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Exam #1

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The "agricultural revolution" of the High Middle Ages
a)
caused little change in the forested areas of Europe.
b)
was in part brought about by a change from the two-field to the three-field system.
c)
led to the demise of the cooperative agricultural villages.
d)
was in large part due to the development of the aratum, an iron ploughshare.
e)
was the result of corn imported from the New World.
 

 2. 

The peasant's life during the Middle Ages was largely determined by
a)
the whims of the lord.
b)
religious holidays.
c)
the seasons.
d)
peace and warfare.
e)
economic business cycles.
 

 3. 

The village church
a)
was very harsh in its condemnation of pagan practices.
b)
competed with pagan religions for converts.
c)
was led by local priests who were often barely literate.
d)
outlawed economic pursuits on its grounds.
e)
was always built upon the site of a pagan worship center.
 

 4. 

The high number of fights and accidents described in medieval court records may plausibly be attributed to
a)
the violence of lords.
b)
the high consumption of alcohol.
c)
generally poor diet and nutrition.
d)
fears of witchcraft.
e)
religious heresy.
 

 5. 

The knightly code of ethics known as chivalry included all of the following requirements except
a)
knights were to fight to defend the church.
b)
knights were to protect the weak and defenseless.
c)
knights were to love the poor.
d)
winning glory should be the knight's highest aim and motivating force.
e)
knights should fight for their overlords.
 

 6. 

By the twelfth century, divorce among nobles was
a)
not possible except through official recognition that a marriage had never been valid.
b)
increasingly common.
c)
accepted and approved by the church.
d)
not possible, even by annulment, as marriage was now a church sacrament.
e)
possible only through a dispensation granted exclusively by kings.
 

 7. 

The area that assumed a leading role in the revival of trade in the Early Middle Ages was
a)
England.
b)
Spain.
c)
Germany.
d)
France.
e)
Italy.
 

 8. 

The growing independence of medieval urban areas was largely attributable to the
a)
refusal of lords and kings to grant liberties to the townspeople.
b)
granting of self-government to the townspeople by bishops, especially in cathedral cities.
c)
huge populations of High Medieval cities.
d)
revival of commerce.
e)
increase of manorialism.
 

 9. 

Cities in medieval Europe
a)
were usually ruled by a lord in a manner similar to the manorial system.
b)
rivaled those of the Arabs and Byzantines.
c)
often attained privileges purchased from neighboring territorial lords.
d)
were independent of the surrounding countryside for their food supplies.
e)
were well planned and, with occasional exceptions, generally free from dirt and disease.
 

 10. 

To protect their interests against nobles, townspeople often formed
a)
militias.
b)
trade unions.
c)
chambers of commerce.
d)
municipal police forces.
e)
communes.
 

 11. 

A major motive contributing to the revolutionary political behavior of European townspeople was
a)
their early embrace of religious heresy.
b)
their constant need to ally themselves with more heavily armed aristocrats.
c)
their great need for unfettered mobility to conduct trade efficiently.
d)
their unwillingness to pay lay and clerical lords for privileges of self-government.
e)
the Black Death.
 

 12. 

The first university to be founded in Europe appeared in
a)
Cambridge.
b)
Paris.
c)
Oxford.
d)
Frankfurt.
e)
Bologna.
 

 13. 

The first university in northern Europe was
a)
Paris.
b)
Oxford.
c)
Cambridge.
d)
Heidelberg.
e)
Bruges.
 

 14. 

Due to its many cathedral schools, the intellectual center of Europe by the twelfth century was
a)
England.
b)
Holy Roman Empire.
c)
France.
d)
Spain.
e)
the Netherlands.
 

 15. 

Students in medieval universities
a)
came strictly from the upper class.
b)
usually started their instruction while in their late twenties.
c)
often engaged in quarrels with one another and in confrontations with townspeople.
d)
were both male and female.
e)
learned in the vernacular.
 

 16. 

The medieval theological debate between the scholastic realists and nominalists
a)
was finally resolved by Thomas Aquinas.
b)
centered around the problem of universals and the nature of reality.
c)
was a philosophical issue that only lasted as long as the thirteenth century.
d)
had little to do with earlier traditions of Greek thought.
e)
was ended by papal decree.
 

 17. 

