Name: 
 

Chapter 20 Test



 1. 

Who invented the spinning jenny?
A.
Richard Arkwright
B.
Samuel Crompton
C.
Andrew Ure
D.
James Hargreaves
 

 2. 

How did labor in British families change in the eighteenth century?
A.
Family members increasingly adopted new machines that reduced the time of household labor significantly.
B.
Husbands became more involved in managing the household.
C.
Family members shifted labor away from unpaid work for household consumption and toward work for wages.
D.
Family members increasingly scattered to diverse places of employment, rarely working together.
 

 3. 

How did cotton transform the textile industry?
A.
Cotton provided a more secure source of raw material for textiles than wool or flax, since it was less susceptible to yearly changes in weather or environment.
B.
Cotton was far less expensive than wool or flax, permitting a significant decrease in the cost of new textiles.
C.
Cotton could be spun mechanically with much greater efficiency than wool or flax, helping to solve the shortage of thread for textile production.
D.
Cotton could be produced in far greater quantity than flax or wool because it could be grown in many of the British colonies.
 

 4. 

What did James Watt gain from his partnership with Matthew Boulton?
A.
Skilled workers
B.
Precision parts
C.
Contacts with government officials
D.
Capital and skills in salesmanship.
 

 5. 

The tendency to hire family units in the early factories was
A.
a government-sponsored response to urbanization.
B.
usually a response to the wishes of the families.
C.
replaced by the system of pauper apprenticeship.
D.
outlawed by the Combination Acts.
 

 6. 

Why did eighteenth-century Britain have a shortage of wood?
A.
Wood had been over-harvested; it was the primary source of heat in all homes and a basic raw material in industry.
B.
The new industrial pollution began to destroy traditional old-growth forests.
C.
The vast expansion of the British navy in the wars against France led to a problem of deforestation.
D.
The widespread building of canals and roads required large amounts of wood and had caused many forests to be cut through.
 

 7. 

Thomas Malthus argued in his Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) that
A.
the productivity of the Industrial Revolution would result in a rise in the standard of living.
B.
population tends to increase beyond the means of subsistence.
C.
government programs are necessary to prevent distress.
D.
capitalism will prevent distress through an increase in productivity.
 

 8. 

How did railroads affect the nature of production?
A.
The speed of rail travel required manufacturers to adopt more regularized work routines.
B.
Railroads permitted factories to be established anywhere, without concern for access to other resources.
C.
The availability of raw materials became more secure, supporting greater investment in machinery.
D.
Markets become broader, encouraging manufacturers to create larger factories with more sophisticated machines.
 

 9. 

What did Henry Cort develop?
A.
The first locomotive, after much experimentation
B.
The first commercial steam ship, initially used in North America
C.
The puddling furnace, which allowed pig iron to be refined with coke
D.
The steam engine, which became a major factor in the Industrial Revolution
 

 10. 

What was the result of the development of the British economy between 1780 and 1851?
A.
Much of the growth in the gross national product was eaten up by population growth.
B.
The large increase in wages resulted in a vast increase in personal consumption.
C.
Average consumption per person decreased as industrial work drove down wages.
D.
The large growth in population caused the gross national product to remain stagnant.
 

 11. 

What did the Mines Act of 1842 prohibit?
A.
The use of Irish laborers in English mines
B.
Underground work for all women and girls as well as boys under ten
C.
Night work in the mines
D.
Work shifts longer than eight hours
 

 12. 

David Ricardo’s iron law of wages states that
A.
wages always move in proportion to productivity in the workplace.
B.
the pressure of population growth will always sink wages to subsistence DIFF: Level.
C.
wages of the working class always rise as a percentage of the wages of the upper classes.
D.
population growth creates more highly talented people who produce greater profits.
 

 13. 

What was the major breakthrough in energy and power supplies that catalyzed the Industrial Revolution?
A.
Thomas Newcomen’s 1705 steam engine
B.
The development of the internal combustion engine
C.
The use of running water to power cotton-spinning machinery
D.
James Watt’s development of the steam engine between the 1760s and the 1780s.
 

 14. 

