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Chapter 19 Test



 1. 

Who wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Man (1790) and A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), the latter a founding text of the feminist movement?
A.
Olympe de Gouges
B.
Mary Wollstonecraft
C.
Abigail Adams
D.
Émilie du Châtelet
 

 2. 

What occurred during the Hundred Days in France?
A.
The sans-culottes committed the September Massacres.
B.
Napoleon was driven from Russia.
C.
Napoleon returned from exile to rule France briefly.
D.
The Reign of Terror executed 30,000 people.
 

 3. 

How did America’s Constitutional Convention of 1787 deal with the discord between pro- and anti-slavery delegates?
A.
It took no action because many delegates believed slavery would end in the near future as it became less and less profitable.
B.
It compromised by stipulating that an enslaved person would count as three-fifths of a person for purposes of taxation and proportional representation in the House of Representatives.
C.
It decided that slavery would not be permitted in new states formed after the Constitution’s ratification.
D.
It decided that a new state would make the decision whether to permit slavery itself before seeking admission to the Union.
 

 4. 

In the eighteenth century, many liberal thinkers believed that representative institutions could defend the liberty and interests of the people. What did this mean in terms of political practice?
A.
Voting for representatives would be restricted to men of property.
B.
All adult males would be eligible to vote for representatives.
C.
Only members of the hereditary nobility would be eligible to vote for representatives.
D.
The clergy would not be eligible to vote.
 

 5. 

Louis XV damaged the sense of his sacred authority by
A.
allowing his common-born mistress to exercise tremendous influence culturally and politically.
B.
attempting to remove his rightful son as his successor and name one of his illegitimate children as heir to the throne.
C.
refusing to take Holy Communion because the Catholic Church claimed that he had illegally seized church property.
D.
granting freedom of worship to Protestants and Jews, in violation of Roman Catholic law.
 

 6. 

Why did Great Britain seek to raise taxes on its American colonies in the 1760s?
A.
The rising cost of increasingly elaborate court ceremonies forced the government to seek tax increases on all its territories.
B.
After doubling its national debt in the Seven Years’ War, Great Britain sought to tax the American colonies to fund the further defense of the colonies.
C.
British merchant shipping to the colonies was under increased attack from pirates and hostile forces, requiring the British to provide expensive naval convoys.
D.
Great Britain sought to prepare the colonies for eventual independence by establishing local governments with existing systems of taxation.
 

 7. 

Why was France unable to manage its debt in the eighteenth century, even though that debt was much smaller, relative to its population, than the debt of either Great Britain or Holland?
A.
France lacked trained and experienced financial officers, supported by accounting and bookkeeping staffs, who could direct state credit systems.
B.
France’s economic and political elites lacked a large pool of available capital from which the government could borrow.
C.
France lacked a central bank and paper currency.
D.
France failed to adopt the use of bonds to arrange for long-term debt, believing that such financial instruments demonstrated government weakness.
 

 8. 

Why did the Directory continue French wars of conquest begun by early revolutionary governments?
A.
The Directory had an ideological commitment to liberate all of Europe from aristocratic domination.
B.
The Directory feared that without French intervention, Russia would dominate the continent.
C.
The Directory understood that big, victorious armies kept men employed.
D.
The Directory gave in to demands of the nationalistic populace.
 

 9. 

The National Assembly that ruled France from 1789 to 1791 passed laws that
A.
eliminated women’s right to hold property.
B.
made divorce more difficult.
C.
broadened women’s rights to seek divorce and inherit property.
D.
declared all men and women to be equal.
 

 10. 

The attack on the Bastille had what political effect?
A.
The king’s plans to reassert his authority were forestalled, permitting the National Assembly to continue its work.
B.
The National Assembly dissolved the monarchy and arrested the king for treason against the nation.
C.
The peasantry revolted in the Great Fear and attacked noble manors across France.
D.
The Parlement dissolved the National Assembly until the people of Paris returned the Bastille to royal control.
 

 11. 

In the wake of the Great Fear in the summer of 1789, the National Assembly restored order by
A.
calling up army and militia units to suppress the rebellious peasants.
B.
promising to reestablish the control on bread prices.
C.
reducing taxes on agricultural products.
D.
abolishing all of the old noble and church privileges.
 

 12. 

Who forced the king and the royal family to abandon Versailles and return to Paris?
A.
The peasants involved in the Great Fear
B.
Several thousand Parisian women
C.
The rioters of the Bastille
D.
The National Assembly
 

 13. 

