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Period 6 Chapter 26 Test

 1. 

In 1923, which German politician called off passive resistance in the Ruhr and agreed in principle to pay reparations?
A.
Gustav Stresemann
B.
Stanley Baldwin
C.
Adolf Hitler
D.
Ludwig Wittgenstein
 

 2. 

What did Marcel Proust attempt to do in his novel Remembrance of Things Past?
A.
Discover the inner meaning of bittersweet memories of childhood and youthful love
B.
Explore how Nietzsche’s declaration “God is dead” affected a typical French village structured around its local church
C.
Understand the historical laws governing human behavior as they played out in individual lives
D.
Demonstrate how the history of France was a story of the progress of mankind
 

 3. 

The Great Depression did not hit Britain as hard as the United States or Germany, in part because
A.
the British government followed the recommendations of economist John Maynard Keynes.
B.
the British economy had moved away from international markets and toward production of goods for the domestic market.
C.
Britain had a tradition of deficit spending by the government.
D.
the United States provided Britain with substantial economic assistance.
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
logical positivism
B.
existentialism
C.
id, ego, and superego
D.
functionalism
E.
stream-of-consciousness writing
F.
Bauhaus
G.
Dawes Plan
H.
Great Depression
I.
modernism
J.
theory of special relativity
K.
Popular Front
L.
Dadaism
M.
“modern girl”
 

 4. 

War reparations agreement that reduced Germany’s yearly payments, made payment dependent on economic prosperity, and granted large U.S. loans to promote recovery.
 

 5. 

The principle that buildings, like industrial products, should serve as well as possible the purpose for which they were made, without excessive ornamentation.
 

 6. 

A worldwide economic depression from 1929 through 1939, unique in its severity and duration and with slow and uneven recovery.
 

 7. 

A German interdisciplinary school of fine and applied arts that brought together many leading modern architects, designers, and theatrical innovators.
 

 8. 

A philosophy that stresses the meaninglessness of existence and the importance of the individual in searching for moral values in an uncertain world.
 

 9. 

A literary technique, used by such writers as Virginia Woolf and James Joyce, in which a character’s thoughts and feelings are described as they occur as a means to explore the human psyche.
 

 10. 

An artistic movement of the 1920s and 1930s that attacked all accepted standards of art and behavior and delighted in outrageous conduct.
 

 11. 

A short-lived New Deal–inspired alliance in France led by Léon Blum that encouraged the union movement and launched a far-reaching program of social reform.
 

 12. 

Sigmund Freud’s terms to describe the three parts of the self and the basis of human behavior, which he saw as basically irrational.
 

 13. 

Somewhat stereotypical image of the modern and independent working woman popular in the 1920s.
 

 14. 

A philosophy that sees meaning only in those beliefs that can be empirically proven; it therefore rejects as nonsense most of the concerns of traditional philosophy, from the existence of God to the meaning of happiness.
 

 15. 

Albert Einstein’s theory that time and space are relative to the observer, and that only the speed of light remains constant.
 

 16. 

Why was Britain more ready to conciliate Germany than France following the Versailles peace settlement?
A.
The British feared the growth of French military power.
B.
The British and Germans shared a common cultural heritage.
C.
The British wanted a strong Germany as a bulwark against Bolshevism.
D.
British had depended heavily on the German market for their exports before World War I.
 

 17. 

In the twentieth century, Werner Heisenburg established the “uncertainty principle,” which postulates that
A.
nature itself is ultimately unknowable and unpredictable and lacks any absolute objective reality.
B.
God produced doubt in humans to challenge their simple belief so that it would grow into a mature faith.
C.
scientific knowledge is the most reliable because scientists accept that their ideas are uncertain and constantly test and reexamine them.
D.
scientific knowledge is unreliable because new discoveries constantly undermine older theories about the universe.
 

 18. 

What did the theories of Albert Einstein assert?
A.
The immutability of Newton’s laws of nature has been secured by modern science.
B.
Particles of nature are essentially dead, as they lack an internal animating energy.
C.
The passage of time provides the one fixed reference in the universe, which scientists could establish as a standard point of reference.
D.
Matter and energy are interchangeable, linking the apparently infinite universe with the subatomic world.
 

 19. 

In the twentieth century, what was John Maynard Keynes known for?
A.
He was avowedly hostile to Germany.
B.
He denounced the Treaty of Versailles for economic reasons.
C.
He advocated minimal government intervention in the economy.
D.
He broke new ground in the study of genetics.
 

 20. 

How did Jean-Paul Sartre think that people could live authentically in the twentieth century?
A.
They must seek pleasure and avoid pain.
B.
They must choose their actions fully aware of their responsibility for their behavior.
C.
They must structure their lives around conventional social norms.
D.
They must passively accept the loneliness and meaninglessness of human existence.
 

 21. 

How did France and Belgium react when Germany refused to make its second reparations payment?
A.
They appealed to the League of Nations.
B.
They declared war.
C.
They occupied the Ruhr district.
D.
They established a naval blockade of German ports.
 

