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Chapter 22 Test



 1. 

In the nineteenth century, Edwin Chadwick gained fame as
A.
a trade union leader.
B.
an advocate of improved public sanitation.
C.
a proponent of mass migration to the countryside.
D.
an influential follower of Karl Marx.
 

 2. 

What was Georges Haussmann’s contribution to nineteenth-century life?
A.
Developing the antiseptic method
B.
Rebuilding Paris
C.
His realistic novels of lower-class life
D.
Pioneering the use of electric streetcars in Europe
 

 3. 

What was a result of improved economic conditions in the nineteenth century?
A.
More job opportunities for women outside the home
B.
More women remained single
C.
Married women were not expected to work outside the home
D.
Extension of the vote to women in much of Europe
 

 4. 

Which of the following characterizes early-nineteenth-century British cities?
A.
Overcrowding in cities inhibited population growth.
B.
City officials demolished row houses in order to build more efficient apartment complexes.
C.
New laws limiting capacity in buildings eased overcrowding.
D.
Nearly all land was used for buildings, which meant parks or open areas were almost nonexistent.
 

 5. 

What was a central component of the improvements in sanitation in the nineteenth century?
A.
Horses carried many of the diseases that afflicted humans.
B.
Communal baths would reduce the spread of dangerous bacteria.
C.
Excrement from outhouses could be carried off by water through sewers at low cost.
D.
Most diseases were carried into cities by rural laborers who came into the cities for work.
 

 6. 

What was the breakthrough implication of Louis Pasteur’s work?
A.
Human dietary habits affected immunity to diseases.
B.
Diseases passed to humans through airborne agents that could be eliminated by moving sources of filth and decay away from humans.
C.
Diseases were caused by specific living organisms that could be controlled.
D.
Most human diseases were the result of molds that occurred naturally in human environments.
 

 7. 

How did the electric streetcar affect the urban environment?
A.
Cities could expand as even people of modest means could travel quickly and cheaply to new, improved, and less congested housing.
B.
The wealthy and middle classes could isolate themselves since the streetcar was too expensive for the poor.
C.
Urban dwellers adopted the practice of returning home for lunch, diminishing the sense of attachment one felt to the workplace environment.
D.
Cities abandoned efforts to control urban growth as the boundaries of cities expanded.
 

 8. 

What was the flaw in Jean-Baptiste Lamarck’s theory of evolution?
A.
His assertion that characteristics parents acquired in the course of their lives could be passed on to their offspring by heredity
B.
His denial that human beings had evolved from other primates
C.
His claim that genetic mutations were random
D.
His belief that God intervened to push evolution in the direction of greater complexity
 

 9. 

How did wages change in the late nineteenth century?
A.
Real wages decreased for the mass of the population, and the gap between the rich and the poor increased.
B.
Real wages rose for the mass of the population, but the gap between the rich and the poor did not decrease.
C.
Real wages decreased for the mass of the population, but so did prices thanks to industrialization, leading to an increase in living standards.
D.
Real wages increased for the mass of the population, but prices rose even more dramatically, leading to a decrease in living standards.
 

 10. 

How did the expansion of the Industrial Revolution affect the work life of the middle class?
A.
The middle class increasingly used their ownership of businesses to distance themselves from active roles in the economy.
B.
The middle class established a range of new professions, which required specialized knowledge and advanced education.
C.
Increasingly undermined by wealthy industrialists, the middle class turned into wage laborers with a standard of living barely above that of the laboring poor.
D.
The middle class left management positions in large private and public organizations, believing them to be beneath their dignity.
 

 11. 

As the nineteenth century progressed, the upper middle class
A.
tended to merge with the old aristocracy.
B.
formed tighter bonds with the rest of the middle class.
C.
retained its frugal attitudes.
D.
increasingly turned toward socialism.
 

 12. 

Why did middle-class families spend considerable portions of their income on food?
A.
The price of food skyrocketed as farm labor became more scarce.
B.
They had to feed not only their families but their large staff of servants and assistants.
C.
They developed a habit of purchasing expensive and exotic colonial products.
D.
They gave frequent, large dinner parties as their favored social activity.
 

 13. 

