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Chapter 29 Test



 1. 

What did Richard Nixon do following his election to the U.S. presidency in 1968?
A.
Immediately withdrew American troops from Vietnam
B.
Gradually reduced American involvement in the Vietnam War
C.
Increased the number of American troops in Vietnam
D.
Halted U.S. bombing of Vietnam
 

 2. 

Who began the wave of social unrest that almost toppled Charles de Gaulle’s Fifth Republic?
A.
Workers
B.
Students
C.
Civil servants
D.
Soldiers
 

 3. 

Poland differed from the other Eastern Bloc states in the 1970s and 1980s because
A.
its economy was managed effectively.
B.
it retained an independent military.
C.
of its independent agriculture and vigorous church.
D.
of its refusal to borrow from the West.
 

 4. 

How was the Tet Offensive, launched by the Vietcong in January 1968, perceived in the United States?
A.
As a sign that the war was not close to ending
B.
As a sign that the North Vietnamese were at the end of their tether
C.
As a sign of Soviet direction of the Vietcong and North Vietnamese war effort
D.
As a sign that more U.S. troops were needed to crush the Communist insurgency
 

 5. 

The Helsinki Accords of 1975 called for
A.
the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.
B.
the reunification of Eastern and Western Europe.
C.
respect for human rights and the recognition of existing political boundaries.
D.
American de-escalation in Vietnam and Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan.
 

 6. 

Who was the founder of the National Organization for Women?
A.
Simone de Beauvoir
B.
Betty Friedan
C.
Phyllis Schlafly
D.
Gloria Steinem
 

 7. 

Following the failure of his program of nationalization and public investment in the early 1980s, French president François Mitterrand
A.
resigned.
B.
failed to win reelection.
C.
was forced to introduce austerity measures.
D.
withdrew France from the Common Market.
 

 8. 

What was the result of Margaret Thatcher’s effort to encourage low- and moderate-income renters to buy their apartments?
A.
It failed miserably.
B.
It led to destructive debt DIFF: Levels for poorer people.
C.
It created a new class of property owners.
D.
It led to accusations that Thatcher was a socialist.
 

 9. 

Between 1981 and 1989, Ronald Reagan and the U.S. Congress
A.
increased taxes on the wealthy.
B.
cut defense spending.
C.
increased taxes and government-provided social services.
D.
cut taxes and ballooned the government deficit.
 

 10. 

What was the policy of détente that Social Democrats in Europe pursued?
A.
The reunification of East and West Germany
B.
A political unification of Europe into a single state
C.
A progressive relaxation of Cold War tensions
D.
The creation of a Europe-wide free-trade zone
 

 11. 

The essence of Willy Brandt’s policies toward the Eastern Bloc was
A.
to seek peace and reconciliation.
B.
to reduce the influence of NATO in Germany.
C.
to establish German neutrality in the Cold War.
D.
to reassert German claims to majority-German areas of Eastern Europe.
 

 12. 

Who wrote Divided Heaven (1963), a classic example of a novel that provided a critical view of life in East Germany but did not directly oppose communism?
A.
Helmut Kohl
B.
Willy Brandt
C.
Christa Wolf
D.
Betty Friedan
 

 13. 

How did the role of Christian churches change in postwar Europe?
A.
Church membership and attendance declined significantly.
B.
Churches committed themselves to defending traditional beliefs and practices.
C.
Churches became politically active institutions for the first time.
D.
Church doctrines embraced literal interpretations of Scripture.
 

 14. 

What did the New Left advocate?
A.
The establishment of socialism in newly decolonized states before capitalism took hold
B.
The restoration of classical liberalism with an emphasis on individual rights and economic freedom
C.
A return to anarchism and the formation of communes as the basis of a new life
D.
The establishment of socialism with a human face that would avoid the worst excesses of capitalism or Soviet-style communism
 

 15. 

The postindustrial society that emerged at the end of the 1970s
A.
idolized Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring and worked to reduce industrial pollution substantially.
B.
relied on high-tech and service-oriented jobs for economic growth rather than on heavy industry and manufacturing jobs.
C.
emphasized a back-to-the-land movement that included moving out of the cities and growing one’s own food.
D.
worked to establish a better balance between industry and agriculture.
 

