumers and producers.
B.
a price average people could pay, even if it meant producers took a loss.
C.
whatever price the government chose to impose.
D.
whatever price the church recommended.
 

 39. 

Why did Pietism, which began in Germany in the late seventeenth century, appeal to people?
A.
It emphasized a warm and emotional religion.
B.
It offered a guarantee of salvation.
C.
It was favored by secular authorities.
D.
It preached a highly rational approach to religion.
 

 40. 

What was the Catholic version of Pietism?
A.
Methodism
B.
Jansenism
C.
Faith healing
D.
Charivari
 

 41. 

One of the century's most influential works on child-reading was Emile; or, On Education by
A.
John Wesley.
B.
Edward Jenner.
C.
Madame du Coudray.
D.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 42. 

In Primary Source 18.2, what does The Catechism of Health for the Use of Schools and for Domestic Instruction recommend for infants?
A.
Wet-nursing
B.
Swaddling
C.
Covering their heads
D.
Keeping them dry and clean
 

 43. 

In Primary Source 18.5: Advice to Methodists, what does John Wesley include under “Strictness of Life”?
A.
Praying several times each day
B.
Noting the faults of those who are present or not present
C.
Abstaining from fashionable diversions
D.
Showing moderation in drinking spirituous liquors
 

 44. 

According to Primary Source 18.4: The Fashion Merchant, why did some courtiers object to Rose Bertin’s relationship with Queen Marie Antoinette?
A.
They disliked Bertin’s success as an entrepreneur.
B.
They thought Bertin was overly proud, even arrogant.
C.
They objected to the idea that Bertin and the queen were collaborators rather than monarch and subject.
D.
They disagreed with Bertin’s refusal to work for non-noble customers.
 

 45. 

Why might Map 18.1: Literacy in France, ca. 1789 show the literacy rate to be relatively high in the area close to the capital city of Paris?

mc045-1.jpg
A.
Proximity to the royal court would encourage the growth of literacy.
B.
The concentration of wealth in the area of the capital would help to support a high rate of literacy.
C.
Educational facilities, publishing houses, and a vibrant intellectual life in Paris would work to assist the growth of literacy in nearby areas.
D.
The support of high church officials headquartered in Paris would help to enable a relatively high rate of literacy.
 

 46. 

What factor explains the existence of several other areas of high literacy rates in France, as depicted in Map 18.1: Literacy in France, ca. 1789?

mc046-1.jpg
A.
The existence of Catholic monastic groups such as the Jesuits
B.
Royal favor that provided resources not available elsewhere in France
C.
Urbanization that might also feature extensive commerce and manufacture
D.
Large military facilities
 

 47. 

What factor explains areas of relatively low literacy rates, as depicted in Map 18.1: Literacy in France, ca. 1789?

mc047-1.jpg
A.
Regional traditions
B.
Policies of the Catholic Church established for the region
C.
The focus on agriculture in the region
D.
Policies established for the region by the royal court
 

 48. 

Map 18.1: Literacy in France, ca. 1789 does not include any information on female literacy rates. What other information is excluded from this map?

mc048-1.jpg
A.
That there were trends in French literacy rates over time
B.
That literacy rates vary considerably by region
C.
That some areas have very low rates of literacy
D.
That literacy rates in some areas are unknown
 



 
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