The Summa Theologica of Thomas Aquinas
a)
fell into disfavor and was condemned by the Church at the end of the end of the thirteenth century.
b)
rejected the scholastic method of dialectical reasoning.
c)
suggested that truths derived by reason were far inferior to those derived by faith.
d)
preached for an acceptance of homosexuality when most members of the church condemned it.
e)
raised questions concerning theology and solved them by the dialectical method.
 

 18. 

The most popular form of vernacular literature in the twelfth century was
a)
troubadour poetry.
b)
the fabliaux.
c)
the chanson de geste.
d)
genealogical history.
e)
Latin verse.
 

 19. 

Troubadour poetry was chiefly concerned with
a)
religious imagery.
b)
the courtly love of nobles, knights, and ladies.
c)
the highly irreverent life of wine, women, and song.
d)
rhyme and a meter based on accent.
e)
religious crusades and military conquests.
 

 20. 

The Song of Roland is one of the finest examples of
a)
the medieval chanson de geste.
b)
twelfth-century courtly romance.
c)
the Arthurian legend.
d)
Latin religious verse.
e)
troubadour epic.
 

 21. 

Much of the surplus resources of medieval urban society went into
a)
the salaries of more numerous royal officials.
b)
the purchase of modern weaponry by kings for expanded royal armies.
c)
the construction of castles and churches reflecting its basic preoccupations, warfare and God.
d)
new church taxes going directly to the pope in Rome.
e)
revolutionizing agricultural production patterns.
 

 22. 

Which of the following was not a characteristic of Romanesque architecture?
a)
churches in this style were built in rectangular shape
b)
massive pillars and walls were required for support
c)
interiors were designed to be as bright as possible
d)
heavy barrel vaults with rounded stone roofs replaced flat wooden roofs
e)
few windows
 

 23. 

Gothic cathedrals seem to soar upward as light and airy constructions due to all of the following innovations except
a)
ribbed vaults.
b)
flying buttresses.
c)
thin walls pierced by huge stained glass windows.
d)
the wide use of classical columns on Greek models.
e)
pointed arches.
 

 24. 

All of the following were ethnic divisions that intensified on European frontiers in the fourteenth century except
a)
Florentine and Sicilian in Italy.
b)
German and Czech in Bohemia.
c)
Mudejars and Christian Spaniards in Spain.
d)
German and Maygar in Hungary.
e)
English and Irish in Ireland.
 

 25. 

The Dalimil Chronicle traces the history of the
a)
Bohemian people.
b)
Black Death in eastern Europe.
c)
English conquest of Ireland.
d)
Great Schism.
e)
Magyar defense of Hungary against German colonizers.
 

 26. 

In general, the clergy during the plague
a)
cared for the sick and buried the dead.
b)
fled to monasteries in the countryside.
c)
were relatively untouched by the epidemic.
d)
refused to administer sacraments to plague victims.
e)
let nuns take care of the sick.
 

 27. 

The highly infectious nature of the plague was enhanced by
a)
the imposition of quarantine measures.
b)
an influx of peasants seeking medical care.
c)
urban congestion and lack of sanitation.
d)
the total absence of health-care facilities.
e)
starving peasants' consumption of black rats.
 

 28. 

Economically, the Black Death resulted in
a)
a complete economic collapse.
b)
a sharp drop in per capita wealth.
c)
a sharp increase in per capita wealth.
d)
a sharp increase in urban unemployment.
e)
worse conditions for serfs all over Europe.
 

 29. 

Conciliarists, such as the theologians Pierre d'Ailly and Conrad Gelnhausen, maintained all of the following except that
a)
reform could best be accomplished by general assemblies representing all Christians.
b)
the pope's authority derived from the Christian community.
c)
the pope was not the head of the Christian church.
d)
a constitutional form of church government was preferable to the monarchical form.
e)
the pope existed to promote the well-being of the Christian community.
 

 30. 

The young woman who saved France during the Hundred Years' War was
a)
Catherine of Siena.
b)
Joan of Arc.
c)
Christine de Pisan.
d)
Françoise of Florence.
e)
Theresa of Avila.
 

 31. 

The English Statute of Laborers (1351)
a)
granted limited rights to workers.
b)
fixed the number of new members of guilds.
c)
forbade the migration of day laborers.
d)
forbade the creation of craft unions.
e)
attempted to freeze salaries and wages at pre-1347 levels.
 

 32. 

Each of the following authors composed important works in their vernacular except
a)
Christine de Pisan.
b)
François Villon.
c)
Geoffrey Chaucer.
d)
Dante Alighieri.
e)
Thomas Aquinas.
 

 33. 