How did industry grow in continental Europe?
A.
Belgium led continental Europe in adopting British technology for production.
B.
Following the Napoleonic Wars, France experienced a boom in factory production as the economy shifted from wartime to peacetime production.
C.
Russia industrialized very rapidly once the serfs were emancipated in 1861.
D.
Austria-Hungary made almost no progress in industrialization in the nineteenth century.
 

 15. 

In nineteenth-century Germany, Fritz Harkort sought
A.
to demonstrate that widespread economic growth could be achieved through agricultural development without having to develop industry.
B.
to develop a private academy that would train engineers for industrial production.
C.
to match English achievements in machine production as quickly as possible, even at great, unprofitable expense.
D.
to lead a revolt by artisan craftsmen against the introduction of machine technology.
 

 16. 

In the nineteenth century, Friedrich List believed that industrial development should be pursued
A.
as part of a project of economic nationalism led by the state.
B.
only in those regions of the nation where natural resources were easily available.
C.
through the laissez-faire tradition of free trade and independence from government interference.
D.
as a supplement to agricultural development but never as a goal in itself.
 

 17. 

How did class-consciousness form during the Industrial Revolution?
A.
Industrial workers were forced into ever-larger factories that provided the opportunity for them to recognize their common plight.
B.
Forward-thinking radicals educated the laboring classes in the Marxist doctrine.
C.
As modern industry created conflict between industrialists and laborers, individuals came to believe that classes existed and developed a sense of class feeling.
D.
The government acted to protect the position and wealth of the new industrialists.
 

 18. 

The Great Exhibition of 1851 commemorated the
A.
industrial dominance of Britain.
B.
half-century of labor reforms in Britain.
C.
creation of the German Zollverein.
D.
launch of the Great Eastern Railroad.
 

 19. 

How did the origins of industrialists change as the Industrial Revolution progressed?
A.
More industrialists emerged from the working classes as they became familiar with the new machine technology.
B.
More industrialists emerged from the working classes, as creditors recognized the vast profits in new enterprises and were willing to assume more risk in new ventures.
C.
Industrialists increasingly emerged from the migrant communities, who carried new technologies across borders.
D.
It became harder to form new firms, and instead industrialists were increasingly likely to have inherited their wealth.
 

 20. 

Who was William Cockerill?
A.
The inventor of the spinning jenny
B.
The chief financial backer of the first commercial railway in England
C.
An English carpenter who built cotton-spinning equipment in Belgium
D.
The prime minister of Britain who opposed the Factory Act of 1833
 

 21. 

Who were the Luddites?
A.
Irish peasants who formed secret societies against British landowners
B.
Dutch agricultural workers who rebelled against their falling standard of living in comparison to the urban workers
C.
British handicraft workers who attacked factories and destroyed machinery they believed were putting them out of work
D.
Scottish Highlanders who formed community groups that worked building railroads across Great Britain
 

 22. 

What was the key development in the eighteenth century that allowed continental banks to shed their earlier conservative nature?
A.
Industrialization of the Continent
B.
Establishment of limited liability investment
C.
Recruitment of bank deposits from the landed aristocracy
D.
Influx of British investment
 

 23. 

Why were cottage workers, accustomed to the putting-out system, reluctant to work in the new factories even when they received good wages?
A.
Cottage workers liked the paternalistic relationship they had with the merchant capitalist.
B.
In a factory, workers had to keep up with the machine and follow its relentless tempo.
C.
Working in a factory meant getting up very early every day.
D.
Cottage workers wanted to remain close to their local parish church.
 

 24. 

In The Condition of the Working Class in England, Friedrich Engels stated that
A.
the British middle classes were guilty of “mass murder” and “wholesale robbery.”
B.
in general, the living conditions of the working class were “slowly improving.”
C.
the class-consciousness of the working class would lead to “social revolution.”
D.
“the working class was itself responsible” for most of the problems its members faced.
 

 25. 

The Factory Act of 1833 constituted a major victory in the prevention of the exploitation of children in that it
A.
allowed children ten and older to work only if they worked with their family.
B.
banned children under nine years of age from employment.
C.
banned children under fourteen years of age from employment.
D.
allowed children aged fourteen to eighteen to work a maximum of eight hours a day.
 