 22. 

What did President Franklin Roosevelt’s National Recovery Administration (NRA) attempt to do?
A.
Plan and control the U.S. economy
B.
Purchase failing businesses
C.
Nationalize banks, railroads, and heavy industry
D.
Establish a social welfare system
 

 23. 

With the United States’ failure to ratify the Versailles treaty, many French leaders placed their hopes for future security on
A.
the alliance with Great Britain.
B.
a closer relationship with Germany.
C.
strict implementation of the treaty.
D.
the League of Nations.
 

 24. 

What was the British political party that emerged during the 1920s as the main opposition to the Conservative party?
A.
Christian Democratic Party
B.
Labour Party
C.
Liberal Party
D.
Social Democratic Party
 

 25. 

In his philosophical writings, Friedrich Nietzsche argued that
A.
the individual must not accept the idea that human existence is meaningless.
B.
democracy, progress, and respectability were important ideas that no civilization could do without.
C.
the Western world had overemphasized rationality and stifled the authentic passions that drive human activity and true creativity.
D.
humans must overcome their animal instincts, which prevent them from refining their intellectual abilities and moral sensibilities.
 

 26. 

For artists such as the Dadaists and Surrealists, what was the purpose of art?
A.
To pursue the unconscious components of the mind in order to find pure truth
B.
To strive for beauty for beauty’s sake regardless of social difficulties
C.
To expose the bankruptcy of modern society and produce radical social change
D.
To counter the drab filth of industrial society and produce hope through beauty
 

 27. 

Which political group dominated the parliamentary governments of Germany in the mid to late 1920s?
A.
Christian Democrats
B.
right-wing nationalists
C.
moderate businessmen
D.
Social Democrats
 

 28. 

What did orthodox economists believe in the 1930s?
A.
Governments should increase spending and accept large deficits to stimulate the economy.
B.
Remaining on the gold standard would lead to a relatively quick economic recovery.
C.
Governments should avoid limiting international trade by raising tariffs.
D.
Balanced budgets were the key to economic growth.
 

 29. 

What was the main argument of logical positivism in the twentieth century?
A.
One must search for moral values and then act on those values.
B.
Individuals must become engaged in modern life.
C.
The concept of God could be adapted to fit within Einstein’s theory of the universe.
D.
Philosophy is only the logical clarification of thoughts.
 

 30. 

What agreement did the United States develop to resolve the economic problems of Germany and international tensions in Europe in 1924?
A.
New Deal
B.
Dawes Plan
C.
Locarno Pact
D.
Agricultural Adjustment Act.
 

 31. 

The American stock market crash of October 1929 was primarily the result of
A.
nationalist economic policies in Europe.
B.
an imbalance between real investment and speculation.
C.
the failure of Germany to keep up reparations payments.
D.
the government’s Keynesian economic policies.
 

 32. 

What does the “middle way” refer to?
A.
The Scandinavian response to the Great Depression
B.
The design philosophy of the Bauhaus
C.
The new literary efforts of writers such as Joyce and Faulkner
D.
The reform of German reparations payments
 

 33. 

Why did Britain’s abandonment of the gold standard not aid its recovery?
A.
Its gold reserves were so large from its colonial possessions that it undermined the efforts to create a free-floating currency.
B.
The lack of bank regulations and currency controls resulted in a currency that already was devalued.
C.
After industrialization, gold played a small role in the world economy.
D.
Many other wealthy countries abandoned the gold standard after Britain, blunting any advantage for Britain.
 

 34. 

In his writings on human psychology, Sigmund Freud asserted that
A.
the id is constantly negotiating between the demands of the ego and the superego.
B.
the superego is the self-promoting desire for control and power.
C.
the id is the unconscious source of sexual and aggressive instincts.
D.
the ego is the irrational component of the self that is always seeking pleasure.
 

 35. 

What kind of world did Franz Kafka portray in fiction like The Trial (1925)?
A.
A pessimistic world in which helpless individuals are crushed by inexplicably hostile forces
B.
A utopian world in which everyone has everything they need
C.
A Freudian world in which all have repressed their instincts in order to live peaceably with one another
D.
A Marxist world in which the proletariat have triumphed
 

 36. 

In the early twentieth century, the traditional arts and amusements of people in villages and small towns was overshadowed by
A.
the expansion of professional sports.
B.
modern mass media such as cinema and radio.
C.
public schools and mass education programs.
D.
a market culture expressed in merchandise catalogs.
 

 37. 

What did the Popular Front do after its 1936 victory in France?
A.
It launched a modest program of social reform in an attempt not to frighten businessmen or conservatives.
B.
It provided strong support for its sister Popular Front government in the Spanish Civil War.
C.
It adopted the program of the French Communist Party and appeared to be preparing for revolution in France.
D.
It encouraged the union movement and launched a far-reaching program of social reforms that included a forty-hour workweek.
 

 38. 

