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Period 6 Chapter 27 Test

 1. 

Why did Stalin call for the mass murder of the kulaks?
A.
He believed that the religious faith of the kulaks would prevent them from adopting communism.
B.
He believed that as landowners they would eventually embrace conservative capitalism and become great enemies of socialist progress.
C.
As the kulaks sought to defend their homeland in eastern Siberia, Stalin feared that they would side with the Japanese over disputed land claims.
D.
The kulaks had sided with the counterrevolutionary White forces during the civil war.
 
 
Definitions
Select the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms
A.
totalitarianism
B.
fascism
C.
New Economic Policy (NEP)
D.
collectivization of agriculture
E.
eugenics
F.
Lateran Agreement
G.
appeasement
H.
Black Shirts
I.
five-year plan
J.
kulaks
K.
National Socialism
L.
Enabling Act
M.
New Order
N.
Holocaust
 

 2. 

Vladimir Lenin’s 1921 policy to reestablish limited economic freedom in an attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry in the face of economic disintegration.
 

 3. 

A movement characterized by extreme, often expansionist nationalism, antisocialism, a dynamic and violent leader, and glorification of war and the military.
 

 4. 

A pseudoscientific doctrine that maintains that the selective breeding of human beings can improve the general characteristics of a national population, which helped inspire Nazi ideas about “race and space” and ultimately contributed to the Holocaust.
 

 5. 

Mussolini’s private militia that destroyed socialist newspapers, union halls, and Socialist Party headquarters, eventually pushing Socialists out of the city governments of northern Italy.
 

 6. 

An act pushed through the Reichstag by the Nazis that gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for four years.
 

 7. 

A 1929 agreement that recognized the Vatican as an independent state, with Benito Mussolini agreeing to give the church heavy financial support in return for public support from the pope.
 

 8. 

The systematic effort of the Nazi state to exterminate all European Jews and other groups deemed racially inferior during the Second World War.
 

 9. 

How did the Nazis manage the northern European states that they conquered?
A.
They created a German bureaucracy staffed by professional diplomats to rule over the conquered peoples.
B.
They placed German governors over the lands with full authority to manage local populations.
C.
They allowed independent governments to rule the conquered regions as long as they remained allied with Germany.
D.
They established puppet governments with collaborators willing to rule the states in accord with German needs.
 

 10. 

Who were the kulaks in Stalin’s Soviet Union?
A.
Shop owners and small manufacturers who wanted the New Economic Policy to continue
B.
Veterans of the Red Army from the civil war period
C.
Former tsarist government officials who were singled out as traitors in the first five-year plan
D.
Better-off peasants who were stripped of land and livestock and usually not allowed to join collective farms
 

 11. 

What was the effect of the 1935 Nuremberg Law?
A.
It allowed marriage between a Jew and a person defined as a German.
B.
It permitted Jews to have some rights of citizenship.
C.
It defined as Jewish anyone having three or more Jewish grandparents.
D.
It banned most Jewish lawyers, doctors, and professors from their professions.
 

 12. 

Britain and France finally confronted Hitler with the threat of war when he
A.
remilitarized the Rhineland.
B.
took the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia.
C.
occupied Austria.
D.
used the pretext of German minorities in Danzig to threaten Poland.
 

 13. 

What was the primary goal of the opponents of the Nazis in the Protestant and Catholic churches?
A.
To preserve religious life in Germany
B.
To voice dissent at Hitler’s racial policies
C.
To overthrow Hitler
D.
To ally the churches with liberal, democratic politics
 

 14. 

What were the duties of the German Einsatzgruppen (Special Task Forces)?
A.
They followed the German army into Central Europe, systematically murdering “undesirables” as they moved from town to town.
B.
They were Hitler’s representatives to Mussolini, ensuring that the Italian leader pursued policies to support the war.
C.
They requisitioned supplies for the Germany army so that the blitzkrieg (or lightening war) would not be slowed by the need to secure supply lines.
D.
They served as Hitler’s personal guard who protected him from a coup by the military and who oversaw the work of the SS.
 

 15. 

What characteristics did Communist and fascist dictatorships share?
A.
Both based their ideologies on the writings of Karl Marx.
B.
Both engaged in state-controlled social engineering projects meant to replace individualism with a unified “people.”
C.
Both wanted to build a new national community grounded in racial homogeneity.
D.
Both viewed the Jewish people as the chief danger to historical progress for humanity.
 

 16. 

Where did Nazi administrators initially gain experience in mass murder?
A.
The murder of Poles during the invasion of Poland
B.
The murder of Germans with physical and mental disabilities prior to the war
C.
The murder of gypsies in Germany prior to the war
D.
The murder of Communists following the burning of the German Reichstag (Parliament)
 

 17. 

What was the Nazi Party policy of “coordination”?
A.
It integrated German manufacturing of commercial goods with its production of munitions in order to hide the effort to rebuild the German military.
B.
It forced German society to conform to National Socialist ideology.
C.
It linked the work of the traditional military with the work of the SA and the SS.
D.
It combined the German public school system with Nazi propaganda programs.
 

 18. 

What was the Holocaust?
A.
A scorched-earth policy adopted by the German army as it retreated from the Soviet Union after the defeat at Stalingrad
B.
The systematic effort of the Nazi state to exterminate all European Jews during the Second World War
C.
The German policy of deliberately starving Soviet prisoners of war
D.
The firebombing of German cities by American and British bombers
 

 19. 

Which countries in August 1939 signed a nonaggression pact that led directly to war?
A.
Germany and Italy
B.
Poland and the Soviet Union
C.
Germany and the Soviet Union
D.
Britain and Germany
 

 20. 

