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Chapter 26 Test



 1. 

What agreement did the United States develop to resolve the economic problems of Germany and international tensions in Europe in 1924?
A.
Agricultural Adjustment Act.
B.
Dawes Plan
C.
New Deal
D.
Locarno Pact
 

 2. 

Which political group dominated the parliamentary governments of Germany in the mid to late 1920s?
A.
Social Democrats
B.
right-wing nationalists
C.
moderate businessmen
D.
Christian Democrats
 

 3. 

What does the “middle way” refer to?
A.
The Scandinavian response to the Great Depression
B.
The design philosophy of the Bauhaus
C.
The reform of German reparations payments
D.
The new literary efforts of writers such as Joyce and Faulkner
 

 4. 

What is the composer Arnold Schönberg known for?
A.
His creation of twelve-tone music that abandoned traditional harmony and tonality
B.
His composition of nationalistic German operas
C.
His use of pulsing dissonant rhythms in the ballet Rite of Spring
D.
His composition of musical background for the first talkies
 

 5. 

In his philosophical writings, Friedrich Nietzsche argued that
A.
the Western world had overemphasized rationality and stifled the authentic passions that drive human activity and true creativity.
B.
democracy, progress, and respectability were important ideas that no civilization could do without.
C.
the individual must not accept the idea that human existence is meaningless.
D.
humans must overcome their animal instincts, which prevent them from refining their intellectual abilities and moral sensibilities.
 

 6. 

Why was Britain more ready to conciliate Germany than France following the Versailles peace settlement?
A.
The British and Germans shared a common cultural heritage.
B.
The British feared the growth of French military power.
C.
The British wanted a strong Germany as a bulwark against Bolshevism.
D.
British had depended heavily on the German market for their exports before World War I.
 

 7. 

What was the British political party that emerged during the 1920s as the main opposition to the Conservative party?
A.
Liberal Party
B.
Labour Party
C.
Social Democratic Party
D.
Christian Democratic Party
 

 8. 

What did Jean-Paul Sartre mean by the expression “existence precedes essence”?
A.
The soul only enters the body after one is born so that God can ensure each person a soul appropriate to his or her place in life.
B.
Since there are no timeless or absolute truths, people must struggle to define their essence after they are born, completely on their own.
C.
The immediacy of life and its struggles must take priority over quests for the eternal and salvation.
D.
The essence of a life is defined by the environment, such as social position and access to education into which one is born.
 

 9. 

Gabriel Marcel found the answer to the postwar broken world in
A.
socialism.
B.
Marxism.
C.
the Catholic Church.
D.
Calvinist theology.
 

 10. 

The nineteenth-century Danish theologian Søren Kierkegaard taught that
A.
advances in science proved the existence of God by the universe’s intricate design, which required an original designer.
B.
God’s existence could not be proven, but believers must take a leap of faith and accept the existence of a majestic God.
C.
the study of the non-Western world shows us that there are many versions of God and all of them are legitimate.
D.
religions provide an appropriate escape for the common people, but the educated should never be bound by such a belief.
 

 11. 

What was the main argument of logical positivism in the twentieth century?
A.
Philosophy is only the logical clarification of thoughts.
B.
Individuals must become engaged in modern life.
C.
One must search for moral values and then act on those values.
D.
The concept of God could be adapted to fit within Einstein’s theory of the universe.
 

 12. 

What did the theories of Albert Einstein assert?
A.
Matter and energy are interchangeable, linking the apparently infinite universe with the subatomic world.
B.
The passage of time provides the one fixed reference in the universe, which scientists could establish as a standard point of reference.
C.
Particles of nature are essentially dead, as they lack an internal animating energy.
D.
The immutability of Newton’s laws of nature has been secured by modern science.
 

 13. 

In the twentieth century, Werner Heisenburg established the “uncertainty principle,” which postulates that
A.
scientific knowledge is unreliable because new discoveries constantly undermine older theories about the universe.
B.
scientific knowledge is the most reliable because scientists accept that their ideas are uncertain and constantly test and reexamine them.
C.
nature itself is ultimately unknowable and unpredictable and lacks any absolute objective reality.
D.
God produced doubt in humans to challenge their simple belief so that it would grow into a mature faith.
 

