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Period 6 Chapter 24 Test

 1. 

What was the principle by which the European powers established their claim to an African territory after the Berlin Conference in 1884 and 1885?
A.
Effective occupation
B.
The white man’s burden
C.
Annexation
D.
Military subjugation
 

 2. 

What was the result of the Berlin Conference of 1884–85?
A.
It set up the terms for the division of most of Africa among European colonial powers.
B.
It set the terms for the division of China into economic zones of influence.
C.
It declared Africa off-limits to colonization.
D.
It established high tariffs to protect German industry.
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
Orientalism
B.
Meiji Restoration
C.
gunboat diplomacy
D.
global mass migration
E.
new imperialism
F.
Afrikaners
G.
Berlin Conference
H.
white man’s burden
I.
Great Rebellion
J.
Opium Wars
K.
nativism
L.
hundred days of reform
M.
neo-Europes
 

 3. 

Two mid-nineteenth-century conflicts between China and Great Britain over the British trade in opium, which was designed to “open” China to European free trade. In defeat, China gave European traders and missionaries increased protection and concessions.
 

 4. 

The mass movement of people from Europe in the nineteenth century; one reason why the West’s impact on the world was so powerful and many-sided.
 

 5. 

The restoration of the Japanese emperor to power in 1867, leading to the subsequent modernization of Japan.
 

 6. 

The idea that Europeans could and should civilize more primitive nonwhite peoples and that imperialism would eventually provide nonwhites with modern achievements and higher standards of living.
 

 7. 

Policies and beliefs, often influenced by nationalism, scientific racism, and mass migration, that give preferential treatment to established inhabitants over immigrants.
 

 8. 

Descendants of the Dutch settlers in the Cape Colony in southern Africa.
 

 9. 

The 1857 and 1858 insurrection by Muslim and Hindu mercenaries in the British army that spread throughout northern and central India before finally being crushed.
 

 10. 

The late-nineteenth-century drive by European countries to create vast political empires abroad.
 

 11. 

A series of Western-style reforms launched in 1898 by the Chinese government in an attempt to meet the foreign challenge.
 

 12. 

The use or threat of military force to coerce a government into economic or political agreements.
 

 13. 

A term coined by literary scholar Edward Said to describe the way Westerners misunderstood and described colonial subjects and cultures.
 

 14. 

A meeting of European leaders held in 1884 and 1885 in order to lay down some basic rules for imperialist competition in sub-Saharan Africa.
 

 15. 

How was the flow of goods directed around the globe in the nineteenth century?
A.
By letters sent between merchants and captains as ships waited in ports
B.
By letters of transit that were given to ships’ captains before leaving, which directed their routes and activities
C.
By networks of carrier pigeons that carried directions for ships across the seas
D.
By new communication systems, such as the telegraph, that could direct ships from port to port
 

 16. 

After 1860, why did foreign aggression diminish in China until near the end of the century?
A.
Europeans had obtained their primary goal of commercial and diplomatic relations.
B.
Warfare in Europe distracted the Europeans from East Asia.
C.
Christian missionaries influenced governments to treat China with dignity.
D.
The scramble for Africa distracted Europeans from China.
 

 17. 

By 1890, how had Japan met the challenge of Western expansion?
A.
It completely adopted Western forms and traditions, imposing them on the poor and uneducated.
B.
It isolated itself from the Western world, banning most foreign travel and foreign visitors.
C.
It selectively adopted those elements of Western society that were in keeping with Japanese tradition.
D.
It united East Asia under its leadership to repel Western military activity.
 

 18. 

What was China required to do in the Treaty of Nanking (1842) that ended the first Opium War?
A.
Allow the British to oversee the collection of customs duties
B.
Open up four large cities to unlimited foreign trade with low tariffs
C.
Cede the port city of Guangzhou (Canton) to the British
D.
Pay an indemnity of $500 million
 

 19. 

How were governments able to use empires to ease social tensions and domestic political conflicts in the nineteenth century?
A.
They encouraged the masses to savor foreign triumphs as examples of national glory and prestige.
B.
They presented imperialism as part of a Social Darwinist competition with other nations.
C.
They turned the empires into dumping grounds for Europeans who were misfits or failures.
D.
They emphasized that imperialism would bring civilization and Christianity to native peoples.
 

 20. 

What new model for European expansion did Britain establish in Egypt?
A.
A combination of economic collaboration, political alliances, and mutual respect
B.
A combination of military force, political domination, and an ideology of beneficial reform
C.
A combination of trade, educational support, and technological assistance
D.
A combination of financial manipulation, indebtedness, and exploitation
 

 21. 

In the nineteenth century, what country dominated the three-thousand-mile archipelago that is now Indonesia?
A.
Portugal
B.
The Netherlands
C.
Spain
D.
Great Britain
 

 22. 

What belief drove native opponents to European colonial rule?
A.
The nationalist assertion that every people had a right to control their destiny
B.
The doctrine of Social Darwinism
C.
The ideas associated with nativism
D.
The Christian call for love and charity
 

 23. 