The Abbé Sieyès considered the third estate
A.
a bunch of rabble-rousers.
B.
the true strength of the French nation.
C.
those who adhered to liberalism.
D.
the business and professional elite.
 

 14. 

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guaranteed
A.
the abolition of monopolies, guilds, and workers’ associations.
B.
religious toleration to French Jews and Protestants.
C.
elimination of all barriers to trade within France.
D.
equality before the law.
 

 15. 

How did the reaction of kings and nobles in continental Europe toward the French Revolution change over the revolution’s first two years?
A.
Initially pleased by the revolution’s weakening of France, they came to feel threatened by its increasingly radical message.
B.
Initially confused by the claims of the revolutionaries, they came to embrace most of their ideas as representing solid Enlightenment thought.
C.
Initially fearful of the revolution’s chaos, they came to support the effort to implement needed reforms in France.
D.
Initially pleased by the revolution’s embrace of Enlightenment ideas, they came to fear the idea of nationalism spread by the revolution.
 

 16. 

How did the delegates to the Legislative Assembly that convened in October 1791 differ from the delegates to the Estates General/National Assembly?
A.
They were more experienced politicians with a strong commitment to reforming the nation.
B.
They were younger and less cautious; many joined political clubs.
C.
They were more sympathetic to the monarchy.
D.
They were drawn mostly from the provinces and rural countryside.
 

 17. 

How did French armies during the French Revolution offer a mixed message to the people they conquered?
A.
They presented themselves as liberators to the peasants and middle class but seemed more like foreign invaders as they requisitioned food and supplies and plundered local treasure.
B.
They promised to retain local tradition and institutions but removed all of the older nobility and eliminated the power of the Catholic Church.
C.
They spoke of peace and prosperity but instituted harsh purges of all political opponents and high new taxes to pay for the army.
D.
They chose not to seize territory permanently for France but began to appoint French military commanders as new nobles in conquered lands.
 

 18. 

What was the goal of the Committee of Public Safety?
A.
To build a coalition of provincial leaders in order to suppress rebellions in France
B.
To establish a secret police force in order to institute the Reign of Terror
C.
To use dictatorial powers to respond to threats to France from without and within
D.
To investigate the army in order to weed out disloyal officers and ensure its obedience to the Legislative Assembly
 

 19. 

In the 1780s, over 50 percent of France’s annual budget was expended on
A.
the military.
B.
the royal court.
C.
interest payments on the debt.
D.
bread subsidies for the poor.
 

 20. 

The legal definition of the composition of the prerevolutionary third estate included
A.
everyone who was not a noble or member of the clergy.
B.
members of the clergy.
C.
all commoners
D.
members of the nobility.
 

 21. 

By July 1794, how had the central government in Paris managed to reassert control over the provinces and gain momentum against the First Coalition?
A.
It used its control over bread supplies to starve the provinces into obedience.
B.
It bribed local officials by placing them into high government offices.
C.
It harnessed the explosive forces of a planned economy, revolutionary terror, and modern nationalism into a total war effort.
D.
It negotiated peace arrangements with all of the provinces, offering them control over conquered foreign territories.
 

 22. 

The men elected to represent the third estate at the Estates General were primarily
A.
provincial nobles.
B.
businessmen.
C.
lawyers and government officials.
D.
wealthy peasants.
 

 23. 

As the Jacobins gained power, what was their reaction to women’s political activity?
A.
They banned all women’s political activity, which they believed to be disorderly and a distraction from women’s proper domestic duties.
B.
They permitted women to participate as passive citizens, without the right to vote but allowed to participate in public debate and gatherings.
C.
They permitted women who agreed with Jacobin principles the right to full participation in political life.
D.
They welcomed women as full political actors in their own right and with full civil liberties.
 

 24. 

Why did the French commissioners in Saint-Domingue abolish slavery in 1793?
A.
They were required by the Committee of Public Safety to apply the principles of liberty and equality to all French lands.
B.
The British and Spanish had already outlawed slavery; the French commissionaires feared a rebellion if they did not do likewise.
C.
They were captured by slave armies and forced to issue the edict abolishing slavery.
D.
They were desperate to rally the rebel slaves to the French cause against the Spanish and English forces on the island.
 

 25. 

Why did members of the National Convention turn against Robespierre on the Ninth of Thermidor?
A.
They believed that Robespierre was soon to proclaim himself the new king of France.
B.
They believed that Robespierre intended to extend the ideals of the Revolution so that slaves would be freed and Jews accepted as full citizens.
C.
They believed that Robespierre might soon have them arrested and executed.
D.
They believed that Robespierre had betrayed the revolution by accepting bribes from Great Britain.
 

