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Chapter 23 Test



 1. 

How did Louis Napoleon believe that the people should be represented in government?
A.
By special citizens’ committees that would watch over the work of political officials
B.
By special interest groups that presented the ideas and views of people to government officials
C.
By parliaments freely elected by universal male suffrage
D.
By a strong national leader whose reforms would aid all the people
 

 2. 

What was the first and most important of the Great Reforms in Russia?
A.
Abolition of serfdom
B.
Granting of a constitution
C.
Nationalization of church property
D.
Modernization of the legal system
 

 3. 

Upon his election as president, why did Louis Napoleon sign conservative legislation increasing the power of the Catholic Church and depriving poor men of the right to vote?
A.
He knew that the legislation’s wide popularity would secure his authority for the foreseeable future.
B.
To get the National Assembly to pay his personal debts and change the constitution so he could run for a second term
C.
To obtain control over the military, which he could then use to overthrow the National Assembly
D.
He needed to curry favor with the Catholic Church in order to convince the papacy to accept Italian unification.
 

 4. 

Louis Napoleon’s great success with the economy included which of the following?
A.
Encouraging new investment banks and railroad construction
B.
Developing plans for the rebuilding of Paris that ultimately were never carried out
C.
Increasing the size of the army to counter rising unemployment
D.
Passing laws forbidding the formation of labor unions
 

 5. 

What was the Russian zemstvo?
A.
The new Russian parliament established after the revolution of 1905
B.
The institution for local government established by the Great Reforms
C.
The name of the currency issued when Russia adopted the gold standard
D.
The state-run investment bank set up to promote railroad construction
 

 6. 

How did Sardinia and its monarch, Victor Emmanuel, gain the reputation of a liberal, progressive state?
A.
Victor Emmanuel retained the liberal constitution—and its substantial civil liberties—that was forced on his father in 1848.
B.
Victor Emmanuel instituted a series of reforms designed to strip the Catholic Church of most of its land and power in the region.
C.
Victor Emmanuel passed legislation that seized land from nobles and redistributed it more equitably to the peasantry.
D.
Victor Emmanuel established the first systems of nationwide childhood education and free university education for those admitted.
 

 7. 

How did the process of Italian unification survive the French betrayal of Sardinia in its effort to unify Italy?
A.
Count Cavour publicly exposed the betrayal by the French, and French public opinion forced Louis Napoleon to re-establish its support of Italian unification.
B.
Count Cavour gained the support of the papacy and used pro-Catholic French to pressure Louis Napoleon to withdraw his support of Austrian claims in northern Italy.
C.
The industrialists building railroads in Italy needed unified states to manage the railroad system and financed and provided logistical support to the nationalists.
D.
The nationalist leaders in central Italy overthrew their local princes and merged with Sardinia, despite the displeasure of the Great Powers.
 

 8. 

Otto von Bismarck’s Kulturkampf refers to his
A.
drive to make German workers more cultured.
B.
attack on the Catholic Church in the German Empire.
C.
attempt to stamp out anti-German attitudes in France following the Franco-Prussian War.
D.
1864 war against Denmark.
 

 9. 

What was the goal of the Prussian parliament in the 1850s and 1860s?
A.
To establish a radical program of land redistribution in favor of the peasantry
B.
To undermine the authority of the customs union that controlled trade policy
C.
To form a Prussian alliance with France as a counterweight to growing Russian power
D.
To establish that it held final political authority and that the army was responsible to it
 

 10. 

Ottoman reformers launched a series of radical reforms in the nineteenth century known as the
A.
October Manifesto.
B.
Duma.
C.
Tanzimat.
D.
Reichstag.
 

 11. 

What event directly prompted the Great Reforms in Russia, including the emancipation of the serfs?
A.
Russian defeat in the Crimean War of 1853–56
B.
The revolution of 1905
C.
The Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905
D.
The assassination of Alexander II in 1881
 

 12. 

Why did Prussia and Austria attack Denmark in 1864?
A.
Denmark sought to establish trade tolls along the narrow passage that linked the Baltic Sea with the North Sea.
B.
Denmark was attempting to bring two provinces that belonged to the German Confederation into a more centralized Danish state.
C.
Denmark established a series of laws that limited the civil rights of German-speaking people in Danish territory.
D.
Denmark sought to form a political alliance among the Scandinavian nations as a counter to growing Prussian power.
 

 13. 