 26. 

Owing to the Industrial Revolution, living and working conditions for the poor
A.
stagnated or even deteriorated until around 1850.
B.
improved only after 1820.
C.
deteriorated throughout the nineteenth century.
D.
changed little during the nineteenth century.
 

 27. 

What was an effect of the Factory Act of 1833?
A.
It limited the work of children and thereby broke the pattern of families working together in factories.
B.
It required employers to keep logs of all work-related injuries and accidents and provide copies to local authorities.
C.
It established the first minimum wage for workers, although it did not apply to children.
D.
It authorized workers to form unions if the factory had more than twenty-five employees.
 

 28. 

In the “separate spheres” pattern of gender relationships,
A.
women were expected to produce sufficient income for the family to provide for themselves.
B.
women generally stopped working outside of the home after the first child was born.
C.
men took on significant childcare and domestic roles so that women could work outside of the home.
D.
women increasingly gained access to employment opportunities that had traditionally been reserved for men.
 

 29. 

How did older members of the population seek to control the sexuality of working-class youths?
A.
They supported the establishment of sex-segregated employment.
B.
They required women to offer proof of virginity in order to obtain a position in a factory.
C.
They established stiff fines and punishments for extramarital sex.
D.
They required factory owners to build workers’ dormitories with strict curfews and lockdowns.
 

 30. 

Which law outlawed labor unions and strikes in Britain?
A.
Factory Act of 1833
B.
Mines Act of 1842
C.
Coercive Acts of 1766
D.
Combination Acts of 1799
 

 31. 

The reformer Robert Owens sought to
A.
create a single large national union for British workers.
B.
defend the rights of private property against socialist claims.
C.
free laborers from the restrictions of the Factory Acts.
D.
form a committee of industrialists to advise the government on industrial policy.
 

 32. 

In the eighteenth century, railroad construction on the European continent
A.
was much cheaper than it had been in Britain.
B.
featured varying degrees of government involvement.
C.
was generally the work of private entrepreneurs.
D.
generally followed the British pattern.
 

 33. 

What was the key demand of the Chartist movement?
A.
Employers must be required to provide basic education for child workers under the age of ten.
B.
All women must be paid equally to men.
C.
Britain must permit the import of grain without duties attached in order to keep food prices low.
D.
All men must be given the right to vote.
 

 34. 

In 1850, in what occupational area did the largest number of British people work?
A.
Artisans and skilled craftsmen
B.
Factory and industrial labor
C.
Farming and agriculture
D.
Transportation
 

 35. 

What major problem in the textile industry was solved by the inventions of James Hargreaves and Richard Arkwright?
A.
Spinners were producing far more thread than weavers could use.
B.
A weaver required several spinners to stay steadily employed.
C.
Neither spinners nor weavers could keep up with the enormous demand for cotton cloth.
D.
Merchants who ran the putting-out system required a better system of transportation of raw materials and finished goods.
 

 36. 

How did iron become the basic building block of the British economy in the nineteenth century?
A.
The spread of coke smelting and the development of steam-powered rolling mills increased production enormously and reduced the price of iron products.
B.
Government-funded research led the way in the development of inexpensive processes for the production of iron products.
C.
British capitalists used new techniques developed in American iron foundries to increase the manufacture of inexpensive iron products.
D.
Breakthroughs in Russian iron production dramatically lowered the price of iron early in the nineteenth century.
 

 37. 

Why do many historians now believe that the continued concentration by the French on artisan production of luxury items made sense in an era of industrialization?
A.
France, after a generation of revolution and war, was not in a position to industrialize.
B.
France had long dominated that sector of production; it allowed France to capitalize on its know-how and international reputation.
C.
The large British lead in industrial technology discouraged the French throughout most of the nineteenth century.
D.
The French economy, which was overwhelmingly agricultural and concentrated on small-scale farming, did not lend itself to industrialization.
 

 38. 

Why were the young, generally unmarried women who worked for wages outside the home confined to certain “women’s jobs”?
A.
The sexual division of labor replicated a long-standing pattern of gender segregation and inequality.
B.
Men, as breadwinners for their families, demanded the best and highest-paying jobs.
C.
Governments, concerned that factory work would interfere with the growth of the national population, increasingly regulated what women could do.
D.
Most religions condemned work outside the home for women.
 

