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Chapter 28 Test



 1. 

What did the West German minister of the economy do in 1957 to foster economic growth?
A.
He dismantled the extensive social welfare network.
B.
He emphasized free-market capitalism.
C.
He adopted the French model of a mixed economy.
D.
He privatized major state-owned industries.
 

 2. 

After the Second World War, the Soviet Union
A.
experienced a period of general freedom.
B.
underwent a consumer revolution.
C.
reintroduced Lenin’s New Economic Policy.
D.
reestablished a harsh dictatorship.
 

 3. 

According to the best estimates, about how many people died in the Second World War?
A.
15 million
B.
35 million
C.
50 million
D.
80 million
 

 4. 

How did the Soviet Union and Eastern European Communist regimes treat displaced persons returning home after the war?
A.
As additional burdens on already struggling societies
B.
As politically unreliable because of their exposure to Western European society
C.
As conquering heroes to be celebrated and honored
D.
As potential sources of support for unpopular regimes
 

 5. 

After the war, why did national governments quickly establish authority over questions of guilt and punishment for those who had collaborated with the Nazi regime?
A.
Governments wanted to turn attention away from the issue of collaboration.
B.
Unofficial groups were seizing and executing alleged collaborators on their own.
C.
Many Nazi collaborators were fleeing to South America.
D.
Governments wanted to prevent the possibility of rebellion by a Nazi underground.
 

 6. 

What was the consequence of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s agreement with Joseph Stalin at the Teheran Conference that the British-American armies would launch a frontal assault on France?
A.
The United States would not be able to supply the Soviet Union with needed arms.
B.
Great Britain would be able to protect its colonial holdings from Soviet influence.
C.
British-American armies fighting in France would face the bulk of the German military.
D.
Only Soviet troops would liberate Eastern Europe.
 

 7. 

The ultimate goal of the plan for an international organization to coordinate coal and steel production in Europe in the 1950s was to
A.
rebuild the European economy.
B.
create a single, competitive market in Europe.
C.
reduce the influence of the United States.
D.
bind the six members of the European Coal and Steel Community so closely that war would be impossible.
 

 8. 

When did Jews in Palestine proclaim the state of Israel?
A.
After Germany surrendered in May 1945
B.
After the British withdrew from Palestine in 1948
C.
After the United States proclaimed the Truman Doctrine in 1947
D.
After the U.S. Congress promised economic assistance in 1949
 

 9. 

At the time of the Yalta Conference in 1945, why was the position of the Soviet Union much stronger in negotiations with the United States and Great Britain?
A.
.The Soviet army already occupied much of Eastern Europe.
B.
The Soviet Union had developed the technology required to detonate a nuclear warhead.
C.
The Soviet Union announced that it was not interested in taking part in the war against the Japanese.
D.
The Soviet Union announced that it would not join a United Nations.
 

 10. 

How did the Soviet Union initially organize the Eastern European nations as it threw out pro-Nazi regimes?
A.
It established direct military rule by the Soviet army with only a few local leaders in minor positions.
B.
It created coalition governments of leftist political parties but reserved key government posts for Moscow-trained Communists.
C.
It built independent governments that held free elections, all of which elected pro-Soviet political parties.
D.
It handed power directly to the national Communist parties in each region.
 

 11. 

Changes in the structure of European society after the Second World War were primarily the result of
A.
economic and technological transformation.
B.
rising birthrates among the lower classes.
C.
political and social revolution.
D.
large-scale emigration.
 

 12. 

How did the Soviet Union’s treatment of Czechoslovakia in 1948 demonstrate its intention to consolidate its hold on Eastern Europe?
A.
When Czechoslovakia sought to declare itself a neutral power in the conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States, Stalin ordered Soviet troops to invade and seize the government.
B.
Despite local protests, the Soviet Union established a massive military base in Czechoslovakia to in order to easily send troops throughout Central Europe.
C.
Even though the Czech Communist Party had won significant electoral support, Stalin still orchestrated the overthrow of the government and establishment of a one-party Communist dictatorship.
D.
When Czechoslovakia appealed to the United States for aid, the Soviet Union forbade the aid and any Western officials from entering Czech territory.
 

 13. 

What did the Marshall Plan accomplish?
A.
It demonstrated to Americans the futility of foreign aid, which enriched the rulers but rarely benefited local people.
B.
It established the foundations of socialist policies throughout Europe.
C.
It prevented economic collapse in Western Europe.
D.
It undermined the ability of free-market capitalism to develop in Europe.
 

 14. 

