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Chapter 24 Test



 1. 

What did the Western world hope to achieve through the global economic system?
A.
It would control and determine the national economic policies of nations across the globe.
B.
The largest share of gains from trade, technology, and migration would flow to the West and its propertied classes.
C.
Non-Western merchants could connect with the global economy and develop their own nation’s wealth.
D.
The wealth of the Western world would spread to rest of the world.
 

 2. 

How did the building of railroads in Latin America, Asia, and Africa facilitate Western economic interests as opposed to regional economic interests?
A.
Railroad lines connected resource-rich inland cities to seaports to facilitate Western trade but did not link inland cities to each other.
B.
Local economies had no need for railroads since they already had extensive trade networks.
C.
Railroad lines destroyed regional trading patterns by offering more profitable trade with Western markets.
D.
Local political leaders accepted huge bribes to permit Western railroads to build across their land regardless of the economic damage caused by the building process.
 

 3. 

How was the flow of goods directed around the globe in the nineteenth century?
A.
By new communication systems, such as the telegraph, that could direct ships from port to port
B.
By letters sent between merchants and captains as ships waited in ports
C.
By letters of transit that were given to ships’ captains before leaving, which directed their routes and activities
D.
By networks of carrier pigeons that carried directions for ships across the seas
 

 4. 

The typical European immigrant was
A.
a middle-class professional.
B.
an urban factory worker.
C.
a small farmer or rural craftsperson.
D.
a landless peasant.
 

 5. 

The largest share of European foreign investment went to
A.
sub-Saharan Africa.
B.
Asia.
C.
European states and North America.
D.
Latin America.
 

 6. 

How did the British obtain the opium that they smuggled into China?
A.
British landlords in Ireland forced Irish peasants to abandon potato fields and grow poppies.
B.
Opium was widely grown in the recently seized lands of Australia.
C.
The British seized opium that was illegally grown in the Middle East.
D.
Opium was grown legally in British-occupied India.
 

 7. 

Why were Jewish immigrants in the nineteenth century unlikely to return to their native land?
A.
Violent anti-Semitism in Eastern Europe
B.
The success they enjoyed in their new homes
C.
Laws against such repatriation
D.
The high cost of travel back to Europe
 

 8. 

What was Britain’s decisive advantage in its war with China?
A.
Britain had superior military technology.
B.
Britain had superior military leadership.
C.
Britain had greater financial resources.
D.
Britain had control of the seas.
 

 9. 

Rudyard Kipling’s “white man’s burden” referred to
A.
the social costs of industrialization.
B.
the difficulties of reaching consensus in a democratic society.
C.
the white race’s supposed duty to civilize inferior, nonwhite races.
D.
the high costs of maintaining colonial rule.
 

 10. 

What was the result of the Berlin Conference of 1884–85?
A.
It set the terms for the division of China into economic zones of influence.
B.
It declared Africa off-limits to colonization.
C.
It set up the terms for the division of most of Africa among European colonial powers.
D.
It established high tariffs to protect German industry.
 

 11. 

What was the Boxer Rebellion?
A.
A revolt of Chinese military officers who supported westernization against the Qing Empress Dowager
B.
A rebellion of traditionalist Chinese patriots who wished to expel all Westerners from China
C.
An uprising of militant Muslims against British rule in Sudan
D.
A revolution made by patriotic samurai who overthrew the Japanese shogun
 

 12. 

How did Muhammad Ali reorganize the Egyptian army?
A.
He established the army as a permanent religious organization, launching jihad against the infidels.
B.
He instituted requirements that all soldiers be educated in mathematics so that they could understand and effectively use modern armaments.
C.
He abandoned the draft and adopted a volunteer army of highly paid recruits.
D.
He drafted illiterate peasants and hired French and Italian army officers to train the recruits and their Turkish officers.
 

 13. 

