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Chapter 21 Test



 1. 

At the Congress of Vienna, the victorious allies
A.
were guided by the principle of the balance of power.
B.
resurrected the Holy Roman Empire.
C.
treated France harshly.
D.
established constitutional monarchies in the areas conquered by Napoleon.
 

 2. 

The allied powers at the Congress of Vienna were determined to
A.
punish France for its role in the recent wars.
B.
extract war reparations.
C.
avoid the creation of hostility and resentment in France.
D.
create a number of new nation-states.
 

 3. 

The Karlsbad Decrees of 1819
A.
established a free trade zone within the German Confederation and offered economic privileges to member states.
B.
created a legislature that united all of the German states but left real decision-making authority with local rulers.
C.
defined an idea of German nationalism built around a common language, culture, and set of values.
D.
required members of the German Confederation to root out subversive ideas and to spy on liberal and radical organizations.
 

 4. 

What did Klemens von Metternich and Alexander I proclaim at the Troppau Conference in 1820?
A.
Their willingness to allow the establishment of constitutional monarchies as long as male suffrage remained limited to the elite
B.
Their agreement to send Austrian troops to crush the revolution in Spain
C.
Their support for the principle of active intervention to maintain all autocratic regimes whenever threatened
D.
Their refusal to allow France to intervene in the revolutions in the Spanish colonies in Latin America
 

 5. 

What did the early French socialist thinkers find disturbing about the emerging industrial society?
A.
They believed that machine technology dehumanized industrial workers.
B.
They believed that industrial society fomented selfish individualism and split the community into isolated fragments.
C.
They believed that industrial society separated humans from the rhythms of nature through which the human spirit was continually restored.
D.
They believed that industrial society promoted a meaningless consumerism that was corrosive to human values.
 

 6. 

Why did Klemens von Metternich, as Austrian foreign minister, have to oppose the spread of nationalism in Europe?
A.
As a classical liberal, he feared that it would lead to intolerance and violence.
B.
Austria’s rulers feared the power of a resurgent nationalist Ottoman Empire.
C.
Austria pursued a policy of free trade, which was incompatible with economic nationalism.
D.
Austria was a multiethnic empire, and the spread of nationalism among its different ethnic groups threatened to dissolve the empire.
 

 7. 

The romantic movement was characterized by
A.
a belief in emotional exuberance and unrestrained imagination.
B.
the application of the scientific method to the study of nature.
C.
an emphasis on reason.
D.
a life that was restrained and orderly.
 

 8. 

The romantic poet William Wordsworth conceived of poetry as the
A.
coded identification of social norms designed as a puzzle to be solved.
B.
spontaneous overflow of powerful feeling recollected in tranquility.
C.
light and airy demonstration of wit meant to express social conflicts.
D.
structured use of rhyme and meter to clarify the expression of ideas.
 

 9. 

Romantics and early nationalists investigated folk songs, folk tales, and proverbs in order to
A.
disprove the value of folk wisdom in their promotion of Enlightenment rationalism.
B.
find the unique greatness of every people in its folk culture.
C.
identify fundamental stories and themes that could be used by governments to manipulate the population.
D.
demonstrate the superiority of their culture over other cultures.
 

 10. 

In their war of independence against the Ottoman Empire, the Greeks ultimately won the support of
A.
Austria, Prussia, and Russia.
B.
Austria.
C.
the Netherlands and Great Britain.
D.
Great Britain, France, and Russia.
 

 11. 

Composers in the romantic movement
A.
adopted folk music as the foundation for classical symphonies.
B.
decreased the size of orchestras to small, intimate groupings that could better complement each musician’s emotions while performing.
C.
abandoned well-defined structures and used a wide range of forms to evoke powerful emotions.
D.
developed a series of key models and structures in order to create an emotional repertoire in their music.
 

 12. 

Many Europeans and Americans embraced the Greek Revolution because
A.
of a love of Greek classical culture.
B.
they saw the liberation of Greece as a Christian crusade.
C.
their merchants sought access to Greek markets for trade.
D.
they believed they could try out utopian ideals in a liberated Greece.
 