The growth of the middle class in the postwar era has been attributed primarily to
A.
increased demand for technologists and managers.
B.
the strength of family-owned businesses.
C.
the high birthrate among this class.
D.
increased opportunities for new businesses.
 

 15. 

Why was West Germany allowed to build an army after 1955?
A.
The agreements preventing Germany from building an army expired in 1955, a decade after the war ended.
B.
A German army would permit Germany to assist in the defense of Europe from attack by the Soviet Union.
C.
France and Great Britain were convinced that Germany had embraced democracy and abandoned militarism.
D.
The United States decided to withdraw troops from Germany in order to shift them to the growing conflict in Asia.
 

 16. 

Which six Western European countries formed the European Economic Community, or Common Market, in 1957?
A.
Great Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Italy
B.
France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Italy, and Spain
C.
Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Italy, West Germany, and Spain
D.
France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Italy, and West Germany
 

 17. 

The advancement in military weaponry and the space race
A.
inspired a new literary genre called science fiction.
B.
fostered a revolution in computer technology.
C.
created a sense of the superiority of the United States.
D.
established a confidence in the benefits of scientific discovery.
 

 18. 

How did Big Science foster the Green Revolution?
A.
The vast pollution produced by modern industry sparked a widespread and popular revolt against modernization.
B.
The threat of nuclear annihilation led radicals to join environmentalist political parties.
C.
Research into agriculture greatly increased the world food supply, using fewer workers and more productivity per acre.
D.
Industrial pollution in many areas caused breathing difficulties, leading governments to begin to regulate industry more thoroughly.
 

 19. 

In the 1950s and 1960s, what became the basic objective of all Western European governments?
A.
Economic growth
B.
Political independence from U.S influence
C.
Prevention of Soviet expansion
D.
Securing control over colonial lands
 

 20. 

Which position did Christian Democrats across Europe endorse during the 1950s?
A.
Nationalism
B.
The Cold War against the Soviet Union
C.
Soviet interests
D.
Socialist economic policies
 

 21. 

The Bretton Woods agreement of 1944
A.
required all western nations to abandon the gold standard.
B.
linked western European currencies to the U.S. dollar.
C.
.recommended that nations have balanced budgets.
D.
encouraged countries to set relatively low tariff rates
 

 22. 

Why did the Council of Europe fail to evolve into a European parliament with sovereign rights?
A.
France withdrew from NATO, provoking a split among all the nations as to the council’s foreign policy goals.
B.
The recession of the early 1960s caused all member states to grow leery of further entanglement.
C.
Great Britain consistently opposed conceding any real political power and sovereignty to the council.
D.
The Soviet Union threatened Western Europe with nuclear annihilation if it unified into a single sovereign state.
 

 23. 

Why did Charles de Gaulle withdraw France from NATO?
A.
He viewed the United States as the main threat to French independence.
B.
He wanted to develop a French nuclear program that the United States refused to endorse.
C.
He sought to position France as a main trading partner of the Soviet Union.
D.
He rejected the United States’ efforts to promote decolonization.
 

 24. 

How did the East German government respond to the nationwide demonstrations against poor wages and working conditions in 1953?
A.
It put down the strike with its military police force and then disbanded all labor unions.
B.
It permitted Soviet troops to put down the revolt and jailed demonstrators, but then instituted reforms to respond to the demonstrators’ strongest demands.
C.
It admitted labor leaders to the governing economic council and implemented a wide array of reforms to improve working conditions and raise pay.
D.
It crushed the revolt and instituted a purge of all Communist Party members who had expressed sympathy with the demonstrators.
 

 25. 

What did Nikita Khrushchev’s de-Stalinization campaign call for?
A.
The Communist Party to retain its monopoly on political power
B.
The Communist Party to stop recruiting new members
C.
The Communist Party to permit elections at the local DIFF: Level
D.
The Community Part to continue to emphasize heavy industry and military production at the expense of consumer goods and agriculture
 

 26. 

How did the United States respond to the decolonization movement in the first years after the Second World War?
A.
It encouraged European nations to let go of their former colonies.
B.
It sought to claim colonial lands that Europeans abandoned.
C.
It encouraged European powers to hold on to their empires to prevent new nations from coming under Communist influence.
D.
It encouraged colonial rebellions as a way to keep the European powers subordinate to U.S. power.
 

 27. 

In 1954, Vietnam obtained independence from
A.
China.
B.
the United States.
C.
Great Britain.
D.
France.
 

 28. 

