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Chapter 27 Test



 1. 

What characteristics did Communist and fascist dictatorships share?
A.
Both engaged in state-controlled social engineering projects meant to replace individualism with a unified “people.”
B.
Both wanted to build a new national community grounded in racial homogeneity.
C.
Both viewed the Jewish people as the chief danger to historical progress for humanity.
D.
Both based their ideologies on the writings of Karl Marx.
 

 2. 

What was the effect of Lenin’s 1921 New Economic Policy (NEP)?
A.
It encouraged peasants to sell their surpluses in free markets and allowed private traders and small manufacturers to do business again.
B.
It permitted heavy industry, banks, and railroads to reappear under private ownership.
C.
It established five-year plans under which the state would direct the capitalist economy.
D.
It emphasized an agricultural revolution that would feature a mechanization of the production process.
 

 3. 

As practiced in the 1930s, appeasement was
A.
a French policy that avoided any controversial foreign policy actions that might provoke a civil war in between Republicans and Fascists.
B.
an American policy that favored isolation from European quarrels.
C.
a British policy that aimed to give Hitler whatever he wanted in order to avoid war.
D.
a Soviet policy that emphasized the need to concentrate on internal matters like the five-year plan and ignore European issues.
 

 4. 

Why did Stalin and his supporters sponsor the first five-year plan?
A.
They feared a gradual restoration of capitalism and, more importantly, wanted to catch up with the West and overcome traditional Russian “backwardness.”
B.
They believed that an organized cooperation with capitalism was essential and that the NEP lacked direction and purpose.
C.
They modeled the five-year plan on the Meiji Restoration in Japan, combining industrialization with, in this case, the preservation of core Russian traditions.
D.
They used the five-year plan, which Stalin knew would create a certain DIFF: Level of hardship and chaos, to create the ideal conditions for a wide-ranging purge of party and government officials.
 

 5. 

How did real wages for workers and peasants in the Soviet Union in 1937 compare with those in the Russian Empire in 1913?
A.
They were far higher.
B.
They were marginally higher.
C.
They were lower.
D.
They were approximately the same.
 

 6. 

Why was Mussolini expelled from the Italian Socialist Party?
A.
He plotted to assassinate its leader.
B.
He denied the necessity of violent revolution to establish a worker dictatorship.
C.
He was working as a secret government informer.
D.
He urged Italian entry into World War I.
 

 7. 

Why did Stalin call for the mass murder of the kulaks?
A.
The kulaks had sided with the counterrevolutionary White forces during the civil war.
B.
He believed that as landowners they would eventually embrace conservative capitalism and become great enemies of socialist progress.
C.
As the kulaks sought to defend their homeland in eastern Siberia, Stalin feared that they would side with the Japanese over disputed land claims.
D.
He believed that the religious faith of the kulaks would prevent them from adopting communism.
 

 8. 

Which battle was the decisive turning point in the clash between the Soviet Union and Germany?
A.
Stalingrad.
B.
Leningrad.
C.
Moscow.
D.
Kiev.
 

 9. 

Which of the following social groups was part of the new elite class in the Stalinist state?
A.
Former officials of the tsarist empire.
B.
Kulaks
C.
Highly regarded artists
D.
Financiers with access to needed capital
 

 10. 

How did German chancellor Heinrich Brüning try to cope with the Great Depression in the early 1930s?
A.
By spending large amounts on public works projects
B.
By cutting government spending and squeezing wages and prices
C.
By enacting new welfare measures
D.
By instituting free-trade policies to attract foreign investment
 

 11. 

Lenin’s New Economic Policy was a political compromise with
A.
urban workers.
B.
Russian peasants.
C.
White counter-revolutionaries.
D.
foreign capitalists.
 

 12. 

How did Stalin use the murder of Sergei Kirov to his own advantage?
A.
He blamed the murder on capitalist conspirators and cut off all diplomatic relations with the United States and Great Britain.
B.
He argued that the public press reports on the murder demonstrated the dangers of a free press and instituted strong press censorship.
C.
He claimed that the murder demonstrated that elements of the military were planning a coup to unseat him and launched a purge of the military high command.
D.
He blamed the murder on “fascist agents” within the Communist Party and launched a purge of the party itself that solidified his own control.
 

 13. 

