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Chapter 25 Test



 1. 

Who assassinated Grigori Rasputin in 1916?
A.
Bolshevik revolutionaries
B.
Agents of the tsarist police force
C.
German mercenaries
D.
Nationalistic aristocrats
 

 2. 

What part of Otto von Bismarck’s alliance system did William II abandon?
A.
Germany’s alliance with Austria-Hungary to resist Russian expansion into the Balkans
B.
Germany’s non-aggression pact with Russia
C.
Germany’s alliance with Great Britain to control the North Sea
D.
Germany’s mutual defense agreement with France
 

 3. 

What was the primary consequence of the First Moroccan Crisis in 1905?
A.
The United States chose to withdraw from European affairs.
B.
The French Empire in northern Africa began to collapse.
C.
The Ottoman Empire abandoned its claims throughout most of the Middle East.
D.
Britain, France, and Russia began to see Germany as a threat to dominate all of Europe.
 

 4. 

Germany’s initial offensive was stopped on the outskirts of Paris at the Battle of
A.
Verdun.
B.
the Somme.
C.
the Marne.
D.
Ypres.
 

 5. 

What was the immediate cause of British entry into the First World War?
A.
The sinking of the Lusitania
B.
The German invasion of neutral Belgium
C.
The Austrian ultimatum to Serbia
D.
The Algeciras Conference
 

 6. 

What issue contributed to tensions between Germany and Great Britain in the first decade of the 1900s?
A.
Germany’s decision to build a large fleet of battleships
B.
Commercial rivalry in world markets
C.
Germany’s pursuit of colonies
D.
British ambitions in the collapsing Ottoman Empire
 

 7. 

Which nations joined the war on the side of the Central Powers?
A.
Bulgaria and Greece
B.
The Ottoman Empire and Spain
C.
Spain and Greece
D.
Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire
 

 8. 

What did the Schlieffen Plan call for in 1914?
A.
Support of Austria-Hungary in its attack on Serbia and an invasion of Russia
B.
A quick defeat of Russia before turning on France
C.
A lightning attack through neutral Belgium and a quick defeat of France before turning on Russia
D.
An invasion of Russia together with diplomatic reassurances to France
 

 9. 

Why were the Balkans considered the “powder keg of Europe”?
A.
Russia had destabilized the region by claiming control over the straits to the Black Sea.
B.
The Ottoman Empire had been forced to give up its territory in the region, leading to growing ethnic nationalism.
C.
The region had failed to begin the process of modernization, leaving it backwards and extremely poor.
D.
Famine caused by Austro-Hungarian trade restrictions had left the region struggling for survival and furious at Austrian policies.
 

 10. 

Walter Rathenau is remembered for his
A.
May Day rally in opposition to the German war effort.
B.
assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
C.
role in Germany’s total war mobilization.
D.
advocacy of violent revolution against the German government.
 

 11. 

What were the two-front wars that military planners had anticipated prior to the First World War?
A.
Russia had assumed a two-front war against Germany and the Ottoman Empire, and Germany had assumed a two-front war against France and Italy.
B.
The Ottoman Empire had assumed a two-front war against Russia and Austria-Hungary, and France had assumed a two-front war against Germany and Spain.
C.
Germany had assumed a two-front war against France and Russia, and Italy had assumed a two-front war against Austria-Hungary and France.
D.
Russia had assumed a two-front war against Germany and Austria-Hungary, and Germany had assumed a two-front war against Russia and France.
 

 12. 

Throughout the First World War, what mistake did military commanders repeatedly make?
A.
They attempted to mount massive offensives designed to break through entrenched lines.
B.
They failed to recognize that armies could move faster than they could be supplied.
C.
They adopted new technology that had not previously been tried in battle.
D.
They failed to properly prepare defensive positions after seizing new territory.
 

 13. 

How did the war on the eastern front differ from the war on the western front?
A.
The war on the eastern front immediately became immobile as both sides established vast trench networks.
B.
The war on the eastern front included a more significant naval component with competition for the Black Sea.
C.
The war on the eastern front lacked the use of modern technologies and, therefore, led to less loss of life.
D.
The war on the eastern front remained more mobile, with Germany in a more dominant position.
 

 14. 

Why did the German military command recommence submarine warfare in the Atlantic despite knowing that it would lead the United States to enter the war against them?
A.
They believed that the United States had already decided secretly to enter the war and wanted to inflict as much damage as possible on Britain before U.S. troops arrived.
B.
They believed that the war was already lost and wanted to inflict as much damage as possible on Britain so that it would be weakened in its victory.
C.
They believed that improved submarines could starve Britain into submission before the United States could come to Britain’s rescue.
D.
They believed that Britain would abandon its war effort once the power of the new German submarines was recognized.
 