How did Mao Zedong gain the support of the peasantry in China?
A.
He promised to provide all Chinese with guaranteed rice rations.
B.
He provided guaranteed price supports for rice.
C.
He promised to expropriate land from the large landowners.
D.
He rejected all foreign aid to demonstrate his independence from foreign influence.
 

 29. 

What was the outcome of the decolonization of the Belgian Congo?
A.
Belgium quickly withdrew from the Congo, granting it independence with irresponsible haste.
B.
The Congolese political leaders promoted a Marxist agenda that included the confiscation of all lands and mineral wealth.
C.
The Congolese army supported the democratically elected prime minister Patrice Lumumba.
D.
The C.I.A. helped to thwart a military coup against the democratically elected prime minister Patrice Lumumba.
 

 30. 

How did the pieds-noirs complicate the experience of decolonization in Algeria?
A.
As experienced veterans of World War II, these Islamic Algerians effectively resisted the French army’s effort to secure the position of the French colonists.
B.
Having been relocated to Algeria from Vietnam, they refused further relocation and demanded that the French government honor their commitments to protect them in Algeria.
C.
As members of the Islamic Algerian poor who had benefited greatly from French rule, they rejected the call of Islamic leaders to take up arms against the French.
D.
Having lived in Algeria for several generations, these European Algerians threatened revolt against France if France did not oppose the Islamic independence movement.
 

 31. 

The international military tribunal organized by the four Allied powers to try the highest-ranking Nazi military and civilian leaders was held in the city of
A.
Munich.
B.
Berlin.
C.
Weimar.
D.
Nuremberg.
 

 32. 

The Marshall Plan in 1947 was a response to
A.
Soviet efforts to block access to West Berlin.
B.
a Western Europe on the verge of economic collapse.
C.
the North Korean invasion of South Korea.
D.
the Czech Communists Stalinizing of the Czech government.
 

 33. 

What was the result of breaking the Berlin blockade in 1948–49?
A.
The formation of the Warsaw Pact
B.
The creation of two separate German states: West Germany and East Germany
C.
The establishment of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
D.
The announcement of the Truman Doctrine
 

 34. 

Christian Democrats in which country promoted a “social-market economy” based on a combination of free-market liberalism, some state intervention, and an extensive social benefits network?
A.
France
B.
Belgium
C.
West Germany
D.
Italy
 

 35. 

To receive Marshall Plan aid, European states were required to cooperate with one another. What was the result of this cooperation?
A.
The World Bank
B.
The International Monetary Fund
C.
The Organization for European Economic Cooperation
D.
The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
 

 36. 

Who was the only Communist leader able to successfully resist Soviet domination?
A.
Josip Broz Tito
B.
Imre Nagy
C.
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D.
Antonin Novotny
 

 37. 

What was socialist realism?
A.
Recognition that building socialism would require hard work and sacrifice
B.
The requirement that artists and writers idealize the working class and the Soviet Union in their work
C.
The view that writers and artists in the West only produced what the capitalist market demanded and therefore had betrayed their artistic talents
D.
A firm conviction that communism would prevail over capitalism in the near future
 

 38. 

Khrushchev’s “secret speech” at the Twentieth Party Congress in 1956 was
A.
an attack on the crimes of Western capitalism in the postwar period.
B.
an impassioned call to support Third World national liberation movements.
C.
a surprising attack on Stalin and his crimes.
D.
an apology for mistakes made in dealing with the Hungarian Revolution.
 

 39. 

Why did Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn’s One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich create such a sensation when it was published in 1962?
A.
It showed how a low-DIFF: Level Soviet official was tempted to misuse his power for personal gain.
B.
It portrayed in grim detail life in a Stalinist concentration camp.
C.
It exposed the sordid activities of a petty criminal, a type that was not supposed to exist in a socialist society.
D.
It presented a vivid picture of the future in which the Soviet system had triumphed completely.
 

 40. 

What does neocolonialism refer to?
A.
The efforts of newly liberated colonies to establish their own empires by conquering weaker neighbors
B.
The idea of a system designed to perpetuate Western economic domination and undermine political independence
C.
The establishment of authoritarian dictatorships by corrupt African leaders like Joseph Mobutu in the Congo
D.
Soviet attempts to extend their influence, particularly in the African continent
 

 41. 

Why did Europeans find postcolonial migration troublesome?
A.
Growing ethnic diversity threatened to overwhelm traditional European culture.
B.
The large number of immigrant workers drove down property values.
C.
Intellectuals worried that immigrant workers would never adopt European values and customs.
D.
Immigrant workers were taking jobs away from European workers.
 



 
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