How did Mussolini build support from big business in Italy?
A.
He instituted the liberal political reforms that they demanded.
B.
He gave huge military contracts to a few key business leaders.
C.
He established a new chamber of commerce with substantial power over commercial law.
D.
He left big business to regulate itself and never purged it members.
 

 14. 

The “cult of the Duce” (leader) promoted the image of Mussolini as
A.
a powerful strongman embodying the best qualities of the Italian people.
B.
a defender of Catholic values.
C.
an intellectual and scholar.
D.
a strong supporter of democracy.
 

 15. 

In the Lateran Agreement, how did Mussolini resolve the status of the Catholic Church in Italy?
A.
The Vatican was recognized as a protectorate under the League of Nations.
B.
The Catholic Church abandoned all of its political claims within Italy in return for a permanent church tax collected by the state.
C.
The Vatican was recognized as an independent state that received heavy support from the Italian state.
D.
The Catholic Church obtained tax and legal exemptions for Vatican City in exchange for recognizing Italy’s claim over the city itself.
 

 16. 

In Stalin’s Soviet Union, women
A.
were relegated to agricultural and domestic labor.
B.
shared family duties equally with men.
C.
could enter the ranks of specialists in industry and science.
D.
lost the right to vote.
 

 17. 

In the late 1920s, how did Adolf Hitler shape the Nazi Party’s message to appeal to middle-class voters?
A.
He deemphasized the anti-capitalist elements of National Socialism and vowed to fight communism.
B.
He adopted a liberal, republican political agenda that guaranteed civil liberties and property rights.
C.
He promoted the Christian foundations of Nazism.
D.
He emphasized the economic advantages to the middle class of the implementation of anti-Semitic laws.
 

 18. 

What was the purpose of the Enabling Act in 1933?
A.
It required all Jews to wear identifying badges.
B.
It outlawed all socialist and Communist political parties.
C.
It mandated a new civil requirement that forbade Jews from holding public office.
D.
It gave Hitler dictatorial powers for four years.
 

 19. 

Why did Hitler have the leadership of the SA storm troopers, roughly one hundred individuals, killed in 1934?
A.
He wanted to win the support of the traditional military, but the SA leaders had expected appointment to top positions in the army.
B.
The SA leadership had threatened Hitler’s leadership of the Nazi Party when the party unexpectedly lost seats in the 1934 elections.
C.
The SA leadership had abandoned the Nazi Party’s anti-capitalist position and sought to protect the property of military munitions makers.
D.
He believed that the SA was filled with Communist sympathizers who were awaiting an opportunity to undermine the Nazi Party.
 

 20. 

What was the Nazi Party policy of “coordination”?
A.
It linked the work of the traditional military with the work of the SA and the SS.
B.
It integrated German manufacturing of commercial goods with its production of munitions in order to hide the effort to rebuild the German military.
C.
It forced German society to conform to National Socialist ideology.
D.
It combined the German public school system with Nazi propaganda programs.
 

 21. 

Stalin’s theory of socialism in one country
A.
revised an original theory by Leon Trotsky.
B.
argued that the Soviet Union could build socialism on its own.
C.
maintained that the success of socialism depended on world revolution.
D.
proposed that the Soviet Union should give up trying to catalyze the world proletarian revolution.
 

 22. 

How did the Nazis seek to legitimize their racial policies?
A.
They undertook massive genealogical research in order to demonstrate that different races derived from different ancestors.
B.
They established research institutes and academies that measured and defined racial differences in order to present prejudice in the guise of enlightened science.
C.
They sponsored studies of cultures in order to prove that certain cultures were intellectually superior to others and that German culture was superior to all.
D.
They provided vast funding to both Catholic and Protestant churches in order for those churches to promote a racialized understanding of Christianity.
 

 23. 

How did the Nazi Party seek to promote the idea of the Volksgemeinschaft?
A.
They argued that the German people needed more room to expand in Eastern Europe.
B.
They established colonies in regions of Africa and Asia in order to establish German authority across the globe.
C.
They created mass organizations such as the Hitler Youth and held mass rallies to spread Nazi ideology and enlist volunteers.
D.
They took control of German industry in order to provide employment for the poor.
 

 24. 

What was the primary goal of the opponents of the Nazis in the Protestant and Catholic churches?
A.
To ally the churches with liberal, democratic politics
B.
To preserve religious life in Germany
C.
To overthrow Hitler
D.
To voice dissent at Hitler’s racial policies
 

 25. 