 15. 

Bismarck’s alliance system was designed to isolate France and to
A.
expand German territory eastward.
B.
challenge Britain’s dominant world position.
C.
maintain peace between Russia and Austria-Hungary.
D.
control the Balkans.
 

 16. 

What did Germany’s Auxiliary Service Law require?
A.
That colonial people serve in support roles in the German army
B.
That soldiers who had served their draft requirement reenlist in the military after a three-month break if they were healthy and fit for battle
C.
That unmarried women join the medical corps to help take care of wounded soldiers
D.
That all men between seventeen and sixty work at jobs considered critical to the war effort
 

 17. 

Why did Italy, after declaring neutrality in 1914, decide to join the Triple Entente in 1915?
A.
It believed that Austria had launched a war of aggression and took responsibility for helping to stop Austria and Germany.
B.
It was promised Austrian territory in return.
C.
The pope had convinced Italian leaders that it was their Christian duty.
D.
Growing Italian nationalism shamed Italian leaders into doing so.
 

 18. 

How did Henri-Philippe Pétain maintain order among French troops by late 1917?
A.
He promised a program of land redistribution after the war.
B.
He permitted troops to name their own commanders, who could countermand orders from headquarters.
C.
He formed a tacit agreement with the troops that there would be no more grand offensives.
D.
He adopted a practice of awarding divisions that performed well with time off away from the front.
 

 19. 

What was the February Revolution in Russia in 1917?
A.
An unplanned uprising of hungry and angry people in the capital
B.
A military coup in which the tsar was forced to abdicate in the midst of a mutiny
C.
A planned and coordinated Communist takeover of the government
D.
Originally a peasant rebellion that moved from the provinces to the cities
 

 20. 

Why did Austria-Hungary deliberately choose war in July 1914?
A.
It was prompted by the urging of Serbia’s enemies in the Balkans.
B.
It believed Russia would not intervene.
C.
It hoped to stem the tide of hostile nationalism within its borders.
D.
It hoped to seize Italian territory.
 

 21. 

What did the Petrograd Soviet Army Order No. 1 state?
A.
All troops were free to return to their homes and farms and to abandon the war effort.
B.
Military officers were stripped of their authority and power was placed in the hands of elected committees of soldiers.
C.
Soldiers who abandoned their positions were to be shot on sight as deserters.
D.
Military authority was placed under the control of the Bolshevik Leon Trotsky.
 

 22. 

During the First World War, the African colonial subjects of Britain and France
A.
used the war as an opportunity to revolt.
B.
played no part in the war.
C.
lent clandestine support to Germany.
D.
generally supported their foreign masters.
 

 23. 

What was the common effect of western-front offensives during the First World War?
A.
They won significant territorial gains.
B.
They failed on nearly every mission.
C.
They caused the slaughter of massed infantry units.
D.
They captured countless prisoners of war.
 

 24. 

How did Lenin and the Bolsheviks’ view of the Marxist party in Russia differ from the Mensheviks’ view of the party?
A.
The Bolsheviks wanted a militaristic party, while the Mensheviks wanted a party that promoted peace and an end to the war.
B.
The Bolsheviks wanted a party that focused on electoral victory, while the Mensheviks wanted a party that focused on a military coup.
C.
The Bolsheviks wanted a populist party that emerged from below, while the Mensheviks wanted a party that was hierarchically shaped by its leadership.
D.
The Bolsheviks wanted a small, disciplined party, while the Mensheviks wanted a democratic party with mass membership.
 

 25. 

What was French premier Georges Clemenceau’s opinion at the Paris Peace Conference?
A.
He strongly supported the creation of a League of Nations.
B.
He advocated lenient treatment of Germany.
C.
He agreed to renounce France’s claim to Alsace and Lorraine.
D.
He wanted to create a buffer state between Germany and France.
 

 26. 

How did Lenin respond to the peasants’ seizure of land when he rose to power in 1917?
A.
He attacked the peasants in order to be able to collectivize all land.
B.
He used the peasants’ actions to coerce the nobility to support his new regime in hopes of reclaiming their lands.
C.
He mandated land reform in order to offer his approval for what the peasants had already done.
D.
He required peasants to join the Red Army in order to earn the right to their land.
 