How did Muhammad Ali finance his modernization of Egyptian society?
A.
He forced farmers to become tenants of large, private landowners who adopted commercial agriculture.
B.
He invaded the Sudan to the south and established a trade in slaves from the Sudan to the Middle East.
C.
He instituted a high tax on all foreign firms and business in Egypt.
D.
He seized control of the Suez Canal and established transit fees for passage.
 

 14. 

How did Ismail transform Egypt in the nineteenth century?
A.
He refused to borrow money from Western banks.
B.
He promoted large irrigation networks for cotton production and export.
C.
He appointed British and French commissioners to oversee Egyptian finances.
D.
He moved the capital to Alexandria and rebuilt it as a modern Western city.
 

 15. 

What new model for European expansion did Britain establish in Egypt?
A.
A combination of financial manipulation, indebtedness, and exploitation
B.
A combination of military force, political domination, and an ideology of beneficial reform
C.
A combination of trade, educational support, and technological assistance
D.
A combination of economic collaboration, political alliances, and mutual respect
 

 16. 

In most European countries, how was emigration related to population growth in the late nineteenth century?
A.
Emigration encouraged population growth as employment and land became more available.
B.
Emigration occurred as population growth occurred, maintaining a rather constant balance.
C.
Emigration increased about twenty years after a rapid growth in population, as land became scarce.
D.
Emigration decreased as population growth increased, providing evidence of stable growing economies.
 

 17. 

What pattern did migration out of Europe often follow in the nineteenth century?
A.
Migrants sought out anonymity so that they could re-create themselves as new people with new lives.
B.
Families and friends would coordinate their migrations so that they would settle together in a new land.
C.
Various churches sponsored migrant groups in order to increase the political clout of the churches in the new lands.
D.
Migrants signed contracts with businesses to pay for their migrations in return for several years of labor in the business’s factories or mines.
 

 18. 

What was the principle by which the European powers established their claim to an African territory after the Berlin Conference in 1884 and 1885?
A.
Annexation
B.
Effective occupation
C.
Military subjugation
D.
The white man’s burden
 

 19. 

What was the primary factor that influenced whether European immigrants returned to their native lands?
A.
Their degree of success in the New World
B.
Family connections in Europe
C.
The strength of their new nationalism
D.
The possibility of buying land in the home country
 

 20. 

What was the goal of the new imperialism of the late nineteenth century?
A.
To create large political empires
B.
To achieve economic exploitation without direct political control
C.
To support large migrations of Europeans to new imperial lands
D.
To convert native populations of new imperial lands to Christianity
 

 21. 

How did the Union of South Africa function differently than any other territory in Africa?
A.
It functioned as a largely “self-governing” colony.
B.
It instituted racist policies.
C.
It had few economic resources from which Britain could profit.
D.
It permitted Muslims to worship freely.
 

 22. 

Why did Japan open its shores to Western trade?
A.
To enter the world economy
B.
As a response to U.S. military pressure
C.
As a result of the Meiji Restoration
D.
To reduce its dependence on China
 

 23. 

In the nineteenth century, what country dominated the three-thousand-mile archipelago that is now Indonesia?
A.
Spain
B.
Great Britain
C.
The Netherlands
D.
Portugal
 

 24. 

To what extent did the new imperialism result in economic gains and why?
A.
The economic gains were substantial because the new lands had vast resources that had been largely undeveloped.
B.
The economic gains were substantial but could only be enjoyed after decades of development of the local infrastructure.
C.
The economic gains were limited because the new, more democratic governments lacked the political skill to dominate subject peoples.
D.
The economic gains were limited because the new colonies were too poor to buy European goods and offered few immediately profitable investments.
 

 25. 

Great Britain chose to seize land in Africa and Asia in the late nineteenth century because it
A.
believed that it was the best and most experienced country to aid in the development of local, native people.
B.
wished to establish a land corridor of colonial territories stretching from Africa across Asia.
C.
feared that France and Germany would seal off their empires with high tariffs, causing it to lose future economic opportunities.
D.
believed that it needed more land in order to be able to compete with the United States for world power.
 