Who was the director of Triumph of the Will, a brilliant piece of cinematic propaganda based on the 1934 Nazi Party rally at Nuremberg?
A.
Leni Riefenstahl
B.
Adolf Hitler
C.
Sergei Eisenstein
D.
Fritz Lang
 

 39. 

Unemployment in the United States averaged only 5 percent in the 1920s but in 1933 soared to about
A.
30 percent.
B.
20 percent.
C.
10 percent.
D.
40 percent.
 

 40. 

What was an important factor in both the rapid growth of the American stock market in the 1920s and its collapse in October 1929?
A.
Buying on margin
B.
Overly optimistic stockbrokers
C.
The great increase in investments by giant pension funds
D.
Over-regulation by the federal government
 

 41. 

James Joyce’s Ulysses weaves ironic parallels between the adventures of Homer’s hero Ulysses and
A.
the struggles of Napoleon Bonaparte to gain power during the French Revolution.
B.
an ordinary man’s aimless wanderings through the streets and pubs of Dublin.
C.
the development of a tourist industry in colonial lands.
D.
a group of radical students seeking to live on the margins of society in Berlin.
 

 42. 

The German Communist Party, noisy and active in the 1920s, reserved their greatest hatred and sharpest barbs for
A.
Hitler’s Nazi Party.
B.
Social Democrats.
C.
union workers.
D.
ultranationalists.
 

 43. 

What is the composer Arnold Schönberg known for?
A.
His use of pulsing dissonant rhythms in the ballet Rite of Spring
B.
His composition of musical background for the first talkies
C.
His composition of nationalistic German operas
D.
His creation of twelve-tone music that abandoned traditional harmony and tonality
 

 44. 

What did the Swedish response to the Depression involve?
A.
Increasing social welfare benefits and state spending on public works projects
B.
Balancing the government budget by cutting government programs
C.
Erecting trade barriers and putting the currency on the gold standard
D.
Increasing military spending
 

 45. 

The signatories of the 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact, initiated by French prime minister Aristide Briand and U.S. secretary of state Frank B. Kellogg, agreed to
A.
take part in a defensive alliance against the Soviet Union.
B.
sponsor a revision of German reparations payments.
C.
renounce war as an instrument of international policy.
D.
review on an annual basis any issues that might disturb the balance of power in Europe.
 

 46. 

The German government’s printing of money to pay unemployment benefits to workers striking in the Ruhr against the Franco-Belgian occupation of 1923 led to
A.
a rise in the Ruhr workers’ standard of living.
B.
hyperinflation.
C.
French withdrawal from the Ruhr.
D.
the crash of the U.S. stock market.
 

 47. 

Why was the Great Depression slow to affect France?
A.
France refused to abandon the gold standard, which protected its currency and aided its response to economic decline.
B.
France was less industrialized than the other major continental powers in Europe and somewhat isolated from the world economy.
C.
France’s economy was based on basic materials that remained in demand even as demand for consumer goods collapsed.
D.
France had substantial social security measures already in place that protected the population and prevented economic collapse.
 

 48. 

In Civilization and Its Discontents (1930), Freud argued that civilization required
A.
all people to seek pleasure and avoid pain.
B.
members of capitalist societies to work toward the Marxist vision of a classless society.
C.
individuals to renounce their irrational instincts in order to live peaceably in groups.
D.
people to place themselves under the control of a single, all-powerful political figure.
 

 49. 

In twentieth century literature, the stream-of-consciousness technique uses
A.
a series of disjointed references and observations for the reader to decipher.
B.
internal monologues to explore the psyche.
C.
a linear line of language without punctuation or capitalization.
D.
a series of visual images to express emotions.
 

 50. 

Gabriel Marcel found the answer to the postwar broken world in
A.
the Catholic Church.
B.
Calvinist theology.
C.
socialism.
D.
Marxism.
 

 51. 

What did Jean-Paul Sartre mean by the expression “existence precedes essence”?
A.
The essence of a life is defined by the environment, such as social position and access to education into which one is born.
B.
The immediacy of life and its struggles must take priority over quests for the eternal and salvation.
C.
Since there are no timeless or absolute truths, people must struggle to define their essence after they are born, completely on their own.
D.
The soul only enters the body after one is born so that God can ensure each person a soul appropriate to his or her place in life.
 

 52. 

The nineteenth-century Danish theologian Søren Kierkegaard taught that
A.
the study of the non-Western world shows us that there are many versions of God and all of them are legitimate.
B.
God’s existence could not be proven, but believers must take a leap of faith and accept the existence of a majestic God.
C.
advances in science proved the existence of God by the universe’s intricate design, which required an original designer.
D.
religions provide an appropriate escape for the common people, but the educated should never be bound by such a belief.
 

 53. 

What idea does the functionalist architecture of Le Corbusier promote?
A.
Buildings should be built without ornamentation and instead be practical structures with clean, straight lines.
B.
Buildings should reflect their surrounding environment, imitating the forms and designs of nature.
C.
Buildings should express the mood of the architect in reaction to the society around him.
D.
Buildings should imitate classical forms that emphasized harmony and balance.
 



 
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