 16. 

Why did the August 1991 attempted coup by the Communist old guard in the Soviet Union fail?
A.
Massive popular resistance rallied around Boris Yeltsin.
B.
Gorbachev used the Red Army to crush the rebels.
C.
NATO threatened to intervene.
D.
The old guard was unable to decide on a new leader.
 

 17. 

In 1992, Francis Fukuyama declared that the world had arrived at
A.
“a bridge to a new tomorrow.”
B.
“the first day of a new era.”
C.
“the beginning of the end.”
D.
“the end of history.”
 

 18. 

In the 1960s and 1970s, what was the purpose of Eastern European economic policies such as Hungary’s New Economic Mechanism and East Germany’s New Economic System?
A.
To focus economic production on military needs in order to maintain pace in the arms race with NATO
B.
To establish five-year plans to surpass economic production in Western European countries
C.
To introduce some economic liberalization and encourage the production of consumer products
D.
To fully adopt free-trade practices and principles within an authoritarian political system
 

 19. 

What did the leaders of the Prague Spring hope to accomplish in Czechoslovakia?
A.
To establish nationwide, multiparty electoral politics in support of free markets and individual liberties
B.
To reconcile socialism with internal party democracy, in which local decision by trade unions, managers, and consumers would replace rigid bureaucratic planning
C.
To overthrow Soviet domination and join NATO
D.
To overturn the recent liberal reforms that had challenged the position of the Communist Party and to restore centralized planning and economic controls
 

 20. 

Why did OPEC declare an oil embargo on the United States in 1973?
A.
The United States had attacked Iran in response to Iran’s seizure of American hostages during its revolution.
B.
The United States had intervened in Saudi Arabian elections in order to prevent a radical Islamic party from gaining authority.
C.
The United States had refused to join the boycott against the apartheid regime in South Africa.
D.
The United States had aided Israel in its war with Egypt and Syria in 1973.
 

 21. 

What did the era of stagflation in the 1970s demonstrate about the social welfare states in Western Europe?
A.
The welfare state was vastly insufficient to respond to the personal difficulties created by a failing economy.
B.
The welfare state was capable of preventing mass suffering and sustaining political stability and democracy.
C.
The welfare state was highly inefficient in its operations and resulted primarily in wasted funds.
D.
The welfare state encouraged individuals to freeload on society and inhibited economic recovery.
 

 22. 

The neoliberal policies of the 1980s promoted which of the following?
A.
Increased spending on social services
B.
Government subsidies to businesses
C.
Privatization of state-owned businesses
D.
Increase in regulations on industry
 

 23. 

How did Helmut Kohl’s neoliberal policies in Germany in the 1980s affect the Germany economy?
A.
The policies reenergized German industry, resulting in low unemployment rates.
B.
The policies undermined economic stability, which led to a revival of socialist parties.
C.
The policies increased unemployment in heavy industry but led to solid economic growth.
D.
The policies failed to revive Germany’s economy but resulted in a more equitable distribution of wealth.
 

 24. 

What did Rachel Carson seek to expose in her book Silent Spring?
A.
The rampant overuse of pesticides
B.
The consequences of the use of nuclear weapons
C.
The discrimination faced by colonial migrants to European nations
D.
The failures of the educational system to prepare future workers
 

 25. 

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, Spain faced terrorist actions by an insurgent movement of
A.
Catholic radicals.
B.
Basque separatists.
C.
Muslim revivalists.
D.
former colonial expatriates.
 

 26. 

Which of the following describes Eastern Bloc living standards in the 1970s?
A.
Equal with those in the West and well above those in the developing world
B.
Below those of the West and equal with those in the developing world
C.
Well below those in the West but well above those in the developing world
D.
Far below those of the West and even below those of most of the developing world
 

 27. 