 26. 

What did Heinrich von Treitschke believe was the significance of colonies?
A.
They violated the spirit of liberty that had led to progress in Europe.
B.
They sapped the resources and strength of nations for meager gains.
C.
They did not guarantee a nation’s greatness.
D.
They were essential to great nations.
 

 27. 

The Russian Marxist Vladimir Lenin asserted that imperialism
A.
violated Christian morals and ethics.
B.
diverted attention from needed domestic reforms.
C.
signaled the coming decay and collapse of capitalist society.
D.
was a sign of the strength of industrial capitalism.
 

 28. 

What belief drove native opponents to European colonial rule?
A.
The Christian call for love and charity
B.
The doctrine of Social Darwinism
C.
The nationalist assertion that every people had a right to control their destiny
D.
The ideas associated with nativism
 

 29. 

How did some British women seek to affect British colonialism in India in the nineteenth century?
A.
They demanded that the British government establish limitations on the number of hours that Indians could be required to work.
B.
They called for an end to opium production in India because of its negative consequences for Indian families.
C.
They insisted that British welfare benefits be extended to British India in order to support the population during economic downturns.
D.
They worked to improve the lives of Indian women, moving them closer to Western standards through education and legislation.
 

 30. 

By 1890, how had Japan met the challenge of Western expansion?
A.
It completely adopted Western forms and traditions, imposing them on the poor and uneducated.
B.
It isolated itself from the Western world, banning most foreign travel and foreign visitors.
C.
It selectively adopted those elements of Western society that were in keeping with Japanese tradition.
D.
It united East Asia under its leadership to repel Western military activity.
 

 31. 

After 1860, why did foreign aggression diminish in China until near the end of the century?
A.
Europeans had obtained their primary goal of commercial and diplomatic relations.
B.
The scramble for Africa distracted Europeans from China.
C.
Christian missionaries influenced governments to treat China with dignity.
D.
Warfare in Europe distracted the Europeans from East Asia.
 

 32. 

What was the all-important goal of the architects of the Meiji Restoration?
A.
To bring an end to imperial rule
B.
To expand trade with the West
C.
To meet the threat posed by outside powers
D.
To form an alliance with China
 

 33. 

What was China required to do in the Treaty of Nanking (1842) that ended the first Opium War?
A.
Cede the port city of Guangzhou (Canton) to the British
B.
Allow the British to oversee the collection of customs duties
C.
Open up four large cities to unlimited foreign trade with low tariffs
D.
Pay an indemnity of $500 million
 

 34. 

What was “nativism” in the nineteenth century?
A.
A conscious effort to reach out to immigrants to make them feel they were welcomed and appreciated
B.
Beliefs and policies that gave preferential treatment to established inhabitants over immigrants
C.
An attempt by European and American upper classes to imitate the seemingly simple lifestyles of native peoples
D.
An attempt to bring the benefits of civilization to native peoples in different parts of the world
 

 35. 

What medication proved to be effective in controlling malaria and allowing Europeans to venture into the mosquito-infested interior of Africa?
A.
Penicillin
B.
Quinine
C.
Ladanum
D.
Aspirin
 

 36. 

What happened in 1898 at Fashoda?
A.
The British met and annihilated poorly armed Sudanese Muslim troops.
B.
The Germans began the construction of a colonial empire in Africa.
C.
British and French troops encountered one another and set off a serious diplomatic crisis that only ended when the French backed down.
D.
The French completed the expansion of their holdings in West and Central Africa.
 

 37. 

