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Period 6 Chapter 25 Test

 1. 

Following the First World War, what was one of the most difficult domestic problems faced by governments?
A.
Returning to peacetime economic production
B.
Providing care for the large number of injured veterans
C.
Identifying collaborators who had aided the enemy
D.
Adapting to new expectations about women’s voting rights
 

 2. 

Bismarck’s alliance system was designed to isolate France and to
A.
expand German territory eastward.
B.
control the Balkans.
C.
challenge Britain’s dominant world position.
D.
maintain peace between Russia and Austria-Hungary.
 

 3. 

How did the war on the eastern front differ from the war on the western front?
A.
The war on the eastern front included a more significant naval component with competition for the Black Sea.
B.
The war on the eastern front remained more mobile, with Germany in a more dominant position.
C.
The war on the eastern front immediately became immobile as both sides established vast trench networks.
D.
The war on the eastern front lacked the use of modern technologies and, therefore, led to less loss of life.
 

 4. 

Walter Rathenau is remembered for his
A.
assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
B.
advocacy of violent revolution against the German government.
C.
May Day rally in opposition to the German war effort.
D.
role in Germany’s total war mobilization.
 

 5. 

How did the Western powers react to the declarations of independence by Syria and Iraq shortly following the First World War?
A.
They pointed to the declarations as models of national self-determination.
B.
They invaded the two regions and defeated the independence movements.
C.
They placed the regions under the protectorate of the League of Nations.
D.
They reinforced the ability of the Ottoman Empire to reclaim the territories.
 

 6. 

What was the primary political weakness of the White forces as they fought against the Bolsheviks?
A.
They lacked any financial backing from foreign governments.
B.
They had a poorly defined political program that failed to unite the enemies of the Bolsheviks.
C.
They insisted on the restoration of the monarchy, which had little support among the peasants.
D.
They refused to negotiate with the Bolsheviks when invited to participate in the new government.
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
Triple Alliance
B.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
C.
trench warfare
D.
Fourteen Points
E.
total war
F.
“war guilt clause”
G.
Petrograd Soviet
H.
mandate system
I.
League of Nations
J.
War Communism
K.
Treaty of Versailles
L.
Balfour Declaration
M.
national self-determination
N.
Triple Entente
O.
Schlieffen Plan
P.
February Revolution
Q.
Bolsheviks
 

 7. 

A 1917 British statement that declared British support of a National Home for the Jewish People in Palestine.
 

 8. 

A type of fighting used in World War I behind rows of trenches, mines, and barbed wire; the cost in lives was staggering and the gains in territory minimal.
 

 9. 

Vladimir Lenin’s radical, revolutionary arm of the Russian party of Marxist socialism, which successfully installed a dictatorial socialist regime in Russia.
 
 
Source-Based Questions
Choose the letter of the best answer.
 

 10. 

John McCrae’s poem “In Flanders Fields,” as shown in Primary Source 25.2, states that the dead want
A.
the living to know they lived a full life.
B.
the war to end so that they can lie peacefully in Flanders fields.
C.
poppies to be adopted as the symbol of their ultimate sacrifice.
D.
the living to fight those who killed them.
 

 11. 

What did the Balfour Declaration of November 1917, written by British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour, announce?
A.
Britain wished to grant India independence as quickly as possible after the war.
B.
Britain favored a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine.
C.
Britain supported Polish demands for an independent nation-state.
D.
Britain favored a national state for Arab peoples in the Middle East.
 

 12. 

How did the moderate Social Democrats in Germany put down the radical Communist Spartacist Uprising?
A.
They had the Catholic Church condemn the Communists and authorize parishioners to join in a revolt against them.
B.
They accused the Communists of being Russian spies and had them arrested on counterespionage charges.
C.
They called for a labor strike against the Communists until their movement collapsed.
D.
They called on bands of demobilized soldiers called Free Corps to crush the uprising.
 

 13. 