The parliamentary government in Italy was breaking down at the time of the Fascist march on Rome in October 1922, largely because of
A.
the violence perpetrated by Mussolini’s own black-shirted militants.
B.
mass unemployment.
C.
mutinies in the Italian fleet.
D.
the general strike against the government declared by the Catholic Church.
 

 26. 

Why did Britain adopt a policy of appeasement in its relationship with Hitler?
A.
It was more concerned about the activities of the Japanese in the Pacific than about German activities in Europe.
B.
It believed that the United States would step in if Hitler became too aggressive.
C.
The French government demanded that Britain adopt appeasement in its relationship with Hitler.
D.
British conservative leaders underestimated Hitler.
 

 27. 

What was Germany’s goal in the Battle of Britain?
A.
To destroy British naval ports so that Great Britain could not invade German-controlled land
B.
To undermine Britain’s ability to draw on the resources of its colonies for support
C.
To provide a warning to the United States against entering the war
D.
To gain air supremacy in anticipation of an invasion of Great Britain
 

 28. 

How did the Nazis manage the northern European states that they conquered?
A.
They established puppet governments with collaborators willing to rule the states in accord with German needs.
B.
They allowed independent governments to rule the conquered regions as long as they remained allied with Germany.
C.
They placed German governors over the lands with full authority to manage local populations.
D.
They created a German bureaucracy staffed by professional diplomats to rule over the conquered peoples.
 

 29. 

What problem was faced by most of the underground resistance groups who opposed the Nazis?
A.
They had little ability to organize in the face of constant pressure from the German secret police.
B.
They were not well unified, for they had differing political goals.
C.
They were not supported by the local populations, which feared reprisals from the German military.
D.
They had no ability to establish contact with Germany’s enemies in order to coordinate their activities.
 

 30. 

Where did Nazi administrators initially gain experience in mass murder?
A.
The murder of Poles during the invasion of Poland
B.
The murder of gypsies in Germany prior to the war
C.
The murder of Communists following the burning of the German Reichstag (Parliament)
D.
The murder of Germans with physical and mental disabilities prior to the war
 

 31. 

What were the duties of the German Einsatzgruppen (Special Task Forces)?
A.
They followed the German army into Central Europe, systematically murdering “undesirables” as they moved from town to town.
B.
They requisitioned supplies for the Germany army so that the blitzkrieg (or lightening war) would not be slowed by the need to secure supply lines.
C.
They served as Hitler’s personal guard who protected him from a coup by the military and who oversaw the work of the SS.
D.
They were Hitler’s representatives to Mussolini, ensuring that the Italian leader pursued policies to support the war.
 

 32. 

Britain and France finally confronted Hitler with the threat of war when he
A.
remilitarized the Rhineland.
B.
occupied Austria.
C.
took the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia.
D.
used the pretext of German minorities in Danzig to threaten Poland.
 

 33. 

According to Hitler’s New Order, which European race was considered subhuman along with the Jews?
A.
The Latin race
B.
The Slavic race
C.
The Nordic race
D.
The Anglo-Saxon race
 

 34. 

What was the “Europe First” policy adopted by the Allied Powers during World War II?
A.
Allied forces in Europe would be supplied with American military arms before such arms were made available to forces fighting in Asia.
B.
Atomic weapons would be used first in Europe if they were ready before the war ended.
C.
Hitler would be defeated before the Allies mounted an all-out assault on Japan.
D.
All colonies were expected to support the European governments before defending themselves.
 

 35. 

Why did the Soviet army stop its advance on Warsaw in August 1944?
A.
So that it would not violate the agreements among the allies as to how far each nation would advance
B.
So that supplies and troops could be shifted to the Asian theater of operations to counter recent Japanese gains
C.
So that the German army could destroy a Polish insurgence that intended to resist the Soviet army as well
D.
So they could offer Germany the opportunity to surrender and avoid a bloody conquest
 

 36. 

Who were the kulaks in Stalin’s Soviet Union?
A.
Shop owners and small manufacturers who wanted the New Economic Policy to continue
B.
Former tsarist government officials who were singled out as traitors in the first five-year plan
C.
Veterans of the Red Army from the civil war period
D.
Better-off peasants who were stripped of land and livestock and usually not allowed to join collective farms
 

 37. 

What was the effect of the 1935 Nuremberg Law?
A.
It allowed marriage between a Jew and a person defined as a German.
B.
It defined as Jewish anyone having three or more Jewish grandparents.
C.
It permitted Jews to have some rights of citizenship.
D.
It banned most Jewish lawyers, doctors, and professors from their professions.
 