 14. 

In his writings on human psychology, Sigmund Freud asserted that
A.
the superego is the self-promoting desire for control and power.
B.
the ego is the irrational component of the self that is always seeking pleasure.
C.
the id is constantly negotiating between the demands of the ego and the superego.
D.
the id is the unconscious source of sexual and aggressive instincts.
 

 15. 

In the twentieth century, what was John Maynard Keynes known for?
A.
He advocated minimal government intervention in the economy.
B.
He was avowedly hostile to Germany.
C.
He denounced the Treaty of Versailles for economic reasons.
D.
He broke new ground in the study of genetics.
 

 16. 

How did Jean-Paul Sartre think that people could live authentically in the twentieth century?
A.
They must structure their lives around conventional social norms.
B.
They must choose their actions fully aware of their responsibility for their behavior.
C.
They must seek pleasure and avoid pain.
D.
They must passively accept the loneliness and meaninglessness of human existence.
 

 17. 

What did Marcel Proust attempt to do in his novel Remembrance of Things Past?
A.
Understand the historical laws governing human behavior as they played out in individual lives
B.
Explore how Nietzsche’s declaration “God is dead” affected a typical French village structured around its local church
C.
Demonstrate how the history of France was a story of the progress of mankind
D.
Discover the inner meaning of bittersweet memories of childhood and youthful love
 

 18. 

In Civilization and Its Discontents (1930), Freud argued that civilization required
A.
individuals to renounce their irrational instincts in order to live peaceably in groups.
B.
people to place themselves under the control of a single, all-powerful political figure.
C.
members of capitalist societies to work toward the Marxist vision of a classless society.
D.
all people to seek pleasure and avoid pain.
 

 19. 

In twentieth century literature, the stream-of-consciousness technique uses
A.
a series of visual images to express emotions.
B.
a series of disjointed references and observations for the reader to decipher.
C.
a linear line of language without punctuation or capitalization.
D.
internal monologues to explore the psyche.
 

 20. 

With the United States’ failure to ratify the Versailles treaty, many French leaders placed their hopes for future security on
A.
strict implementation of the treaty.
B.
the alliance with Great Britain.
C.
the League of Nations.
D.
a closer relationship with Germany.
 

 21. 

How did France and Belgium react when Germany refused to make its second reparations payment?
A.
They declared war.
B.
They established a naval blockade of German ports.
C.
They appealed to the League of Nations.
D.
They occupied the Ruhr district.
 

 22. 

The German government’s printing of money to pay unemployment benefits to workers striking in the Ruhr against the Franco-Belgian occupation of 1923 led to
A.
hyperinflation.
B.
French withdrawal from the Ruhr.
C.
a rise in the Ruhr workers’ standard of living.
D.
the crash of the U.S. stock market.
 

 23. 

James Joyce’s Ulysses weaves ironic parallels between the adventures of Homer’s hero Ulysses and
A.
the struggles of Napoleon Bonaparte to gain power during the French Revolution.
B.
an ordinary man’s aimless wanderings through the streets and pubs of Dublin.
C.
the development of a tourist industry in colonial lands.
D.
a group of radical students seeking to live on the margins of society in Berlin.
 

 24. 

What idea does the functionalist architecture of Le Corbusier promote?
A.
Buildings should be built without ornamentation and instead be practical structures with clean, straight lines.
B.
Buildings should reflect their surrounding environment, imitating the forms and designs of nature.
C.
Buildings should imitate classical forms that emphasized harmony and balance.
D.
Buildings should express the mood of the architect in reaction to the society around him.
 

 25. 

The American stock market crash of October 1929 was primarily the result of
A.
nationalist economic policies in Europe.
B.
an imbalance between real investment and speculation.
C.
the government’s Keynesian economic policies.
D.
the failure of Germany to keep up reparations payments.
 

 26. 