What is “Orientalism”?
A.
A doctrine holding that Asia offered the best opportunities for colonization in the late nineteenth century
B.
The belief that the Orient was not only an area of ancient civilizations but also where one could still seek spiritual enlightenment
C.
The idea that Arab societies in North Africa and the Near East should be carefully studied before they were overwhelmed by modernity
D.
A term used by modern scholars to describe the way Westerners misunderstood and described colonial subjects and cultures
 

 38. 

The Meiji Restoration restored the Japanese emperor to power in 1867 and
A.
initiated a series of measures to reform Japan along modern lines.
B.
invited Christian missionaries to return to Japan.
C.
formed an alliance with the Chinese in order to deal more effectively with Westerners.
D.
closed Japan once again to Western influence.
 

 39. 

What did the British use to break China’s self-imposed isolation?
A.
Cotton textiles
B.
Steam engines
C.
Opium
D.
Diamonds
 

 40. 

The United States between 1815 and 1932
A.
attracted more than half of all European emigrants.
B.
absorbed the largest overall number of European emigrants.
C.
did not attract as many emigrants as Brazil.
D.
took in virtually all European emigrants.
 

 41. 

How were governments able to use empires to ease social tensions and domestic political conflicts in the nineteenth century?
A.
They turned the empires into dumping grounds for Europeans who were misfits or failures.
B.
They encouraged the masses to savor foreign triumphs as examples of national glory and prestige.
C.
They emphasized that imperialism would bring civilization and Christianity to native peoples.
D.
They presented imperialism as part of a Social Darwinist competition with other nations.
 
 
Source-Based Questions Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 42. 

In Lin Zexu’s letter to Queen Victoria in Primary Source 24.1, he hopes that she will agree that
A.
it is unfair to bring opium to China but not to London or Scotland.
B.
it is only right that the Chinese government should share in the profits of the opium trade.
C.
some of the rulers of her honorable country have not been respectful and obedient.
D.
people who reap benefits at the misfortune of others cannot be tolerated.
 

 43. 

In Primary Source 24.1: Lin Zexu and Yamagata Aritomo on Western Imperialism, what kind of army did Aritomo advocate for the defense of the nation?
A.
An army in which every able-bodied man twenty years of age is drafted into military service for a period and then goes into the reserves
B.
A large army in which the officer corps comes from the former samurai and the enlisted soldiers from the peasantry
C.
A small army meant to maintain order in the country while the defense of the nation is left to a large and very powerful navy
D.
A large army in which soldiers sign up for twenty-year terms, after which they go into retirement
 

 44. 

In Primary Source 24.5: The Brown Man’s Burden, a satirical rewriting of Rudyard Kipling’s famous poem, what do the following lines mean?
And though ’tis freedom’s banner
You’re waving in the van,
Reserve for home consumption
The sacred “rights of man”!
A.
Brown men should appreciate the efforts of white men to liberate them.
B.
The sacred “rights of man,” when all is said and done, are only for Europeans.
C.
Brown men must rebel against the white man for their own freedom.
D.
White men and brown men working together will grow rich.
 

 45. 

According to Map 24.1: European Investment to 1914, which areas appear to be receiving the bulk of French and German investments?

mc045-1.jpg
A.
Africa
B.
Asia
C.
The United States and Canada
D.
European countries, including Russia
 

 46. 

According to Map 24.1: European Investment to 1914, which areas appear to be receiving the largest amount of British investments?

mc046-1.jpg
A.
Latin America
B.
The United States and Canada
C.
Africa
D.
Australia and New Zealand
 

 47. 

According to Map 24.2: The Partition of Africa, which European states acquired their first colonies after 1878?

mc047-1.jpg
A.
Germany, Great Britain, and Spain
B.
Belgium, Germany, and Italy
C.
France, Portugal, and Spain
D.
Great Britain, Italy, and Spain
 

 48. 

According to Map 24.3: Asia in 1914, which Western power had the latest date of colonization in Asia?

mc048-1.jpg
A.
The Russian Empire
B.
The Japanese Empire
C.
The United States
D.
Great Britain
 



 
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