The experience of women in the socialist systems of the East Bloc countries of the 1970s included
A.
the domination of the judicial system as lawyers and judges.
B.
the creation of independent groups dedicated to feminist reform.
C.
an extensive system of state-supported childcare that freed women to work outside the home.
D.
an end of the double burden of work in the office and at home.
 

 28. 

How did the Solidarity trade union in Poland understand its goals in the early 1980s?
A.
It sought to force the government out of economic planning so that the free market could direct economic activity.
B.
It sought to establish open democratic elections in which the Communist Party would have to compete for power.
C.
It sought a self-limiting revolution to defend freedoms won in previous agreements with the Communist government.
D.
It sought to overthrow the government and drive the Communist Party out of Poland.
 

 29. 

What was Mikhail Gorbachev’s goal in bringing reforms to Russia?
A.
To revitalize the Soviet system in order to save it
B.
To secure the power of the Communist Party through more sophisticated systems of control
C.
To merge capitalism and communism into a new economic system
D.
To prepare for a the collapse of Communist authority
 

 30. 

Samizdat literature referred to books, periodicals, pamphlets, and newspapers that were
A.
published secretly and passed from hand to hand.
B.
available only at special stores for Communist party members.
C.
smuggled in from the West.
D.
regarded as pornographic by the Communist government.
 

 31. 

How did many Soviet citizens receive lessons in open political discussion, critical thinking, and representative government?
A.
From participation in local councils in each neighborhood that resolved local political grievances through elected officers
B.
From illegally watching banned U.S. television shows that depicted electoral activity
C.
From following political activity in new democracies that emerged with decolonization and were widely reported on by the Soviet press
D.
From watching the Congress of People’s Deputies, whose deputies had been chosen in free elections in 1989
 

 32. 

How was the revolution in Romania in 1989 different from the revolutions in the rest of Eastern Europe?
A.
A strong Catholic Church served as negotiator between Romania’s Communist regime and the rebels.
B.
It became violent and bloody when Communist leaders ordered security forces to slaughter thousands.
C.
It began as the Communist Party removed reform Communists leading the country and reestablished Stalinist leadership.
D.
The Romanian Communist Party initiated political reforms in order to build its legitimacy before elections that seemed inevitable.
 

 33. 

How did the West German chancellor Helmut Kohl build support for German reunification in East Germany?
A.
He promised East Germany’s business leaders that they would hold similar roles in the new, unified Germany.
B.
He immediately forced all Soviet troops to leave East Germany.
C.
He invited many high-ranking Communist officials into government ministries in the unified Germany.
D.
He offered the East Germans an economically advantageous swap of East German currency for West German currency.
 

 34. 

Boris Yeltsin’s role in the disintegration of the Soviet Union included
A.
working as an ally of Gorbachev to save the Communist Party by opening party institutions to electoral politics.
B.
leading the old guard Communists who sought to kidnap Gorbachev and seize power in the Soviet Union in order to crush the reform movement.
C.
emerging as a radical reform Communist who embraced the democratic movement and led Russia to declare independence from the Soviet Union.
D.
directing the Soviet effort to quash Lithuanian claims of independence.
 

 35. 

The Brezhnev Doctrine stated that the Soviet Union and its allies
A.
would soon catch up to and surpass the West economically.
B.
were pursuing a policy of peaceful coexistence.
C.
had the right to intervene in any East Bloc country if necessary to preserve Communist rule.
D.
wanted to explore space with the United States and its allies.
 

 36. 

Mikhail Gorbachev, who became the leader of the Soviet Union in 1985, tried to reform the Communist system through perestroika, or
A.
a newfound openness in government and the media.
B.
democratization, which led to the first free elections since 1917.
C.
new thinking, particularly in the area of foreign policy.
D.
economic restructuring.
 

 37. 

Charter 77 was a manifesto signed by a small group of Czech citizens that called on Communist leaders to
A.
improve the benefits offered by the state welfare system.
B.
take Czechoslovakia out of the Warsaw Pact.
C.
respect civil and political liberties.
D.
establish trade relations with Western Europe.
 

 38. 