 13. 

What was one of Karl Marx’s most important criticisms of the French utopian socialists?
A.
Several of them were of noble birth.
B.
They underestimated the intelligence of the working classes.
C.
Central economic planning was inefficient.
D.
Their utopian schemes were not realistic.
 

 14. 

Karl Marx argued that socialism would be established
A.
through electoral victories and control of legislatures.
B.
by violent revolution.
C.
by the cooperation of all classes to alleviate poverty and exploitation.
D.
through the efforts of enlightened rulers.
 

 15. 

According to the doctrine of laissez faire, the government should intervene in
A.
all aspects of the economy.
B.
industry but not in agriculture.
C.
the economy as little as possible.
D.
agriculture but not in industry.
 

 16. 

According to Joseph Proudhon in the nineteenth century, property was
A.
a natural right.
B.
profit stolen from workers.
C.
a gift from God.
D.
a sign of the owner’s virtue and conscientiousness.
 

 17. 

What did Count Henri de Saint-Simon believe in the nineteenth century?
A.
The key to progress was proper social organization.
B.
Sexual freedom was a necessary component of political freedom.
C.
Nature should be worshiped as a god.
D.
Ownership of private property was a crime.
 

 18. 

The British Corn Laws of 1815 were enacted with the goal of
A.
lowering tariffs on grains in order to provide inexpensive food for the poor.
B.
allowing reciprocal trade between Britain and the United States, marking the formal end of hostilities following the War of 1812.
C.
forbidding the importation of foreign grain unless prices in Britain reached very high DIFF: Levels, selfishly benefiting the aristocratic landowners in Britain.
D.
permitting the importation of food products into Britain only if they had not been cultivated or harvested with slave labor, marking the beginning of British actions to end slavery.
 

 19. 

In the nineteenth century, what did Eugène Delacroix’s work typically feature?
A.
Dramatic, colorful scenes
B.
Portraits of the rich and powerful
C.
The transforming power of industrialization
D.
Gentle Wordsworthian landscapes
 

 20. 

In Great Britain, the Great Reform Bill of 1832
A.
gave greater representation to the new, industrial areas of the nation.
B.
retained electoral districts with very few voters.
C.
quadrupled the number of voters.
D.
granted the right to vote to substantial farmers but not the middle-class urban population.
 

 21. 

What was the driving force in history according to Marx in the nineteenth century?
A.
The unfolding of universal consciousness
B.
The expansion of individual liberty
C.
The economic relationship between classes
D.
The desire for racial and gender equality
 

 22. 

In the nineteenth century, how did Ireland’s population grow despite extreme poverty?
A.
The amount of land a peasant could lease increased with the number of children in his household.
B.
Landlords, believing that large families were guarantees of stability, would only lease land to families with at least five children.
C.
Extensive cultivation of the humble potato
D.
The Industrial Revolution in England created a never-ending source of employment for Ireland's surplus population.
 

 23. 

How did Charles X of France seek to rally political support for himself in 1830?
A.
He expanded voting rights to include nearly all men.
B.
He invaded Algeria and established it as a French territory.
C.
He promoted the Constitutional Charter and then guaranteed civil liberties.
D.
He overturned the law that prohibited the formation of labor unions.
 

 24. 

What was the effect of France’s Constitutional Charter in the post-Napoleonic period?
A.
It marked an effort to reestablish the prerevolutionary society, with the nobility and the Catholic Church reclaiming their authority.
B.
It was a reaction against the Napoleonic regime that had attempted to establish a military police state.
C.
It secured most of the gains made by the middle class and the peasantry during the French Revolution and permitted intellectual and artistic freedom.
D.
It outlined the responsibilities of the Catholic Church as it was reestablished in France after the revolution.
 

 25. 

What was the most important influence on the peaceful mid-century reforms in Great Britain?
A.
Fear of a working-class revolution
B.
The ideas of Karl Marx
C.
The moderating influence of the monarch
D.
Political competition between the aristocracy and the middle class
 

 26. 