What did the middle class generally agree was the correct attitude toward behavior and morality?
A.
Always adhere to a strict moral code.
B.
Whatever is fashionable is acceptable.
C.
Those who fall into poverty or crime are not responsible for their circumstances.
D.
Morality is based on natural law, not on Christianity.
 

 14. 

What was one of the social functions of the labor aristocracy’s strict moral code?
A.
To create a strong barrier against socialist influences
B.
To maintain their unstable social and economic position
C.
To prevent their children from joining the supposedly morally corrupt middle classes
D.
To serve as an example to lower-paid, unskilled workers
 

 15. 

How did the urban working class change in the latter half of the nineteenth century?
A.
It increasingly formed a unified, coherent culture that became the basis of class unity.
B.
The sharp distinction between highly skilled artisans and unskilled manual workers broke down as semiskilled groups of workers became more prevalent.
C.
Skilled artisans increasingly joined the middle class, leaving the working class largely unskilled.
D.
The labor aristocracy disappeared as their positions were replaced by mechanized factory labor.
 

 16. 

How did the culture of sports change in the late nineteenth century?
A.
As the middle classes separated from the working classes, the working classes adopted more brutal sports such as bare-knuckle boxing.
B.
Sports became private activities between local clubs that resisted commercialization.
C.
Sports were taken over by elite society, which added costs that the poor could not afford.
D.
Cruel sports such as cockfighting declined, while commercialized spectator sports became popular.
 

 17. 

Why did illegitimacy rates decline after 1850?
A.
The higher incidence of marriage for expectant mothers
B.
Decreased premarital sexual activity
C.
The increased availability of contraception and abortion
D.
The increased influence of religion among the lower classes
 

 18. 

Which of the following describes late-nineteenth-century prostitution?
A.
It was strictly divided along class lines; wealthy men visited expensive courtesans, and poor women provided sexual services for working-class men.
B.
It was increasingly outlawed and suppressed across Europe as middle-class women pressed their ideas about morality on society.
C.
It was a stage of life for many poor young women, which they moved beyond as they established their own homes and families.
D.
While young men visited prostitutes, once men married, this action usually stopped abruptly in order to create family harmony.
 

 19. 

As a result of the idea of separate spheres, middle-class married women who sought to work outside the home
A.
found that they could not gain well-paying jobs, and their wages were less than men’s for the same work.
B.
gained a series of legal rights over their property and wages.
C.
were eligible for professional employment if they had the proper education.
D.
had easy access to childcare.
 

 20. 

How did the goals of middle-class feminists differ from those of socialist women?
A.
Middle-class women believed that women’s liberation required greater access to educational opportunities, while socialist women emphasized the need of women to support men on the barricades.
B.
Middle-class women supported the efforts to obtain economic rights for women, while socialist women fought for an expansion of the welfare state.
C.
Middle-class women fought for the right to vote, while socialist women argued that women’s liberation could only occur as part of a working-class revolution.
D.
Middle-class women endorsed the separate spheres theory in order to enhance women’s power in the home, while socialists emphasized the need to empower women in the workplace immediately.
 

 21. 

What benefits could a wife produce at home that could not be purchased in the market?
A.
Improved health, better eating habits, and better behavior
B.
Better clothing and household goods such as candles
C.
Improved emotional satisfaction and sexual fulfillment
D.
Better education for children and intellectual curiosity
 

 22. 

What caused the revolutionary reduction in the size of European families?
A.
The family’s desire to improve its economic and social position
B.
The effectiveness and availability of birth control
C.
The pursuit of careers outside the home by married women
D.
The epidemic of infertility related to environmental contamination.
 

 23. 

How did the nature of marriage change by the late nineteenth century?
A.
Men increasingly saw marriage as a social relationship that left them free to pursue companionships and romance elsewhere.
B.
Married couples managed their relationship as a business affair, which gave priority to money and financial calculation.
C.
Married couples increasingly developed stronger emotional ties and based marriage decisions on sentiment and sexual attraction.
D.
Women increasingly divorced husbands as new laws gave them greater rights over children and over the household finances.
 

 24. 

Which of the following marked changes in childrearing practices?
A.
Women had fewer children.
B.
Mothers increasingly depended on advice from their mothers and grandmothers owing to the lack of literature on childrearing.
C.
Women increasingly hired wet nurses to free them to care for other children.
D.
The number of illegitimate children abandoned at foundling hospitals increased.
 