What did President Franklin Roosevelt’s National Recovery Administration (NRA) attempt to do?
A.
Plan and control the U.S. economy
B.
Purchase failing businesses
C.
Establish a social welfare system
D.
Nationalize banks, railroads, and heavy industry
 

 27. 

What did the Swedish response to the Depression involve?
A.
Increasing social welfare benefits and state spending on public works projects
B.
Increasing military spending
C.
Balancing the government budget by cutting government programs
D.
Erecting trade barriers and putting the currency on the gold standard
 

 28. 

What kind of world did Franz Kafka portray in fiction like The Trial (1925)?
A.
A utopian world in which everyone has everything they need
B.
A pessimistic world in which helpless individuals are crushed by inexplicably hostile forces
C.
A Marxist world in which the proletariat have triumphed
D.
A Freudian world in which all have repressed their instincts in order to live peaceably with one another
 

 29. 

The Great Depression did not hit Britain as hard as the United States or Germany, in part because
A.
Britain had a tradition of deficit spending by the government.
B.
the British government followed the recommendations of economist John Maynard Keynes.
C.
the British economy had moved away from international markets and toward production of goods for the domestic market.
D.
the United States provided Britain with substantial economic assistance.
 

 30. 

For artists such as the Dadaists and Surrealists, what was the purpose of art?
A.
To counter the drab filth of industrial society and produce hope through beauty
B.
To strive for beauty for beauty’s sake regardless of social difficulties
C.
To pursue the unconscious components of the mind in order to find pure truth
D.
To expose the bankruptcy of modern society and produce radical social change
 

 31. 

In the early twentieth century, the traditional arts and amusements of people in villages and small towns was overshadowed by
A.
modern mass media such as cinema and radio.
B.
public schools and mass education programs.
C.
the expansion of professional sports.
D.
a market culture expressed in merchandise catalogs.
 

 32. 

Who was the director of Triumph of the Will, a brilliant piece of cinematic propaganda based on the 1934 Nazi Party rally at Nuremberg?
A.
Sergei Eisenstein
B.
Fritz Lang
C.
Adolf Hitler
D.
Leni Riefenstahl
 

 33. 

The signatories of the 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact, initiated by French prime minister Aristide Briand and U.S. secretary of state Frank B. Kellogg, agreed to
A.
review on an annual basis any issues that might disturb the balance of power in Europe.
B.
take part in a defensive alliance against the Soviet Union.
C.
renounce war as an instrument of international policy.
D.
sponsor a revision of German reparations payments.
 

 34. 

Why did Britain’s abandonment of the gold standard not aid its recovery?
A.
Its gold reserves were so large from its colonial possessions that it undermined the efforts to create a free-floating currency.
B.
After industrialization, gold played a small role in the world economy.
C.
Many other wealthy countries abandoned the gold standard after Britain, blunting any advantage for Britain.
D.
The lack of bank regulations and currency controls resulted in a currency that already was devalued.
 

 35. 

Why was the Great Depression slow to affect France?
A.
France had substantial social security measures already in place that protected the population and prevented economic collapse.
B.
France refused to abandon the gold standard, which protected its currency and aided its response to economic decline.
C.
France was less industrialized than the other major continental powers in Europe and somewhat isolated from the world economy.
D.
France’s economy was based on basic materials that remained in demand even as demand for consumer goods collapsed.
 

 36. 

What was an important factor in both the rapid growth of the American stock market in the 1920s and its collapse in October 1929?
A.
Buying on margin
B.
The great increase in investments by giant pension funds
C.
Overly optimistic stockbrokers
D.
Over-regulation by the federal government
 

 37. 

Unemployment in the United States averaged only 5 percent in the 1920s but in 1933 soared to about
A.
10 percent.
B.
20 percent.
C.
30 percent.
D.
40 percent.
 

 38. 

What did the Popular Front do after its 1936 victory in France?
A.
It provided strong support for its sister Popular Front government in the Spanish Civil War.
B.
It launched a modest program of social reform in an attempt not to frighten businessmen or conservatives.
C.
It encouraged the union movement and launched a far-reaching program of social reforms that included a forty-hour workweek.
D.
It adopted the program of the French Communist Party and appeared to be preparing for revolution in France.
 