How did Bismarck structure the North German Confederation in order to secure the authority of the Prussian emperor?
A.
The parliament was permitted only a minor role in the enforcement of legislation, while all new bills had to originate from the emperor himself.
B.
The parliament had no right to override an imperial veto over legislation, while the emperor had independent control of the army and the bureaucracy.
C.
The emperor controlled the army and foreign affairs, and universal male suffrage permitted him to go directly to the people if middle-class liberals resisted his bills in the legislature.
D.
The emperor’s edicts could be reviewed by the legislature but could not be overridden without agreement of the high law court, which was comprised of individuals appointed by the emperor.
 

 14. 

In the 1890s, how did Sergei Witte seek to transform Russia?
A.
He believed that Russia had lost its roots in Slavic culture and sought to reestablish those roots in order for Russia to return to greatness.
B.
He believed that Russia needed to forge a new path to economic success and adopt the radical land redistribution proposed by the socialists.
C.
He believed that Russian agriculture was the key to its future success and collectivized land in order to apply modern, rational farming methods.
D.
He believed that Russia’s industrial backwardness was threatening its power and greatness and implemented industrial policies to catch up with the West.
 

 15. 

How did the Ottoman Empire’s efforts at reform in the latter half of the nineteenth century undermine the empire’s stability?
A.
The reforms created equality before the law for all citizens, which increased religious disputes and split Muslims into secularist and traditionalist camps.
B.
The reforms undermined the position of the Ottoman nobility by emphasizing industrialization over agricultural concerns.
C.
The reforms undermined the growth of nationalism, which the Ottomans had planned to use as the basis of political loyalty and social stability.
D.
The reforms permitted each region of the empire to establish its own laws, which destroyed the coherence of the empire as a whole.
 

 16. 

What was the long-established customs union among the German states?
A.
Zemstvo
B.
Zollverein
C.
Reichstag
D.
North German Confederation
 

 17. 

How did the expanding right to vote in the late nineteenth century affect national politics across Europe?
A.
Radical parties lost nearly all support as the working classes followed their middle-class employers into liberal parties.
B.
Politicians and parties became more responsive to the people they represented.
C.
Nearly all political parties sought to establish international parties that moved across borders to unite people of similar wealth and status.
D.
The number of political parties decreased as a few major parties gained dominating positions in the political system.
 

 18. 

Who was Theodore Herzl?
A.
The speaker of the Reichstag during much of Bismarck’s tenure
B.
The creator of modern psychoanalysis
C.
The founder of the Zionist Jewish national movement
D.
The German socialist author of Evolutionary Socialism
 

 19. 

After the Franco-Prussian War, Prussia
A.
imposed a harsh peace on France.
B.
imposed a generous peace on France.
C.
asked for international participation in the formation of the peace treaty.
D.
acknowledged its own role in starting the war.
 

 20. 

Why did Bismarck enact high tariffs on grain from the United States, Canada, and Russia in 1878?
A.
He intended to drive up grain prices in order weaken the growing Socialist Party.
B.
He hoped to break the alliance among the great grain-producing nations in order to isolate Russia politically.
C.
He planned to promote a policy of economic nationalism in which Germany would provide all of its needed commodities.
D.
He sought to win support from both the Catholic Center and the Protestants Junkers, who had large land holdings.
 

 21. 

Why did the conservative Bismarck pioneer the creation of an expansive system of social welfare?
A.
He sought to blunt the attraction of socialism to the working classes and give them a small stake in the existing political system.
B.
He sought to undermine the power of the landed aristocracy by building a political movement based on support from the masses.
C.
He was compelled to offer greater social benefits so that German workers would not migrate to France and Great Britain, where such programs already existed.
D.
He believed that social welfare programs were a government’s moral responsibility.
 

 22. 

What was the greatest impediment to nation building in the United States?
A.
Regional differences exacerbated by slavery
B.
The lack of common ancestry among its citizens
C.
The intellectual legacy of the American Revolution
D.
Religious conflict
 

 23. 

What was the result of the Mexican War of 1848?
A.
It reduced tensions between the northern and southern halves of the United States by generating an atmosphere of renewed patriotic unity.
B.
It exacerbated tensions between the northern and southern halves of the United States as debate erupted over the extension of slavery into territory acquired from Mexico.
C.
It provided a crucial stimulus to the development of cotton culture in the Southwest.
D.
It left the South devastated and weakened.
 

 24. 

What was the political goal of creating free, compulsory elementary education in late-nineteenth-century France?
A.
To prepare children to serve the state in wartime, either in the battlefield or on the home front
B.
To prepare children for work in the industrial setting and promote obedience to managerial authority
C.
To act as a nation-building tool in which all children would be taught secular, republican values
D.
To create a uniform base of knowledge that all children would be able to use in their professional lives
 

 25. 