What problem was faced by most of the underground resistance groups who opposed the Nazis?
A.
They were not well unified, for they had differing political goals.
B.
They had little ability to organize in the face of constant pressure from the German secret police.
C.
They had no ability to establish contact with Germany’s enemies in order to coordinate their activities.
D.
They were not supported by the local populations, which feared reprisals from the German military.
 

 21. 

Why did the Soviet army stop its advance on Warsaw in August 1944?
A.
So that the German army could destroy a Polish insurgence that intended to resist the Soviet army as well
B.
So that supplies and troops could be shifted to the Asian theater of operations to counter recent Japanese gains
C.
So that it would not violate the agreements among the allies as to how far each nation would advance
D.
So they could offer Germany the opportunity to surrender and avoid a bloody conquest
 

 22. 

Why did Hitler have the leadership of the SA storm troopers, roughly one hundred individuals, killed in 1934?
A.
He wanted to win the support of the traditional military, but the SA leaders had expected appointment to top positions in the army.
B.
He believed that the SA was filled with Communist sympathizers who were awaiting an opportunity to undermine the Nazi Party.
C.
The SA leadership had threatened Hitler’s leadership of the Nazi Party when the party unexpectedly lost seats in the 1934 elections.
D.
The SA leadership had abandoned the Nazi Party’s anti-capitalist position and sought to protect the property of military munitions makers.
 

 23. 

How did German chancellor Heinrich Brüning try to cope with the Great Depression in the early 1930s?
A.
By enacting new welfare measures
B.
By cutting government spending and squeezing wages and prices
C.
By spending large amounts on public works projects
D.
By instituting free-trade policies to attract foreign investment
 

 24. 

How did the Nazi Party seek to promote the idea of the Volksgemeinschaft?
A.
They established colonies in regions of Africa and Asia in order to establish German authority across the globe.
B.
They took control of German industry in order to provide employment for the poor.
C.
They created mass organizations such as the Hitler Youth and held mass rallies to spread Nazi ideology and enlist volunteers.
D.
They argued that the German people needed more room to expand in Eastern Europe.
 

 25. 

How did the Nazis seek to legitimize their racial policies?
A.
They sponsored studies of cultures in order to prove that certain cultures were intellectually superior to others and that German culture was superior to all.
B.
They provided vast funding to both Catholic and Protestant churches in order for those churches to promote a racialized understanding of Christianity.
C.
They undertook massive genealogical research in order to demonstrate that different races derived from different ancestors.
D.
They established research institutes and academies that measured and defined racial differences in order to present prejudice in the guise of enlightened science.
 

 26. 

What was Germany’s goal in the Battle of Britain?
A.
To gain air supremacy in anticipation of an invasion of Great Britain
B.
To undermine Britain’s ability to draw on the resources of its colonies for support
C.
To destroy British naval ports so that Great Britain could not invade German-controlled land
D.
To provide a warning to the United States against entering the war
 

 27. 

The Allies adopted the principle of the unconditional surrender of Germany and Japan in order to
A.
further encourage mutual trust among the Allies.
B.
encourage the home front in each Allied country.
C.
eliminate the need for a peace conference after the end of the war.
D.
make Germany and Japan aware that they would be severely punished after the war’s conclusion.
 

 28. 

As practiced in the 1930s, appeasement was
A.
an American policy that favored isolation from European quarrels.
B.
a Soviet policy that emphasized the need to concentrate on internal matters like the five-year plan and ignore European issues.
C.
a French policy that avoided any controversial foreign policy actions that might provoke a civil war in between Republicans and Fascists.
D.
a British policy that aimed to give Hitler whatever he wanted in order to avoid war.
 

 29. 

Why was Mussolini expelled from the Italian Socialist Party?
A.
He plotted to assassinate its leader.
B.
He denied the necessity of violent revolution to establish a worker dictatorship.
C.
He was working as a secret government informer.
D.
He urged Italian entry into World War I.
 

 30. 

How did Mussolini build support from big business in Italy?
A.
He established a new chamber of commerce with substantial power over commercial law.
B.
He gave huge military contracts to a few key business leaders.
C.
He left big business to regulate itself and never purged it members.
D.
He instituted the liberal political reforms that they demanded.
 

 31. 

Why did Britain adopt a policy of appeasement in its relationship with Hitler?
A.
It believed that the United States would step in if Hitler became too aggressive.
B.
British conservative leaders underestimated Hitler.
C.
It was more concerned about the activities of the Japanese in the Pacific than about German activities in Europe.
D.
The French government demanded that Britain adopt appeasement in its relationship with Hitler.
 

 32. 

What was the purpose of the Enabling Act in 1933?
A.
It required all Jews to wear identifying badges.
B.
It gave Hitler dictatorial powers for four years.
C.
It mandated a new civil requirement that forbade Jews from holding public office.
D.
It outlawed all socialist and Communist political parties.
 

 33. 

The “cult of the Duce” (leader) promoted the image of Mussolini as
A.
a defender of Catholic values.
B.
a strong supporter of democracy.
C.
a powerful strongman embodying the best qualities of the Italian people.
D.
an intellectual and scholar.
 

 34. 

In the Lateran Agreement, how did Mussolini resolve the status of the Catholic Church in Italy?
A.
The Catholic Church abandoned all of its political claims within Italy in return for a permanent church tax collected by the state.
B.
The Vatican was recognized as a protectorate under the League of Nations.
C.
The Vatican was recognized as an independent state that received heavy support from the Italian state.
D.
The Catholic Church obtained tax and legal exemptions for Vatican City in exchange for recognizing Italy’s claim over the city itself.
 

 35. 

Which battle was the decisive turning point in the clash between the Soviet Union and Germany?
A.
Leningrad.
B.
Stalingrad.
C.
Moscow.
D.
Kiev.
 



 
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