 26. 

Which of the following correctly identifies Napoleon Bonaparte’s background?
A.
He came from an impoverished Sardinian family.
B.
He trained as a lawyer before joining the military.
C.
He won brilliant victories in Italy in 1796 and 1797.
D.
His campaign in Egypt was a great military success.
 

 27. 

What two fundamental principles of the French Revolution were incorporated into the Napoleonic Code?
A.
The ideal of nationalism and the guarantee of civil rights to all people
B.
The rejection of monarchy and the adoption of republicanism
C.
The equality of all male citizens before the law and the absolute security of wealth and private property
D.
The abolition of slavery and the recognition of freedom of religion
 

 28. 

The string of French military victories after the winter of 1793–94 owed largely to
A.
superior generalship.
B.
patriotism and the superior numbers supplied by the draft.
C.
superior French technology and tactics.
E. French control of the seas.
 

 29. 

What caused the life-and-death political struggle between the Girondists and the Mountain?
A.
The Girondists’ rejection of war
B.
The Girondists’ radical economic and social policies
C.
The Girondists’ more moderate policies
D.
Religious differences
 

 30. 

In the summer of 1789, the National Assembly was driven toward more radical action by
A.
Maximilien de Robespierre’s brilliant rhetoric.
B.
King Louis XVI’s attempted flight from France.
C.
revolutionary actions of French peasants and the common people of Paris.
D.
the completion of the American constitution.
 

 31. 

How did the Concordat resolve the crisis over Catholicism in France in the Napoleonic era?
A.
The Catholic Church was again recognized as the state religion, which all citizens had to embrace or face prosecution under the law.
B.
The Catholic Church reclaimed full authority over the appointment of church officials, while the French state gained the right to oversee church finances.
C.
The Catholic Church gained the right to practice religion freely, while the French state gained greater control over the nomination of church officers and church activities.
D.
The Catholic Church promised to promote French nationalism, while the French state agreed to abandon efforts to control church doctrine.
 

 32. 

How did Napoleon consolidate his rule?
A.
He appealed both to disillusioned revolutionaries and members of the old nobility and offered them high posts in the expanding centralized state.
B.
He imposed harsh martial law that permitted no expression of dissent.
C.
He presented himself as a true Son of the Revolution in contrast to the corruption of the Directory.
D.
He expanded certain civil rights, such as freedom of speech and freedom of the press.
 

 33. 

Why was the Declaration of Independence so important to the American Revolution?
A.
It emphasized the unyielding response of the British government to American protests.
B.
It universalized the traditional rights of English people and made them the rights of all mankind.
C.
It was a stirring indictment of the Loyalists and their failure to support the revolution.
D.
It was a brilliant summation of the ideas in Thomas Paine’s Common Sense.
 

 34. 

What was the economic effect of Napoleon’s Continental System?
A.
British merchants prospered, for the French merchants were now barred from British colonies.
B.
British merchants and craftsmen lost their major market, deeply harming the British economy and the British tax base for its wars against France.
C.
French merchants and manufacturers profited from the monopoly they now held on continental trade.
D.
French artisans and the middle class suffered, for they were economically damaged by the blockade of Great Britain.
 

 35. 

According to Olympe de Gouges,
A.
women should enjoy special rights and privileges.
B.
men and women should be equal in the eyes of the law.
C.
monarchy was the most oppressive form of government.
D.
it was natural to exclude women from the political process.
 

 36. 

How did the National Assembly respond to the hopes and expectations of Saint-Domingue’s different social groups?
A.
It granted free people of color political enfranchisement and equal status with whites.
B.
It granted the Creole elite a representative form of government that offered them the chance to gain control of their affairs.
C.
It responded to the wishes of the 90 percent of the population who were enslaved by abolishing slavery.
D.
It frustrated the hopes of all the different social groups.
 

 37. 

After the arrest and deportation of Toussaint L’Ouverture, how was the war of Haitian Independence resolved?
A.
A rival to L’Ouverture, André Rigaud, defeated the French forces and declared Haitian independence.
B.
The Spanish invaded from their colony of Santo Domingo, defeated the French, and allowed the formation of the sovereign nation of Haiti.
C.
Jean-Jacques Dessalines, L’Ouverture’s lieutenant, led the resistance to a crushing victory over the French and later declared Haitian independence.
D.
The British invaded Saint-Domingue and, after defeating the French, allowed the Haitians to form the sovereign nation of Haiti.
 