In the early twentieth century, why were extensive social welfare programs slow to form in Great Britain?
A.
The conservative, aristocratic House of Lords resisted the formation of such programs until the king threatened to appoint new nobles who would support the programs.
B.
Social welfare programs violated the broad idea of liberalism that was powerfully supported by the middle class in Great Britain.
C.
Great Britain’s tradition of low taxes provided no income for such programs, which would require a restructuring of government finances and additional taxation.
D.
Great Britain lacked the administrative system to organize such programs and the data needed to implement them.
 

 26. 

In nineteenth-century Italy, Giuseppe Garibaldi was a
A.
hardline socialist.
B.
liberal technocrat.
C.
visionary industrialist.
D.
romantic nationalist.
 

 27. 

When Hungary gained an independent status in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, how did it organize its domestic politics?
A.
A liberal constitution was created that granted universal male suffrage.
B.
The Magyar nobility dominated both the peasantry and minority populations through the parliament.
C.
A radical socialist state was formed in which committees of workers had full authority to review the actions of the parliament.
D.
The Hungarian military established a police state in which most civil liberties were sharply curtailed.
 

 28. 

What was crucial to the success of Count Camillo Benso di Cavour’s plan to unify northern Italy in the nineteenth century?
A.
The support of Pope Pius IX
B.
The backing of Great Britain, Sardinia’s ally in the Crimean War
C.
A secret alliance with Napoleon III against Austria
D.
An agreement with Giuseppe Garibaldi to invade southern Italy
 

 29. 

How did German Social Democrats recover their losses in the 1907 election and become the largest party in the Reichstag in 1912?
A.
They endorsed Marx’s call for a violent revolution.
B.
They accepted trade unions’ call for evolutionary rather than revolutionary socialism.
C.
They took on a more patriotic tone and broadened their base.
D.
They began courting Catholics in southern Germany.
 

 30. 

What effect did the Dreyfus affair have on late nineteenth-century France?
A.
It revived the prestige of the French army.
B.
It drove a wedge between Catholics and anti-Semites.
C.
It revived republican distrust of Catholicism.
D.
It fanned the flames of French imperialism.
 

 31. 

Unlike other political parties, Marxist socialists
A.
refused to seek electoral office.
B.
rejected all forms of patriotism.
C.
organized themselves into an international organization.
D.
consistently sought the violent overthrow of national governments.
 

 32. 

Why did socialist parties become more moderate by the late 1800s?
A.
Socialist leaders saw revolution as a threat to their increasingly respectable social positions.
B.
The increasingly radical and aggressive trade union movements frightened socialist parties and turned them in a more moderate direction.
C.
Socialist leaders, like so many of their followers, became ardent patriots and grew as nationalistic as conservatives.
D.
As socialist parties attracted larger numbers of members, they looked more toward gradual change and less toward revolution.
 

 33. 

How did labor unions in Germany change in the early 1900s?
A.
They became more radical as resistance to their demands by industrialists grew.
B.
They sought to organize white-collar workers rather than industrial laborers since white-collar workers had more political clout.
C.
They increasingly focused on bread-and-butter issues rather than dissemination of socialist doctrine.
D.
They began to establish independent, worker-owned businesses to compete with those of the industrialists.
 

 34. 

Which of the following is an accurate characterization of a socialist party in Europe prior to 1914?
A.
Russian socialists tended to be the most moderate of all the parties.
B.
The German socialist party talked revolution but practiced reformism.
C.
The British socialists, although not Marxist in orientation, were formally committed to revolution.
D.
The powerful French labor unions controlled the French Socialist Party.
 

 35. 

Why did the possibility of a federation of Italian states under the presidency of a progressive pope disappear after the Revolutions of 1848?
A.
Pius IX sought to remove the Catholic Church entirely from the political arena and to take a position of complete neutrality regarding modern political trends.
B.
The cautious support for unification that Pius IX had offered before 1848 turned into hostility after he was temporarily driven from Rome during the Revolutions of 1848.
C.
The College of Cardinals vetoed the idea of the pope assuming the position of president of a federation of Italian states as unworthy of the dignity of the papacy.
D.
The rulers of several Italian states wanted the position of president themselves and blocked any possibility of offering Pius IX the position.
 

 36. 