 27. 

What was the primary political weakness of the White forces as they fought against the Bolsheviks?
A.
They insisted on the restoration of the monarchy, which had little support among the peasants.
B.
They refused to negotiate with the Bolsheviks when invited to participate in the new government.
C.
They lacked any financial backing from foreign governments.
D.
They had a poorly defined political program that failed to unite the enemies of the Bolsheviks.
 

 28. 

What ultimately happened to Ukraine and Belarus, parts of the Russian Empire ceded to Germany in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
A.
They were made protectorates of the League of Nations.
B.
The Soviet Union reconquered those territories during its civil war.
C.
They were established as independent nations.
D.
Germany incorporated most of those lands into its new, expanded empire.
 

 29. 

How did the moderate Social Democrats in Germany put down the radical Communist Spartacist Uprising?
A.
They called on bands of demobilized soldiers called Free Corps to crush the uprising.
B.
They had the Catholic Church condemn the Communists and authorize parishioners to join in a revolt against them.
C.
They called for a labor strike against the Communists until their movement collapsed.
D.
They accused the Communists of being Russian spies and had them arrested on counterespionage charges.
 

 30. 

What was the principle of national self-determination promoted by Woodrow Wilson?
A.
People should be able to choose their own nationality and form whatever borders they find most convenient.
B.
People should be able to select their form of government, whether authoritarian or democratic, and establish their own place in the international order.
C.
People should be able to choose a structure of government within the framework of the League of Nations to ensure that individual rights are sustained.
D.
People should be able to choose a national government through a democratic process and live free from outside interference.
 

 31. 

Why did the Germans accept the Treaty of Versailles?
A.
They believed it was the best agreement they would receive from the Allied Powers.
B.
They had little alternative, especially as the naval blockade was still in place and the German people were starving.
C.
They believed that neither France nor Great Britain would enforce the provisions of the treaty that Germany disliked.
D.
They realized that some of the provisions would permit them to establish German authority toward the east.
 

 32. 

What was the Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916?
A.
An agreement between Germany and the Bolsheviks by which Germany funded Lenin’s effort to overthrow the monarchy in Russia
B.
An agreement between Great Britain and France to divvy up parts of the Middle East after the war
C.
An agreement between France and Belgium to establish a new German border after the end of the war
D.
An agreement between Germany and France to abandon the use of mustard gas
 

 33. 

What did the “war guilt clause” in the Treaty of Versailles declare?
A.
All of the Great Powers involved in the war were equally responsible for starting the war.
B.
All of the Great Powers with the exception of the United States were equally responsible for starting the war.
C.
The Russian Empire was primarily responsible for starting the war, and the Soviet Union was obligated to pay reparations.
D.
Germany (with Austria) was solely responsible for the war and had to pay reparations.
 

 34. 

How did the Western powers react to the declarations of independence by Syria and Iraq shortly following the First World War?
A.
They invaded the two regions and defeated the independence movements.
B.
They pointed to the declarations as models of national self-determination.
C.
They reinforced the ability of the Ottoman Empire to reclaim the territories.
D.
They placed the regions under the protectorate of the League of Nations.
 

 35. 

What was the result of Allied support of the White armies in the Russian civil war?
A.
It helped the Bolsheviks, who could appeal to patriotic nationalism against the Allies.
B.
It blocked the Germans from advancing into Ukraine.
C.
It caused the Bolsheviks to initiate their policy of terror.
D.
It helped the Finns to gain their independence.
 

 36. 

Following the First World War, what was one of the most difficult domestic problems faced by governments?
A.
Providing care for the large number of injured veterans
B.
Identifying collaborators who had aided the enemy
C.
Adapting to new expectations about women’s voting rights
D.
Returning to peacetime economic production
 

 37. 

What was the fatal turning point in the Russian prosecution of the war?
A.
The formation of the Progressive bloc, which called for a completely new government responsible to the Duma
B.
The tsar’s decision to assume command of Russia’s armies, leaving the government in the hands of the strong-willed, autocratic tsarina
C.
The murder of court favorite Rasputin in December 1916
D.
The failure to produce enough rifles to send all Russian soldiers to the front with their own weapon
 

 38. 

Who was Alexander Kerensky?
A.
A colleague of Lenin’s and an important figure in the successful Bolshevik Revolution
B.
An important liberal political leader of the Provisional Government in Russia
C.
An agrarian socialist who became prime minister of Russia in July 1917
D.
A member of the Russian aristocracy who was an early opponent of the new Bolshevik regime
 

 39. 