What is “Orientalism”?
A.
A doctrine holding that Asia offered the best opportunities for colonization in the late nineteenth century
B.
The idea that Arab societies in North Africa and the Near East should be carefully studied before they were overwhelmed by modernity
C.
A term used by modern scholars to describe the way Westerners misunderstood and described colonial subjects and cultures
D.
The belief that the Orient was not only an area of ancient civilizations but also where one could still seek spiritual enlightenment
 

 24. 

What did the Western world hope to achieve through the global economic system?
A.
Non-Western merchants could connect with the global economy and develop their own nation’s wealth.
B.
It would control and determine the national economic policies of nations across the globe.
C.
The wealth of the Western world would spread to rest of the world.
D.
The largest share of gains from trade, technology, and migration would flow to the West and its propertied classes.
 

 25. 

What did Heinrich von Treitschke believe was the significance of colonies?
A.
They sapped the resources and strength of nations for meager gains.
B.
They were essential to great nations.
C.
They did not guarantee a nation’s greatness.
D.
They violated the spirit of liberty that had led to progress in Europe.
 

 26. 

The largest share of European foreign investment went to
A.
Asia.
B.
Latin America.
C.
European states and North America.
D.
sub-Saharan Africa.
 

 27. 

What was the goal of the new imperialism of the late nineteenth century?
A.
To achieve economic exploitation without direct political control
B.
To support large migrations of Europeans to new imperial lands
C.
To convert native populations of new imperial lands to Christianity
D.
To create large political empires
 

 28. 

To what extent did the new imperialism result in economic gains and why?
A.
The economic gains were limited because the new colonies were too poor to buy European goods and offered few immediately profitable investments.
B.
The economic gains were substantial because the new lands had vast resources that had been largely undeveloped.
C.
The economic gains were substantial but could only be enjoyed after decades of development of the local infrastructure.
D.
The economic gains were limited because the new, more democratic governments lacked the political skill to dominate subject peoples.
 

 29. 

What was the primary factor that influenced whether European immigrants returned to their native lands?
A.
The strength of their new nationalism
B.
Their degree of success in the New World
C.
The possibility of buying land in the home country
D.
Family connections in Europe
 

 30. 

In most European countries, how was emigration related to population growth in the late nineteenth century?
A.
Emigration decreased as population growth increased, providing evidence of stable growing economies.
B.
Emigration increased about twenty years after a rapid growth in population, as land became scarce.
C.
Emigration encouraged population growth as employment and land became more available.
D.
Emigration occurred as population growth occurred, maintaining a rather constant balance.
 

 31. 

How did the British obtain the opium that they smuggled into China?
A.
The British seized opium that was illegally grown in the Middle East.
B.
British landlords in Ireland forced Irish peasants to abandon potato fields and grow poppies.
C.
Opium was widely grown in the recently seized lands of Australia.
D.
Opium was grown legally in British-occupied India.
 

 32. 

The Meiji Restoration restored the Japanese emperor to power in 1867 and
A.
formed an alliance with the Chinese in order to deal more effectively with Westerners.
B.
invited Christian missionaries to return to Japan.
C.
closed Japan once again to Western influence.
D.
initiated a series of measures to reform Japan along modern lines.
 

 33. 

How did the building of railroads in Latin America, Asia, and Africa facilitate Western economic interests as opposed to regional economic interests?
A.
Railroad lines connected resource-rich inland cities to seaports to facilitate Western trade but did not link inland cities to each other.
B.
Railroad lines destroyed regional trading patterns by offering more profitable trade with Western markets.
C.
Local political leaders accepted huge bribes to permit Western railroads to build across their land regardless of the economic damage caused by the building process.
D.
Local economies had no need for railroads since they already had extensive trade networks.
 

 34. 

The Russian Marxist Vladimir Lenin asserted that imperialism
A.
signaled the coming decay and collapse of capitalist society.
B.
violated Christian morals and ethics.
C.
was a sign of the strength of industrial capitalism.
D.
diverted attention from needed domestic reforms.
 

 35. 

How did Muhammad Ali reorganize the Egyptian army?
A.
He abandoned the draft and adopted a volunteer army of highly paid recruits.
B.
He instituted requirements that all soldiers be educated in mathematics so that they could understand and effectively use modern armaments.
C.
He established the army as a permanent religious organization, launching jihad against the infidels.
D.
He drafted illiterate peasants and hired French and Italian army officers to train the recruits and their Turkish officers.
 

 36. 

The United States between 1815 and 1932
A.
absorbed the largest overall number of European emigrants.
B.
did not attract as many emigrants as Brazil.
C.
attracted more than half of all European emigrants.
D.
took in virtually all European emigrants.
 

 37. 

How did Ismail transform Egypt in the nineteenth century?
A.
He moved the capital to Alexandria and rebuilt it as a modern Western city.
B.
He refused to borrow money from Western banks.
C.
He promoted large irrigation networks for cotton production and export.
D.
He appointed British and French commissioners to oversee Egyptian finances.
 