 39. 

In 1923, which German politician called off passive resistance in the Ruhr and agreed in principle to pay reparations?
A.
Adolf Hitler
B.
Stanley Baldwin
C.
Gustav Stresemann
D.
Ludwig Wittgenstein
 

 40. 

The German Communist Party, noisy and active in the 1920s, reserved their greatest hatred and sharpest barbs for
A.
Hitler’s Nazi Party.
B.
union workers.
C.
Social Democrats.
D.
ultranationalists.
 

 41. 

What did orthodox economists believe in the 1930s?
A.
Governments should increase spending and accept large deficits to stimulate the economy.
B.
Balanced budgets were the key to economic growth.
C.
Remaining on the gold standard would lead to a relatively quick economic recovery.
D.
Governments should avoid limiting international trade by raising tariffs.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
 

 42. 

In Primary Source 26.2: The Futurist Manifesto, what does Filippo Tommaso Marinetti have to say about war?
A.
War will not be possible owing to interlocking international economies.
B.
War and its ideals will be idolized by Futurists.
C.
War will soon be entirely in the past, as utopia is within reach.
D.
War is the tool of capitalists who want to enslave the proletariat, but Futurists are not fooled by this conspiracy of the middle class.
 

 43. 

In Primary Source 26.4: Keynes on German Reparations after World War I, why does Keynes believe that the Versailles peace treaty is rapidly depressing the European standard of life?
A.
The treaty does not provide adequate funds for the reconstruction of France and Belgium.
B.
The treaty destroyed the organization of the complicated European economy, depriving part of the population of its means of livelihood.
C.
The treaty offers no provisions for tapping the immense financial resources of the United States.
D.
The treaty does not take into account the crucial importance of Great Britain in the global economy.
 

 44. 

In Primary Source 26.5: George Orwell on Life on the Dole, what significant contrast does George Orwell draw between the industrial North and London?
A.
People in London go to the movies or listen to the radio more than they do in the industrial North.
B.
There are fewer people who are obviously destitute in the industrial North than in London.
C.
People in London are more inclined to be in favor of revolution as a solution for economic problems than those in the North.
D.
People on the dole in the industrial North are much less likely to marry than those on the dole in London.
 

 45. 

As excerpted in Primary Source 26.5: George Orwell on Life on the Dole, in what way does Orwell see the working class in England coming to terms with the Great Depression?
A.
The working class has allowed itself to be distracted by the cinema and the radio.
B.
The working class has sunk into agonies of despair at the thought of never working again.
C.
The working class has settled down to make the best of life on the dole.
D.
The working class is very close to mounting insurrections.
 

 46. 

According to Map 26.1: The Great Depression in the United States and Europe, 1929–1939, which European countries have the highest DIFF: Levels of unemployment?

mc046-1.jpg
A.
France, Britain, Ireland, and Sweden
B.
Belgium, Luxembourg, Poland, and Switzerland
C.
The Netherlands, Norway, Germany, and Austria
D.
Germany, Norway, Sweden, and Poland
 

 47. 

According to Map 26.1: The Great Depression in the United States and Europe, 1929–1939, which American states are in the Dust Bowl?

mc047-1.jpg
A.
California, Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Missouri
B.
Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio
C.
Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia
D.
New Mexico, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas
 

 48. 

Using Map 26.1: The Great Depression in the United States and Europe, 1929–1939, explain the relationship between unemployment and rioting.

mc048-1.jpg
A.
Countries with moderate unemployment experienced more strikes and riots.
B.
Countries with high unemployment experienced more strikes and riots.
C.
Strikes and riots occurred in every European country and American state with high unemployment.
D.
Strikes and riots did not occur in states with low unemployment.
 

 49. 

According to Map 26.1: The Great Depression in the United States and Europe, 1929–1939, which American states contain the highest percentage of population receiving unemployment relief?

mc049-1.jpg
A.
Washington, Oregon, Nevada, and California
B.
Colorado, Kansas, and Texas
C.
North Dakota, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and New Mexico
D.
Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana
 



 
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