In response to the growing power of Solidarity in Poland, Wojciech Jaruzelski, a general and head of the Polish government, suddenly
A.
resigned in favor of the leader of Solidarity, Lech Wamc038-1.jpgesa.
B.
called on the Soviet Union to come to the aid of the government.
C.
appealed to the United Nations to resolve the crisis.
D.
proclaimed martial law and arrested Solidarity’s leaders.
 

 39. 

Who was Poland’s first non-Communist prime minister in 1989?
A.
Lech Wamc039-1.jpgesa
B.
Tadeusz Mazowiecki
C.
Karol Wojtyla
D.
Yuri Andropov
 

 40. 

What happened in 1989 when the Hungarians tore down the barbed-wire curtain separating it from Austria?
A.
Austrians flooded into Hungary to take advantage of low prices on food and other goods.
B.
Hungarians set up lucrative smuggling routes for illegal drugs.
C.
Large numbers of dissatisfied East German “vacationers” crossed from Hungary into Austria and from there on to West Germany.
D.
Unemployed residents of the Central Asian republics of the Soviet Union crossed into Austria in search of jobs.
 

 41. 

What was the Paris Accord, signed in 1990 by twenty-two European countries, the United States, and the Soviet Union?
A.
An agreement to respect the environment and a pledge to undo the damage that had been done up to that point
B.
A formal recognition of the superiority of democratic political systems
C.
Essentially a general peace treaty that brought an end to both World War II and the Cold War
D.
A pledge to create an economic organization that would include all European countries and replace the European Community
 
 
Source-Based Questions
 

 42. 

In Primary Source 29.3: Simone de Beauvoir’s Feminist Critique of Marriage, how does Beauvoir describe the situation of a housewife?
A.
A woman defines herself by how she keeps house.
B.
A woman’s main task is to maintain a refuge for her husband, a place in which he can restore himself.
C.
A woman doing housework is running in place and never gets a sense of positive accomplishment.
D.
Even without “help,” a woman hardly has anything to do given the many conveniences available for housekeeping tasks.
 

 43. 

In Primary Source 29.3: Simone de Beauvoir’s Feminist Critique of Marriage, what does Beauvoir consider an ideal relationship between a man and a woman?
A.
The couple should consider itself a community.
B.
The man has a life in public; the woman justifies her existence through his activity.
C.
Both the man and the woman are integrated into a society in which each can thrive.
D.
The man offers the woman an escape from the boredom of the first twenty years of her life.
 

 44. 

Read Primary Source 29.5: Dissent in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. In 1977, the Manifesto of the Czechoslovak dissident group Charter 77 stated that
A.
Czechoslovakian law does not guarantee basic human rights.
B.
basic human rights exist only on paper, not in practice.
C.
the ordinary citizen has no responsibility for the maintenance of rights in Czechoslovakia.
D.
the Czechoslovakian government should request permission from the Soviet Union to enforce the basic human rights recognized in the 1960 constitution.
 

 45. 

Read Primary Source 29.2: Counterculture Graffiti from Paris, 1968. Taken as a whole, what is the underlying message of the graffiti from the May 1968 events in Paris?
A.
Enjoy yourself; all is permitted.
B.
Don’t take things too seriously.
C.
Something’s wrong, but we don’t know how to fix it.
D.
Everything bourgeois is worthless and should be destroyed.
 

 46. 

Map 29.2: Democratic Movements in Eastern Europe, 1989 shows that most of the events of the Velvet Revolution took place in what capital city?

mc046-1.jpg
A.
Berlin
B.
Leipzig
C.
Prague
D.
Bratislava
 

 47. 

According to Map 29.2: Democratic Movements in Eastern Europe, 1989, which country was the first to display a democratic movement?

mc047-1.jpg
A.
Poland
B.
Czechoslovakia
C.
East Germany
D.
Yugoslavia
 

 48. 

According to Map 29.2: Democratic Movements in Eastern Europe, 1989, which country had the most popular demonstrations?

mc048-1.jpg
A.
Yugoslavia
B.
East Germany
C.
Romania
D.
Poland
 



 
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