Who were the Red Shirts in nineteenth-century France?
A.
Union supporters of the German Social Democratic Party
B.
Confederate irregulars who came close to winning the American Civil War
C.
Giuseppe Garibaldi's guerrilla army involved in the invasion of Sicily in 1860
D.
Russian peasants who rallied to the defense of the Russian Empire in the Crimean War
 

 37. 

The Homestead Act, enacted during the Civil War, gave western land to settlers and reinforced the idea
A.
that the United States was primarily an agricultural economy.
B.
that the United States was a land of immigrants.
C.
of free labor in a market economy.
D.
that the United States was destined to become a major power.
 

 38. 

The October Manifesto in the Russian Revolution of 1905 granted full civil rights and promised
A.
a popularly elected Duma or parliament.
B.
broad-based land reform.
C.
an expansion of the Russian Empire in the Far East.
D.
a new alliance with the German Empire.
 

 39. 

Who were the Young Turks?
A.
Religious conservatives who supported Sultan Abdülhamid II in rejecting European liberalism
B.
Supporters of the Imperial Rescript of 1856 that called for equality before the law regardless of religious faith
C.
Liberal Ottoman statesmen who launched the era of radical reforms known as Tanzimat
D.
Fervent patriots who seized power in the revolution of 1908 in the Ottoman Empire
 

 40. 

What did the notorious forgery “The Protocols of the Elders of Zion” suggest Jewish elders were planning to do?
A.
Assassinate the Russian tsar
B.
Create a Jewish homeland in Palestine
C.
Sponsor emigration to the western hemisphere
D.
Dominate the globe
 

 41. 

In On the Inequality of the Human Races (1854), Count Arthur de Gobineau divided humanity into the white, black, and yellow races and
A.
called for a new era of racial harmony.
B.
championed the “Aryan race” for its supposedly superior qualities.
C.
claimed that eventually the different races would become a single race.
D.
stated that nationalism eliminated any problems of ethnic minorities.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 42. 

In Primary Source 23.1: The Struggle for the Italian Nation, what does Giuseppe Mazzini suggest must happen in order for "the work of Humanity for the general amelioration to be “accomplished by peaceful and progressive development”?
A.
An international governing body must be created.
B.
The pope must create a new Holy Alliance that will decide any diplomatic disputes that might arise.
C.
The people must rise up to create countries according to the natural divisions that exist in Europe.
D.
New countries must be created that are capable of establishing empires in the world outside the European continent.
 

 43. 

In Primary Source 23.3: Ernest Renan on National Identity, what does Renan consider one valid way to define a nation?
A.
A nation can be defined by its possession of a single language.
B.
A nation can be defined by having a common past.
C.
A common race is essential to the definition of a nation.
D.
A common religion is essential to the definition of a nation.
 

 44. 

Read Primary Source 23.5: Adelheid Popp, the Making of a Socialist. How did Popp describe the process of becoming a socialist in The Autobiography of a Working Woman?
A.
Working conditions were so terrible that from the beginning she knew socialism was the only answer.
B.
She was disgusted by her initial encounter with anti-Semitism and almost immediately found in socialism an answer to it.
C.
She experienced an evolutionary process beginning with enthusiasm for the royal family and for nationalism, then becoming interested in anarchism, and only later learning about socialism.
D.
Ironically, she became a socialist only when she obtained a better-paying job and realized that capitalism was exploiting the vast majority of the working class.
 

 45. 

According to Map 23.1: The Unification of Italy, 1859–1870, which areas did Italy gain in 1866?

mc045-1.jpg
A.
Venetia and Lombardy
B.
Savoy and Nice
C.
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the Papal States
D.
Venetia and the Papal States
 

 46. 

According to Map 23.1: The Unification of Italy, 1859–1870, what areas did Sardinia-Piedmont lose in 1860?

mc046-1.jpg
A.
Savoy and Nice
B.
Sicily, Tuscany, and Romagna
C.
Venetia
D.
Lombardy
 

 47. 

Based on Map 23.2: The Unification of Germany, 1864–1871, which German states did not become part of the North German Confederation in 1867?

mc047-1.jpg
A.
Schleswig, Holstein, and Hanover
B.
Baden, Württemberg, and Bavaria
C.
Alsace, Lorraine, and Saxony
D.
Saxony, Oldenburg, and Mecklenburg
 

 48. 

Based on Map 23.2: The Unification of Germany, 1864–1871, which new areas were added to the German Empire in 1871?

mc048-1.jpg
A.
Schleswig and Holstein
B.
Alsace and Lorraine
C.
Saxony and Mecklenburg
D.
Bavaria and Baden
 



 
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