In 1848, what reform did the French government refuse that created a sense of class injustice?
A.
Electoral reform
B.
Land redistribution
C.
Repeal of high tariffs on imported food
D.
A minimum wage
 

 27. 

What reform did France’s Second Republic institute in 1848?
A.
The right to vote for all adult men
B.
Louis Blanc’s permanent, government-sponsored cooperative workshops
C.
Establishment of a new revolutionary state, bowing to the demands of artisans and unskilled workers
D.
The right of both men and women to file for divorce
 

 28. 

How did the French provisional government respond to the worsening depression and rising unemployment in 1848?
A.
It expanded the size of the army to provide employment.
B.
It provided free bread and cheese rations in all of the major cities.
C.
It ordered the deportation of all non-French citizens.
D.
It established national workshops to provide employment in public works projects.
 

 29. 

Which social groups comprised the revolutionary alliance during the revolutions of 1848 in Central Europe?
A.
Students and urban workers
B.
Middle-class liberals and the army
C.
The aristocracy and the army
D.
Middle-class liberals and the aristocracy
 

 30. 

In 1848, how did the Hungarian revolutionaries envision a future Hungary?
A.
As a unified, centralized Hungarian nation
B.
As a collection of ethnic groups with cultural independence
C.
As a group of allied states with political autonomy
D.
As a territory divided into noble domains
 

 31. 

During the Prussian revolution in 1848, why did the alliance between middle-class liberals and workers dissolve?
A.
Middle-class liberals reinforced free-trade economic policies that would harm the working class.
B.
Workers demanded a series of democratic and vaguely socialist reforms.
C.
Middle-class liberals instituted high property requirements for voting rights.
D.
Workers demanded property redistribution.
 

 32. 

Why was the Frankfurt Parliament in 1849 unable to create a “Greater Germany”?
A.
It recognized that the more conservative German-speaking parts of the Austrian Empire would never accept the liberal constitution it had drafted.
B.
France and Britain let it be known that they would look with extreme disfavor on the creation of a Greater Germany.
C.
Russia threatened an invasion if the Frankfurt Parliament attempted to create a Greater Germany.
D.
Determined to maintain its empire, Austria would not agree to a Greater Germany that separated German-speaking lands from non-German territories in the empire.
 

 33. 

The Quadruple Alliance, the nations that defeated Napoleon, included
A.
Russia, Prussia, Poland, and Italy.
B.
Austria, Great Britain, Prussia, and Spain.
C.
Prussia, Russia, Spain, and Great Britain.
D.
Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain.
 

 34. 

In December 1825, some 3,000 army officers inspired by liberal ideas staged a protest against which new tsar?
A.
Paul
B.
Nicholas I
C.
Peter III
D.
Ivan IV
E.
Alexander II
 

 35. 

Charles Fourier, a utopian socialist, envisioned mathematically precise communities called “phalanxes” and also urged
A.
government-funded workshops and factories to guarantee full employment.
B.
the abolition of marriage, free unions based only on love, and sexual freedom.
C.
the formation of labor unions.
D.
universal voting rights.
 

 36. 

Germaine de Staël urged the French to throw away worn-out classical models and extolled the spontaneity and enthusiasm of the writer and thinkers of
A.
Russia.
B.
Austria.
C.
Germany
D.
Spain.
 

 37. 

In 1830, an unsuccessful revolution failed to re-create the country of
A.
Switzerland.
B.
Hungary.
C.
Belgium.
D.
Poland.
 

 38. 

What was the result of the “June Days” in France in 1848?
A.
The decision to abandon universal male suffrage and elect a new Constituent Assembly based on a limited electorate
B.
The invitation to Louis Napoleon, the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, to become emperor of France
C.
The triumph of the republican army under General Louis Cavaignac, after street fighting and the death or injury of more than ten thousand people
D.
The invasion of France by Prussia, which led to the restoration of Louis Philippe
 

 39. 

In 1849, the revolution in Hungary was brought under control with the help of 130,000 troops sent by
A.
the Kingdom of Prussia.
B.
the Russian Empire.
C.
the French Republic.
D.
the Ottoman Empire.
 