Throughout the First World War, what mistake did military commanders repeatedly make?
A.
They attempted to mount massive offensives designed to break through entrenched lines.
B.
They failed to properly prepare defensive positions after seizing new territory.
C.
They failed to recognize that armies could move faster than they could be supplied.
D.
They adopted new technology that had not previously been tried in battle.
 

 14. 

What issue contributed to tensions between Germany and Great Britain in the first decade of the 1900s?
A.
Germany’s decision to build a large fleet of battleships
B.
British ambitions in the collapsing Ottoman Empire
C.
Commercial rivalry in world markets
D.
Germany’s pursuit of colonies
 

 15. 

How did Lenin respond to the peasants’ seizure of land when he rose to power in 1917?
A.
He used the peasants’ actions to coerce the nobility to support his new regime in hopes of reclaiming their lands.
B.
He required peasants to join the Red Army in order to earn the right to their land.
C.
He attacked the peasants in order to be able to collectivize all land.
D.
He mandated land reform in order to offer his approval for what the peasants had already done.
 

 16. 

What was the fatal turning point in the Russian prosecution of the war?
A.
The failure to produce enough rifles to send all Russian soldiers to the front with their own weapon
B.
The murder of court favorite Rasputin in December 1916
C.
The tsar’s decision to assume command of Russia’s armies, leaving the government in the hands of the strong-willed, autocratic tsarina
D.
The formation of the Progressive bloc, which called for a completely new government responsible to the Duma
 

 17. 

What happened to Armenian inhabitants of the Ottoman Empire during World War I?
A.
Most found ways to leave the Ottoman Empire during the war and make their way to the United States.
B.
They largely remained within their homeland in the Ottoman Empire but were criticized for not contributing more to the war effort.
C.
The Ottoman Empire ordered their mass deportation from their homeland, resulting in about a million Armenian deaths from murder, starvation, and disease.
D.
Having lived on both sides of the border between the Ottoman and Russian empires, they left the former in large number to seek sanctuary in Russia.
 

 18. 

How did Henri-Philippe Pétain maintain order among French troops by late 1917?
A.
He formed a tacit agreement with the troops that there would be no more grand offensives.
B.
He permitted troops to name their own commanders, who could countermand orders from headquarters.
C.
He promised a program of land redistribution after the war.
D.
He adopted a practice of awarding divisions that performed well with time off away from the front.
 

 19. 

Which nations joined the war on the side of the Central Powers?
A.
Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire
B.
Bulgaria and Greece
C.
Spain and Greece
D.
The Ottoman Empire and Spain
 

 20. 

What did the Petrograd Soviet Army Order No. 1 state?
A.
All troops were free to return to their homes and farms and to abandon the war effort.
B.
Military authority was placed under the control of the Bolshevik Leon Trotsky.
C.
Military officers were stripped of their authority and power was placed in the hands of elected committees of soldiers.
D.
Soldiers who abandoned their positions were to be shot on sight as deserters.
 

 21. 

What was the result of Allied support of the White armies in the Russian civil war?
A.
It helped the Finns to gain their independence.
B.
It caused the Bolsheviks to initiate their policy of terror.
C.
It helped the Bolsheviks, who could appeal to patriotic nationalism against the Allies.
D.
It blocked the Germans from advancing into Ukraine.
 

 22. 

What did Germany’s Auxiliary Service Law require?
A.
That all men between seventeen and sixty work at jobs considered critical to the war effort
B.
That soldiers who had served their draft requirement reenlist in the military after a three-month break if they were healthy and fit for battle
C.
That unmarried women join the medical corps to help take care of wounded soldiers
D.
That colonial people serve in support roles in the German army
 

 23. 

Why did the German military command recommence submarine warfare in the Atlantic despite knowing that it would lead the United States to enter the war against them?
A.
They believed that the United States had already decided secretly to enter the war and wanted to inflict as much damage as possible on Britain before U.S. troops arrived.
B.
They believed that the war was already lost and wanted to inflict as much damage as possible on Britain so that it would be weakened in its victory.
C.
They believed that improved submarines could starve Britain into submission before the United States could come to Britain’s rescue.
D.
They believed that Britain would abandon its war effort once the power of the new German submarines was recognized.
 