 38. 

How did Muhammad Ali finance his modernization of Egyptian society?
A.
He forced farmers to become tenants of large, private landowners who adopted commercial agriculture.
B.
He instituted a high tax on all foreign firms and business in Egypt.
C.
He seized control of the Suez Canal and established transit fees for passage.
D.
He invaded the Sudan to the south and established a trade in slaves from the Sudan to the Middle East.
 

 39. 

Why did Japan open its shores to Western trade?
A.
As a result of the Meiji Restoration
B.
To enter the world economy
C.
To reduce its dependence on China
D.
As a response to U.S. military pressure
 

 40. 

What was the Boxer Rebellion?
A.
An uprising of militant Muslims against British rule in Sudan
B.
A revolution made by patriotic samurai who overthrew the Japanese shogun
C.
A rebellion of traditionalist Chinese patriots who wished to expel all Westerners from China
D.
A revolt of Chinese military officers who supported westernization against the Qing Empress Dowager
 

 41. 

What happened in 1898 at Fashoda?
A.
The Germans began the construction of a colonial empire in Africa.
B.
The French completed the expansion of their holdings in West and Central Africa.
C.
The British met and annihilated poorly armed Sudanese Muslim troops.
D.
British and French troops encountered one another and set off a serious diplomatic crisis that only ended when the French backed down.
 

 42. 

Rudyard Kipling’s “white man’s burden” referred to
A.
the difficulties of reaching consensus in a democratic society.
B.
the social costs of industrialization.
C.
the high costs of maintaining colonial rule.
D.
the white race’s supposed duty to civilize inferior, nonwhite races.
 

 43. 

Great Britain chose to seize land in Africa and Asia in the late nineteenth century because it
A.
believed that it was the best and most experienced country to aid in the development of local, native people.
B.
feared that France and Germany would seal off their empires with high tariffs, causing it to lose future economic opportunities.
C.
wished to establish a land corridor of colonial territories stretching from Africa across Asia.
D.
believed that it needed more land in order to be able to compete with the United States for world power.
 

 44. 

What did the British use to break China’s self-imposed isolation?
A.
Diamonds
B.
Cotton textiles
C.
Opium
D.
Steam engines
 

 45. 

How did the Union of South Africa function differently than any other territory in Africa?
A.
It functioned as a largely “self-governing” colony.
B.
It permitted Muslims to worship freely.
C.
It had few economic resources from which Britain could profit.
D.
It instituted racist policies.
 

 46. 

The typical European immigrant was
A.
a small farmer or rural craftsperson.
B.
a landless peasant.
C.
an urban factory worker.
D.
a middle-class professional.
 

 47. 

How did some British women seek to affect British colonialism in India in the nineteenth century?
A.
They called for an end to opium production in India because of its negative consequences for Indian families.
B.
They demanded that the British government establish limitations on the number of hours that Indians could be required to work.
C.
They worked to improve the lives of Indian women, moving them closer to Western standards through education and legislation.
D.
They insisted that British welfare benefits be extended to British India in order to support the population during economic downturns.
 

 48. 

What was Britain’s decisive advantage in its war with China?
A.
Britain had greater financial resources.
B.
Britain had superior military leadership.
C.
Britain had control of the seas.
D.
Britain had superior military technology.
 

 49. 

Why were Jewish immigrants in the nineteenth century unlikely to return to their native land?
A.
Violent anti-Semitism in Eastern Europe
B.
The success they enjoyed in their new homes
C.
Laws against such repatriation
D.
The high cost of travel back to Europe
 

 50. 

What medication proved to be effective in controlling malaria and allowing Europeans to venture into the mosquito-infested interior of Africa?
A.
Quinine
B.
Aspirin
C.
Penicillin
D.
Ladanum
 

 51. 

What was “nativism” in the nineteenth century?
A.
An attempt by European and American upper classes to imitate the seemingly simple lifestyles of native peoples
B.
A conscious effort to reach out to immigrants to make them feel they were welcomed and appreciated
C.
Beliefs and policies that gave preferential treatment to established inhabitants over immigrants
D.
An attempt to bring the benefits of civilization to native peoples in different parts of the world
 

 52. 

What was the all-important goal of the architects of the Meiji Restoration?
A.
To meet the threat posed by outside powers
B.
To expand trade with the West
C.
To form an alliance with China
D.
To bring an end to imperial rule
 

 53. 

What pattern did migration out of Europe often follow in the nineteenth century?
A.
Migrants sought out anonymity so that they could re-create themselves as new people with new lives.
B.
Various churches sponsored migrant groups in order to increase the political clout of the churches in the new lands.
C.
Families and friends would coordinate their migrations so that they would settle together in a new land.
D.
Migrants signed contracts with businesses to pay for their migrations in return for several years of labor in the business’s factories or mines.
 



 
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