 38. 

The Loyalist faction in the American Revolution
A.
were concentrated in New England and Virginia.
B.
tended to be wealthy and politically moderate.
C.
were mostly slave owners.
D.
were mainly poor and uneducated.
 

 39. 

Why did the Antifederalists oppose the new American constitution proposed by the Constitutional Convention?
A.
They feared for the individual freedoms for which they had fought.
B.
They worried that the individual states were too strong and the federal government too weak.
C.
They were disappointed that the constitution did not call for the abolition of slavery.
D.
They believed it was a mistake not to extend the vote to women.
 

 40. 

Who predicted in Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) that reform like that occurring in France would lead only to chaos and tyranny?
A.
Mary Wollstonecraft
B.
Thomas Paine
C.
Edmund Burke
D.
Abbé de Sieyès
 

 41. 

What was Napoleon’s Grand Empire?
A.
An enlarged France and several satellite kingdoms, on the thrones of which Napoleon placed members of his family.
B.
An enlarged France and the independent but allied states of Austria, Prussia, and Russia.
C.
An enlarged France, a number of satellite kingdoms, and the independent but allied states of Austria, Prussia, and Russia.
D.
An enlarged France, parts of northern Italy, and German territories on the east bank of the Rhine.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 42. 

In Primary Source 19.1, what does Abigail Adams want John Adams to do when she asks him to “remember the ladies”?
A.
To include in the new code of laws some protection for women
B.
To grant women full political rights
C.
To fight against the possibility of tyranny and unlimited power in politics
D.
To finish his work at the Continental Congress as quickly as possible and return home
 

 43. 

In Primary Source 19.2: What Is the Third Estate?, what does the Abbé de Sieyès say about the third estate?
A.
The first and second estates have always unfairly dominated the third estate.
B.
The third estate wants to have the same privileges the second estate has.
C.
The third estate is much larger than the first and the second estates.
D.
The third estate contains everything that pertains to the nation, and thus it is everything.
 

 44. 

In Primary Source 19.3: Petition of the French Jews, what is the main argument for citizenship?
A.
Jews have no way to make a living unless they become citizens.
B.
Extending citizenship to the French Jews would be the Christian thing to do.
C.
If Protestants were granted civil rights, so, too, French Jews should be granted those same civil rights.
D.
Since civil rights are independent from religious principles, all men are equally able to serve the fatherland and should have the title of citizen.
 

 45. 

In Primary Source 19.5: Napoleon’s Proclamation to the French People, Napoleon claims to be
A.
a skilled politician.
B.
a soldier of liberty.
C.
a member of the Jacobin Club.
D.
a member of a faction.
 

 46. 

List the satellite states found on Map 19.2: Napoleonic Europe in 1812.

mc046-1.jpg
A.
The Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Norway and Denmark
B.
Prussia, the Kingdom of Sweden, and Great Britain
C.
The Confederation of the Rhine, the Kingdom of Italy, and the Kingdom of Naples
D.
Spain, the Kingdom of Naples, the Kingdom of Italy, the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, and the Confederation of the Rhine
 

 47. 

List the countries allied with Napoleon on Map 19.2: Napoleonic Europe in 1812.

mc047-1.jpg
A.
The Confederation of the Rhine, the Kingdom of Italy, and the Kingdom of Naples
B.
The Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Norway and Denmark
C.
The Kingdom of Sweden, Prussia, and the Ottoman Empire
D.
Portugal, Spain, and the Kingdom of Sicily
 

 48. 

On Map 19.2: Napoleonic Europe in 1812, which states are not allied with Napoleon?

mc048-1.jpg
A.
Great Britain, Portugal, the Kingdom of Italy, and Russia
B.
The Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Norway and Denmark
C.
Great Britain, Portugal, the Kingdom of Sicily, the Ottoman Empire, and Russia
D.
Great Britain, the Confederation of the Rhine, Prussia, and Russia
 

 49. 

On Map 19.3: The War of Haitian Independence, 1791–1804, where is the first phase of the slave insurrection in 1791 located?

mc049-1.jpg
A.
Near what would become the capital of Haiti, the city of Port-au-Prince
B.
In the area controlled by the forces of André Rigaud from 1794 to 1800
C.
In the area of the capital of Saint-Domingue, Le Cap
D.
In the area invaded by the British in 1793
 



 
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