 24. 

Why did the Germans accept the Treaty of Versailles?
A.
They had little alternative, especially as the naval blockade was still in place and the German people were starving.
B.
They realized that some of the provisions would permit them to establish German authority toward the east.
C.
They believed it was the best agreement they would receive from the Allied Powers.
D.
They believed that neither France nor Great Britain would enforce the provisions of the treaty that Germany disliked.
 

 25. 

During the First World War, the African colonial subjects of Britain and France
A.
played no part in the war.
B.
used the war as an opportunity to revolt.
C.
generally supported their foreign masters.
D.
lent clandestine support to Germany.
 

 26. 

What ultimately happened to Ukraine and Belarus, parts of the Russian Empire ceded to Germany in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
A.
The Soviet Union reconquered those territories during its civil war.
B.
They were established as independent nations.
C.
Germany incorporated most of those lands into its new, expanded empire.
D.
They were made protectorates of the League of Nations.
 

 27. 

Why did Italy, after declaring neutrality in 1914, decide to join the Triple Entente in 1915?
A.
It was promised Austrian territory in return.
B.
Growing Italian nationalism shamed Italian leaders into doing so.
C.
The pope had convinced Italian leaders that it was their Christian duty.
D.
It believed that Austria had launched a war of aggression and took responsibility for helping to stop Austria and Germany.
 

 28. 

Germany’s initial offensive was stopped on the outskirts of Paris at the Battle of
A.
the Marne.
B.
Ypres.
C.
Verdun.
D.
the Somme.
 

 29. 

How did Lenin and the Bolsheviks’ view of the Marxist party in Russia differ from the Mensheviks’ view of the party?
A.
The Bolsheviks wanted a party that focused on electoral victory, while the Mensheviks wanted a party that focused on a military coup.
B.
The Bolsheviks wanted a populist party that emerged from below, while the Mensheviks wanted a party that was hierarchically shaped by its leadership.
C.
The Bolsheviks wanted a small, disciplined party, while the Mensheviks wanted a democratic party with mass membership.
D.
The Bolsheviks wanted a militaristic party, while the Mensheviks wanted a party that promoted peace and an end to the war.
 

 30. 

Who was Alexander Kerensky?
A.
A colleague of Lenin’s and an important figure in the successful Bolshevik Revolution
B.
An agrarian socialist who became prime minister of Russia in July 1917
C.
A member of the Russian aristocracy who was an early opponent of the new Bolshevik regime
D.
An important liberal political leader of the Provisional Government in Russia
 

 31. 

What did the “war guilt clause” in the Treaty of Versailles declare?
A.
The Russian Empire was primarily responsible for starting the war, and the Soviet Union was obligated to pay reparations.
B.
Germany (with Austria) was solely responsible for the war and had to pay reparations.
C.
All of the Great Powers with the exception of the United States were equally responsible for starting the war.
D.
All of the Great Powers involved in the war were equally responsible for starting the war.
 

 32. 

What was the principle of national self-determination promoted by Woodrow Wilson?
A.
People should be able to choose a national government through a democratic process and live free from outside interference.
B.
People should be able to choose a structure of government within the framework of the League of Nations to ensure that individual rights are sustained.
C.
People should be able to select their form of government, whether authoritarian or democratic, and establish their own place in the international order.
D.
People should be able to choose their own nationality and form whatever borders they find most convenient.
 

 33. 

How did Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff react to Germany’s loss in the war in the fall of 1918?
A.
They accepted responsibility for the failure to win the war and decided to sue for peace.
B.
They staged a coup against the government and deposed the German emperor.
C.
Not wanting to shoulder the blame, they insisted moderate politicians should take responsibility for the defeat.
D.
They decided to mount one last grand offensive to save the honor of the German army.
 

 34. 