 40. 

Victor Hugo’s political evolution was exactly the opposite of Wordsworth’s, whose
A.
youthful radicalism gave way to middle-aged caution.
B.
immature nihilism evolved into an optimistic acceptance of things as they were.
C.
aggressive nationalism changed to a pacific universalism.
D.
utopian socialism transmuted into a convinced anarchism.
 

 41. 

The Chartist movement in Britain in the 1830s and 1840s demanded
A.
laws to forbid employing Irish workers in English factories.
B.
universal male suffrage.
C.
expansion of the military forces of Great Britain as a means of dealing with widespread unemployment.
D.
tariffs to keep foreign products from competing with domestic production.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 42. 

Read Primary Source 21.1: Metternich: Conservative Reaction in the German Confederation. How did the Karlsbad Decrees affect the universities and the press throughout the German Confederation?
A.
They appointed a commission that would provide guidance on teaching methods in the universities.
B.
They provided that no publication appearing in the form of daily issues shall go to press without the approval of state officials.
C.
They called for a special representative of the ruler of each state to assume responsibility for the administration of the universities within that state.
D.
They abolished all publications within the German Confederation until further notice.
 

 43. 

In Primary Source 21.3: Adam Mickiewicz and Romantic Nationalism in Poland, Mickiewicz draws parallels between the suffering of Jesus and of Poland and promises that the Polish nation, like Jesus, awaits a glorious resurrection. According to Mickiewicz, what would happen after that resurrection?
A.
Christianity will be accepted throughout the world as the only true religion.
B.
Wars shall cease in all Christendom.
C.
Poland will become a major European power once again.
D.
Europe will form a single country, much like the United States.
 

 44. 

In Primary Source 21.4: The Republican Spirit in Paris, 1848, what did the Provisional Government promise the nation?
A.
To institute the democratic government that France owes itself
B.
To institute a socialist government in which all are equal in terms of income
C.
To institute a republican government that will recapture the strength and glory of Napoleonic France
D.
To institute an empire that will reconstitute the French colonial holdings lost in the previous century
 

 45. 

According to Map 21.1: Europe in 1815, which countries were considered the Great Powers of Europe in the first half of the nineteenth century?

mc045-1.jpg
A.
The Kingdom of Sardinia, France, the Kingdom of Prussia, the Austrian Empire, and the Russian Empire
B.
Great Britain, the Kingdom of Prussia, the Austrian Empire, the Russian Empire, and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
C.
Great Britain, the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, France, and the Austrian Empire
D.
The Kingdom of Sweden and Norway, Denmark, Prussia, the Austrian Empire, and the Russian Empire
 

 46. 

According to Map 21.2: Peoples of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1815, which nationalities dominated the Habsburg monarchy?

mc046-1.jpg
A.
Italians and Romanians
B.
Poles and Ruthians
C.
Germans and Hungarians
D.
Czechs and Slovaks
 

 47. 

According to Map 21.1: Europe in 1815, why was the Austrian Empire able to maintain order in most of Europe between 1815 and 1848?

mc047-1.jpg
A.
Bordering as it did on both the Russian and the Ottoman empires, it was well positioned to exert control over two empires that were hostile to one another.
B.
With significant territories on the Italian peninsula and a commanding position within the German Confederation, the Austrian Empire was able to suppress the interest in reform and change in the areas closest to itself.
C.
Owing to its large size, the Austrian Empire was able to influence the actions of the Kingdom of Prussia, thus holding a greater position within the German Confederation.
D.
Though acquiring far-reaching territory, the Austrian Empire was able to implement the German language in all previously non-German speaking lands.
 

 48. 

According to Map 21.2: Peoples of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1815, which peoples were located within the Kingdom of Hungary?

mc048-1.jpg
A.
Germans, Hungarians, Slovaks, Romanians, Ruthians, Croats and Serbs
B.
Croats and Serbs, Slovenes, Italians, Czechs, Slovaks, Germans
C.
Germans, Czechs, Romanians, Slovenes
D.
Hungarians, Ruthians, Italians
 



 
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