 25. 

After years of scientific investigation and reflection, Charles Darwin concluded that
A.
each species of animal was a divine creation.
B.
all life had gradually evolved from a common ancestral origin.
C.
acquired characteristics could be passed on to one’s children.
D.
his ideas about biological evolution should be applied to human affairs.
 

 26. 

One of the most important scientific and technological developments in the nineteenth century saw a form of commercial energy useful in communications and manufacturing developed from
A.
coke.
B.
coal.
C.
oil.
D.
electricity.
 

 27. 

Max Weber, the most prominent and influential late-nineteenth century sociologist, argued that the rise of capitalism was directly linked to
A.
Catholicism in Southern Europe.
B.
the French Revolution.
C.
Protestantism in Northern Europe.
D.
the Napoleonic Wars.
 

 28. 

Gustave Flaubert tells the story of a frustrated middle-class housewife who has a sordid and adulterous love affair in his masterpiece,
A.
Tess of the D'Urbervilles.
B.
Father Goriot.
C.
Germinal.
D.
Madame Bovary.
 

 29. 

What was the core concept of Social Darwinism?
A.
The human race was driven by an unending economic struggle that would determine the survival of the fittest.
B.
Genetics provided the mechanism by which favorable characteristics are passed on to future generations.
C.
Darwin’s evolutionary theory could best be proved by a careful examination of the vast amount of numerical data collected by governments in recent decades.
D.
Gustav Le Bon was correct in asserting the strong, charismatic leaders could easily manipulate mass crowds.
 

 30. 

In the late nineteenth century, masturbation was
A.
viewed with horror.
B.
seen as a normal part of adolescence.
C.
considered unhealthy for women but normal for men.
D.
promoted as an alternative to premarital sex.
 

 31. 

Realist writers fit within the late-nineteenth-century glorification of science because they
A.
generally made the heroes of their novels scientists.
B.
turned toward science fiction.
C.
denied the importance of emotion in determining human action.
D.
attempted to observe and record life in an objective manner.
 

 32. 

Why did social scientists develop statistical methods to test their theories?
A.
They believed that humans were reducible to numerical quantities.
B.
They sought to discover how average individuals functioned and ignore the below average or exceptional.
C.
They believed that numerical averages were superior to observation as a form of analysis.
D.
They sought to analyze the massive sets of numerical data that governments had collected.
 

 33. 

What was Count Leo Tolstoy's central message in War and Peace?
A.
Human love, trust, and everyday family ties are life’s enduring values.
B.
Great men are able to bend history to their will.
C.
The idealistic young always surrender to feverish ambition and society’s pervasive greed.
D.
Ordinary men and women are doomed to be crushed by fate and bad luck.
 

 34. 

Utilitarianism was Jeremy Bentham’s idea that social policies should promote
A.
middle-class morality.
B.
the concept of survival of the fittest.
C.
the concept of separate spheres.
D.
the greatest good for the greatest number.
 

 35. 

In almost every advanced country around 1900, the wealthiest 20 percent of households received
A.
25 percent to 30 percent of all national income.
B.
30 percent to 40 percent of all national income.
C.
50 percent to 60 percent of all national income.
D.
80 percent of all national income.
 

 36. 

What was the clearest sign that a family was middle class?
A.
Having servants
B.
Eating well
C.
Going to the opera
D.
Traveling
 

 37. 

What was the Second Industrial Revolution?
A.
The extension of the textile and iron industries from Great Britain and Belgium to all parts of the Continent.
B.
The burst of industrial creativity and technological innovation that promoted strong economic growth toward the end of the nineteenth century.
C.
Ideas put forth by Karl Marx as to how industry would be organized after the successful proletarian revolution.
D.
The emergence of the United States at the end of the nineteenth century as the main challenger to the industry leadership of Great Britain.
 

 38. 

What set white-collar workers apart from other elements of the lower middle class?
A.
They earned far more than skilled or semiskilled workers.
B.
They were fiercely committed to the middle-class ideal of upward social mobility.
C.
They were almost all deeply religious.
D.
They were not only relatively well educated, but they also possessed complex technical skills.
 

 39. 

What was companionate marriage?
A.
Marriage for the sake of convenience
B.
Marriage for economic or social reasons
C.
Marriage based on romantic love and middle-class family values
D.
Marriage chosen by the parents of the couple
 

 40. 