Who assassinated Grigori Rasputin in 1916?
A.
German mercenaries
B.
Nationalistic aristocrats
C.
Bolshevik revolutionaries
D.
Agents of the tsarist police force
 

 35. 

What were the two-front wars that military planners had anticipated prior to the First World War?
A.
The Ottoman Empire had assumed a two-front war against Russia and Austria-Hungary, and France had assumed a two-front war against Germany and Spain.
B.
Germany had assumed a two-front war against France and Russia, and Italy had assumed a two-front war against Austria-Hungary and France.
C.
Russia had assumed a two-front war against Germany and Austria-Hungary, and Germany had assumed a two-front war against Russia and France.
D.
Russia had assumed a two-front war against Germany and the Ottoman Empire, and Germany had assumed a two-front war against France and Italy.
 

 36. 

What did the Schlieffen Plan call for in 1914?
A.
Support of Austria-Hungary in its attack on Serbia and an invasion of Russia
B.
A quick defeat of Russia before turning on France
C.
A lightning attack through neutral Belgium and a quick defeat of France before turning on Russia
D.
An invasion of Russia together with diplomatic reassurances to France
 

 37. 

What was the common effect of western-front offensives during the First World War?
A.
They captured countless prisoners of war.
B.
They failed on nearly every mission.
C.
They won significant territorial gains.
D.
They caused the slaughter of massed infantry units.
 

 38. 

Why were the Balkans considered the “powder keg of Europe”?
A.
Famine caused by Austro-Hungarian trade restrictions had left the region struggling for survival and furious at Austrian policies.
B.
Russia had destabilized the region by claiming control over the straits to the Black Sea.
C.
The Ottoman Empire had been forced to give up its territory in the region, leading to growing ethnic nationalism.
D.
The region had failed to begin the process of modernization, leaving it backwards and extremely poor.
 

 39. 

What was French premier Georges Clemenceau’s opinion at the Paris Peace Conference?
A.
He agreed to renounce France’s claim to Alsace and Lorraine.
B.
He strongly supported the creation of a League of Nations.
C.
He wanted to create a buffer state between Germany and France.
D.
He advocated lenient treatment of Germany.
 

 40. 

What was the primary consequence of the First Moroccan Crisis in 1905?
A.
The Ottoman Empire abandoned its claims throughout most of the Middle East.
B.
The United States chose to withdraw from European affairs.
C.
Britain, France, and Russia began to see Germany as a threat to dominate all of Europe.
D.
The French Empire in northern Africa began to collapse.
 

 41. 

What part of Otto von Bismarck’s alliance system did William II abandon?
A.
Germany’s mutual defense agreement with France
B.
Germany’s alliance with Great Britain to control the North Sea
C.
Germany’s non-aggression pact with Russia
D.
Germany’s alliance with Austria-Hungary to resist Russian expansion into the Balkans
 

 42. 

Why did Austria-Hungary deliberately choose war in July 1914?
A.
It believed Russia would not intervene.
B.
It hoped to stem the tide of hostile nationalism within its borders.
C.
It was prompted by the urging of Serbia’s enemies in the Balkans.
D.
It hoped to seize Italian territory.
 

 43. 

What was the Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916?
A.
An agreement between France and Belgium to establish a new German border after the end of the war
B.
An agreement between Germany and the Bolsheviks by which Germany funded Lenin’s effort to overthrow the monarchy in Russia
C.
An agreement between Great Britain and France to divvy up parts of the Middle East after the war
D.
An agreement between Germany and France to abandon the use of mustard gas
 

 44. 

What was the February Revolution in Russia in 1917?
A.
Originally a peasant rebellion that moved from the provinces to the cities
B.
A planned and coordinated Communist takeover of the government
C.
An unplanned uprising of hungry and angry people in the capital
D.
A military coup in which the tsar was forced to abdicate in the midst of a mutiny
 

 45. 

What was the immediate cause of British entry into the First World War?
A.
The Austrian ultimatum to Serbia
B.
The German invasion of neutral Belgium
C.
The Algeciras Conference
D.
The sinking of the Lusitania
 



 
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