 38. 

Which countries in August 1939 signed a nonaggression pact that led directly to war?
A.
Germany and Italy
B.
Britain and Germany
C.
Germany and the Soviet Union
D.
Poland and the Soviet Union
 

 39. 

The target of the first of two atomic bombs dropped on Japan in 1945 was
A.
Tokyo.
B.
Kyoto.
C.
Hiroshima.
D.
Osaka.
 

 40. 

What was the Holocaust?
A.
A scorched-earth policy adopted by the German army as it retreated from the Soviet Union after the defeat at Stalingrad
B.
The German policy of deliberately starving Soviet prisoners of war
C.
The systematic effort of the Nazi state to exterminate all European Jews during the Second World War
D.
The firebombing of German cities by American and British bombers
 

 41. 

The Allies adopted the principle of the unconditional surrender of Germany and Japan in order to
A.
eliminate the need for a peace conference after the end of the war.
B.
further encourage mutual trust among the Allies.
C.
encourage the home front in each Allied country.
D.
make Germany and Japan aware that they would be severely punished after the war’s conclusion.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 42. 

In Primary Source 27.2: Stalin Justifies the Five-Year Plan, Stalin wants the Soviet Union to
A.
continue the Bolshevik tempo of the first five-year plan so as not to lose momentum.
B.
continue to be an inspiration to the international working class.
C.
catch up with the West in terms of technology and industry in a very short time or risk going under.
D.
construct a powerful economy that could help the Soviet military achieve world conquest in the near future.
 

 43. 

What did peasants on the collective farm expect from their first year of collectivization, as described by Fedor Belov in Primary Source 27.3?
A.
That the operation of the kolkhoz would work to their advantage since the harvest was successful
B.
That hard work on their small personal plots of land would offset low pay by the kolkhoz
C.
That the government would take any surplus crops and that it would be difficult to survive until the next harvest
D.
That the kolkhoz would largely contribute to the success of the five-year plan
 

 44. 

As noted in Primary Source 27.3: Famine and Recovery on a Soviet Collective Farm, what actually happened in the first year after collectivization?
A.
The harvest was successful, and the peasants were rewarded fairly for their efforts.
B.
The government took most of the grain, including the seed fund, and famine became widespread.
C.
The government took a large percentage of the harvest, but peasants were able to survive on crops produced on their small personal plots of land.
D.
The peasants, believing they had been forced back into a kind of serfdom, did as little as possible, and the government took a disproportionate share of the harvest.
 

 45. 

Read Primary Source 27.4: The “Reich Citizenship Law” and the Nazi Volk. What did the Official Commentary on the Reich Citizenship Law (part of the 1935 Nuremberg Laws) emphasize?
A.
The importance of protecting the rights of the individual
B.
The concept that Reich citizenship is open to all residents who support the political system and laws of the country
C.
The doctrine that anyone of alien blood, especially Jews, is automatically excluded from Reich citizenship
D.
The law that citizenship was available only to members of the Nazi Party and affiliated organizations
 

 46. 

According to Map 27.2: The Growth of Nazi Germany, 1933–1939, by the end of 1938, Nazi diplomatic activities had changed the status of or added the following areas to Germany:

mc046-1.jpg
A.
Poland and Czechoslovakia.
B.
Austria, the Sudetenland, and Hungary.
C.
The Rhineland, the Sudetenland, and Austria
D.
The Rhineland, Czechoslovakia, and Poland.
 

 47. 

Map 27.3: World War II in Europe and Africa, 1939–1945 shows important sieges in which three cities?

mc047-1.jpg
A.
London, Berlin, and Warsaw
B.
Warsaw, Leningrad, and Stalingrad
C.
Rome, Paris, and Berlin
D.
Leningrad, Stalingrad, and Moscow
 

 48. 

On Map 27.4: The Holocaust, 1941–1945, which of the following groups of camps are only extermination camps (as opposed to concentration camps)?

mc048-1.jpg
A.
Dachau, Mauthausen, Buchenwald, and Treblinka
B.
Ravensbrück, Sachsenhausen, Auschwitz, and Chelmno
C.
Auschwitz, Chelmno, Belzec, and Majdandek
D.
Dachau, Sachsenhausen, Buchenwald, and Mauthausen
 



 
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