What characterized the middle-class single-family home?
A.
A special drawing room used to entertain guests
B.
A music room, preferably one equipped with a grand piano
C.
A carriage house
D.
A separate wing for the servants’ quarters
 

 41. 

In his pioneering work of quantitative sociology, Suicide (1897), Emile Durkheim concluded that ever-higher suicide rates were caused by widespread feelings of
A.
envy of the upwardly mobile.
B.
rootlessness.
C.
boredom with life.
D.
anxiety caused by the relentless pace of city life.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 42. 

In Primary Source 22.3: Stephan Zweig on Middle-Class Youth and Sexuality, how does Zweig describe the upbringing of a young woman in what he termed the “Pre-Freudian era”?
A.
For their protection, they were not left alone for a single moment.
B.
It was understood that girls, like boys, would want to experiment, but it was made clear that experimentation had to wait until they were engaged to a suitable partner.
C.
The educational process for young girls involved extensive sex education so they would be adequately prepared for married life.
D.
Young girls were given very little direction other than to remind them of their duty to remain true to the ideas of Christian morality.
 

 43. 

In Primary Source 22.3: Stephan Zweig on Middle-Class Youth and Sexuality, how does Zweig describe the situation faced by young middle-class men in what he termed the “Pre-Freudian era”?
A.
For a young middle-class man, prostitution was the major possibility for an erotic life outside of marriage.
B.
Young middle-class men were encouraged to have discreet affairs with married women.
C.
Young middle-class men could easily manage to keep a mistress.D
D.
Young middle-class men were allowed to experiment with young middle-class women so long as the women did not become pregnant.
 

 44. 

In Primary Source 22.1: First Impressions of the World’s Biggest City, how did the anonymous man from the country view life in London?
A.
He was amazed by the huge numbers of people milling about who seemingly had nothing to do.
B.
He was surprised by how quickly he learned how to live according to city ideas and customs.
C.
He was struck by how competitive people were in London.
D.
He was happy to find that city people were warm, generous, and as ready as anyone in the country to become good, close friends.
 

 45. 

In Primary Source 22.4: Max Weber Critiques Industrial Capitalism, what does Weber mean by “a shell as hard as steel”?
A.
The optimism of the Enlightenment has now become a highly visible feature of industrial capitalism.
B.
The style of life created by industrial capitalism affects only a relatively small number of people, who are strictly separated from the rest of the populace.
C.
The material goods produced by industrial capitalism have become all important, driving out the “spirit” of capitalism that had made this productivity possible.
D.
The religious foundations of capitalism remain supremely important, a vital part of the capitalist order.
 
 

 46. 

Which cities on Map 22.1: European Cities of 100,000 or More, 1800–1900 contained one million or more people in 1900?

mc046-1.jpg
A.
Madrid, London, Paris, Berlin, Vienna, and Moscow
B.
Lisbon, Paris, Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Berlin, and Constantinople
C.
Rome, Constantinople, Warsaw, Vienna, St. Petersburg, and Copenhagen
D.
London, Paris, Berlin, Vienna, St. Petersburg, and Constantinople
 

 47. 

On Map 22.1: European Cities of 100,000 or More, 1800–1900, which cities had the largest increase in population growth between 1800 and 1900?

mc047-1.jpg
A.
Berlin, St. Petersburg, and Vienna
B.
London, Paris, and Constantinople
C.
Moscow, Naples, Barcelona, and Madrid
D.
London and Paris
 

 48. 

On Map 22.2: The Modernization of Paris, ca. 1850–1870, what formed the boundary of Paris before 1860?

mc048-1.jpg
A.
The Wall of Philippe August
B.
The Tollhouse Wall
C.
The Fortress Wall
D.
The Boulevard Saint-Michel
 

 49. 

The Boulevard Saint-Michel, shown on Map 22.2: The Modernization of Paris, ca. 1850–1870, was one of Baron Haussmann’s most controversial projects because its construction

mc049-1.jpg
A.
required the razing of much of Paris’s medieval core.
B.
took land that had been set aside for the Bois de Boulogne.
C.
meant moving the Arc de Triomphe.
D.
meant destroying the Fortress Wall (1841–45).
 



 
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