How did Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff react to Germany’s loss in the war in the fall of 1918?
A.
They decided to mount one last grand offensive to save the honor of the German army.
B.
They accepted responsibility for the failure to win the war and decided to sue for peace.
C.
They staged a coup against the government and deposed the German emperor.
D.
Not wanting to shoulder the blame, they insisted moderate politicians should take responsibility for the defeat.
 

 40. 

What did the Balfour Declaration of November 1917, written by British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour, announce?
A.
Britain favored a national state for Arab peoples in the Middle East.
B.
Britain favored a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine.
C.
Britain wished to grant India independence as quickly as possible after the war.
D.
Britain supported Polish demands for an independent nation-state.
 

 41. 

What happened to Armenian inhabitants of the Ottoman Empire during World War I?
A.
Having lived on both sides of the border between the Ottoman and Russian empires, they left the former in large number to seek sanctuary in Russia.
B.
The Ottoman Empire ordered their mass deportation from their homeland, resulting in about a million Armenian deaths from murder, starvation, and disease.
C.
They largely remained within their homeland in the Ottoman Empire but were criticized for not contributing more to the war effort.
D.
Most found ways to leave the Ottoman Empire during the war and make their way to the United States.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 42. 

According to Primary Source 25.1, why did Kaiser Wilhelm offer Austria-Hungary unconditional support in its actions against Serbia after the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand?
A.
The Kaiser was certain that Austria-Hungary would not need to carry out a military operation against Serbia.
B.
Germany would stand by Austria-Hungary in case of war with Russia, but the Kaiser did not believe Russia was at all ready for war.
C.
Given the reaction of the various European nations to the assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the Kaiser was quite sure peace would prevail.
D.
The Kaiser believed that it was clear that France would restrain the Russian Empire and keep it from going to war with Austria-Hungary.
 

 43. 

John McCrae’s poem “In Flanders Fields,” as shown in Primary Source 25.2, states that the dead want
A.
the war to end so that they can lie peacefully in Flanders fields.
B.
the living to fight those who killed them.
C.
poppies to be adopted as the symbol of their ultimate sacrifice.
D.
the living to know they lived a full life.
 

 44. 

What does Wilfred Owen want the reader to understand in “Dulce et Decorum Est” (Primary Source 25.2)?
A.
That every patriotic Englishman should find it sweet and fitting to die for his country
B.
That it is neither sweet nor fitting to die for one’s country
C.
That the poet is suffering from depression
D.
That the use of gas as a weapon is a violation of the rules of war
 

 45. 

As noted in Primary Source 25.5, the General Syrian Congress in July 1919 sought “absolutely complete political independence for Syria.” How did it reconcile this demand with the mandate system?
A.
The mandate system would be allowed as long as the French government was not involved.
B.
The mandate system was to be understood as nothing other than economic and technical assistance that did not prejudice the complete independence of Syria.
C.
The mandate system would be allowed as long as the British government excluded Zionist migration to any part of Syria.
D.
The mandate system could exist if there were no economic barriers between Mesopotamia (Iraq) and Syria.
 

 46. 

Which countries are in the Triple Entente according to Map 25.1: European Alliances at the Outbreak of World War I, 1914?

mc046-1.jpg
A.
Great Britain, the Netherlands, and Italy
B.
Denmark, Germany, and Russia
C.
Spain, France, and Belgium
D.
Great Britain, France, and Russia
 

 47. 

Which European nations were neutral in World War I according to Map 25.3: World War I in Europe and the Middle East, 1914–1918?

mc047-1.jpg
A.
Spain, Italy, Greece, Switzerland, Serbia, and Denmark
B.
Spain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Norway
C.
Italy, Switzerland, Greece, Bulgaria, Sweden, and Norway
D.
Spain, the Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland
 

 48. 

Which nations made up the Central Powers and allies according to Map 25.3: World War I in Europe and the Middle East, 1914–1918?

mc048-1.jpg
A.
Germany, Luxembourg, Switzerland, and Austria-Hungary
B.
Denmark, Germany, Serbia and Bulgaria
C.
Italy, Bulgaria, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire
D.
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire
 

 49. 

According to Map 25.4: Territorial Changes after World War I, which new states were once part of the Russian Empire?

mc049-1.jpg
A.
Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, and Yugoslavia
B.
Albania, Greece, Bulgaria, and Romania
C.
Turkey, Romania, Finland, and Poland
D.
Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland
 



 
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