 39. 

As the business world grew increasingly complex, what did the wives and daughters of successful businessmen discover in eighteenth-century Europe?
A.
There were still many opportunities for active participation in the business world.
B.
Formal education, from which they were excluded, had become very important as a means of success and advancement in the business world.
C.
There were few job opportunities for women, as most businessmen assumed that middle-class wives and daughters should avoid work in offices and factories.
D.
Governments passed legislation forbidding middle-class women from working in offices and factories.
 

 40. 

In his 1835 study of the cotton industry, what did Andrew Ure conclude about conditions in most factories?
A.
They were terrible but gradually improving.
B.
They were not harsh and even quite good.
C.
They were so bad as to require governmental intervention.
D.
They were problematic only because the workers were lazy and ignorant.
 

 41. 

What was the function of the Crystal Palace?
A.
It was Tsar Alexander I’s answer to Versailles.
B.
It was the location of the Great Exhibition in 1851 in London.
C.
It was the nickname for the Archbishop of Canterbury’s new cathedral.
D.
It was an architectural masterpiece constructed entirely of marble.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 42. 

In Primary Source 20.1: Debate over Child Labor Laws, how did Sir Robert Peel argue against the employment of child laborers in 1818 debates in Parliament?
A.
He asserted that children could not work in a factory for fifteen hours without doing harm to their health and constitution.
B.
He speculated that there could be two shifts of young laborers for every one shift of adults, thus reducing the number of hours worked by children.
C.
While he was concerned about the health of young laborers, he believed they were also free laborers and once the principle of interference with free laborers was admitted, one could not predict how far it might be carried.
D.
In his opinion, the main problem was that factory work stunted the growth of children and made them unfit for recruitment into the army.
 

 43. 

In Primary Source 20.5, what does Sarah Stickney Ellis advise the middle-class woman to do?
A.
Make sure that the servants understand what they are required to do during the day
B.
Plan the day so that it will be as entertaining as possible
C.
Think about how best to help those who need assistance
D.
Meet with friends for tea and talk about the latest scandals involving acquaintances from the same social circle
 

 44. 

In Primary Source 20.3: The Testimony of Young Mine Workers, what do Ann Eggley, eighteen years old, and Patience Kershaw, aged seventeen, have in common?
A.
Neither girl has learned to read or write.
B.
Neither girl has had any religious instruction.
C.
Both girls complain of boys taking liberties with them.
D.
Both girls have lost their fathers and are therefore compelled to work in the mines.
 

 45. 

In Primary Source 20.2: Living Conditions of the Working Classes, what common problem is cited in the interviews with the two doctors?
A.
Women have no time for cleaning.
B.
The children are left alone and sometimes go out into the street.
C.
The children are always dirty.
D.
The dwellings are overcrowded.
 

 46. 

On Map 20.1: The Industrial Revolution in England, ca. 1850, what appears to be the largest industrial area?

mc046-1.jpg
A.
London
B.
The area surrounding Manchester and Liverpool
C.
The area surrounding Sheffield
D.
The area surrounding Bristol
 

 47. 

Based on Map 20.1: The Industrial Revolution in England, ca. 1850, what appears to be the most important components of the Industrial Revolution other than coalmining?

mc047-1.jpg
A.
Pottery, iron, and machinery
B.
Machinery and consumer goods
C.
Machinery, hardware, and iron
D.
Textiles, iron, and machinery
 

 48. 

Based on Map 20.2: Continental Industrialization, ca. 1850, where are the most important emerging industrial areas in France located?

mc048-1.jpg
A.
Bordeaux, Nantes, Mulhouse
B.
Le Havre, Rouen, Paris
C.
Lille, Paris, Nantes
D.
Paris, Lyons, Lille
 

 49. 

Based on Map 20.2: Continental Industrialization, ca. 1850, where is the largest emerging industrial area located?

mc049-1.jpg
A.
The Ruhr
B.
Prague
C.
Berlin
D.
Paris
 



 
Check Your Work     Start Over