The _________ whipped and scourged themselves as penance for their and society's sins.
a)
mendicants
b)
flagellants
c)
members of the Brotherhood of Glory
d)
pope and his closest advisers
e)
women of London
 

 34. 

__________ led the English to victory at Agincourt in 1415.
a)
Henry II
b)
Edward III
c)
Richard I
d)
Henry V
e)
John II
 

 35. 

Theologian John Wyclif argued that
a)
the conciliar movement was heretical.
b)
Scripture alone should determine church belief and practice.
c)
there was no Trinity.
d)
popes should be elected by all members of the clergy.
e)
priests should be allowed to marry.
 

 36. 

The great council that met at Constance from 1414 to 1418
a)
implemented a series of important reforms.
b)
did little more than elect a pope.
c)
abolished the Inquisition.
d)
reformed the monastic and mendicant orders.
e)
condemned the Fourth Crusade that burned Constantinople.
 

 37. 

The correspondence between John and Margaret Paston indicates that
a)
Margaret and John felt mutual affection and devotion.
b)
their marriage was purely a financial arrangement.
c)
some peasants were literate.
d)
their children received all the couple's affection.
e)
Margaret understood little of John's business dealings.
 

 38. 

According to the text, conquerors in which frontier zone made the most extensive attempt to prevent intermarriage and protect racial purity?
a)
eastern Europe.
b)
Spain.
c)
the Baltic littoral.
d)
Sicily.
e)
Ireland.
 

 39. 

The age at which people married was
a)
different for peasants and journeymen artisans.
b)
determined by church sanctions against early marriages.
c)
based on their ability to provide for a family.
d)
regulated by the secular authorities.
e)
increasing throughout the fourteenth century.
 

 40. 

In the High Middle Ages, prostitution was
a)
ruthlessly prosecuted by authorities.
b)
found only in the bustling seaports of the Mediterranean.
c)
both a rural and urban phenomenon.
d)
regulated by state authorities.
e)
endorsed by the church.
 

 41. 

Jan Hus died
a)
at the stake.
b)
of old age.
c)
in exile.
d)
while trying to escape.
e)
in a pitched battle between his supporters and his opponents.
 

 42. 

Divorce _________ in the Middle Ages.
a)
was common
b)
was common among elites
c)
was common among the poor
d)
was rare
e)
did not exist
 

 43. 

Communes that won independence from surrounding nobles in the twelfth century include all of the following except
a)
Venice.
b)
Milan.
c)
Florence.
d)
Siena.
e)
Pisa.
 

 44. 

All of the following were among the Italian powers that dominated the peninsula except
a)
the Papal States.
b)
Florence.
c)
Ferrara.
d)
Venice.
e)
Naples.
 

 45. 

The first artistic and literary manifestation of the Italian Renaissance appeared in
a)
Florence.
b)
Rome.
c)
Venice.
d)
Naples.
e)
Siena.
 

 46. 

The Italian popolo
a)
established democracies in the Italian city-states.
b)
desired government offices and equality of taxation.
c)
were never able to influence Italian politics.
d)
controlled the wool industry.
e)
intermarried with the nobility.
 

 47. 

By 1300, most of the Italian citystates were ruled by either signori or
a)
kings.
b)
oligarchies.
c)
elected assemblies.
d)
ecclesiastical princes.
e)
bishops.
 

 48. 

As consumer habits changed, an aristocrat's greatest expense was usually his
a)
urban palace.
b)
military hardware and training.
c)
daughter's dowry.
d)
food.
e)
jewelry and clothing.
 

 49. 

In which century did the mechanical clock become commonplace in European cities?
a)
twelfth
b)
thirteenth
c)
fourteenth
d)
fifteenth
e)
sixteenth
 

 50. 

Italian balance-of-power diplomacy
a)
was designed to prevent a single Italian state from dominating the peninsula.
b)
successfully prevented foreign domination of Italy.
c)
was primarily concerned with controlling the papacy.
d)
was critical to the economic success of Italy.
e)
led to Venetian domination of the Italian peninsula.
 

 51. 

The Florentine Office of the Night was created to control
a)
homosexual activities (sodomy).
b)
prostitution.
c)
radical elements in the popolo.
d)
the outbreak of heresy during the Renaissance.
e)
taverns.
 

 52. 

The French invasion of Italy at the end of the fifteenth century was predicted by
a)
Savonarola.
b)
Dante.
c)
Machiavelli.
d)
Lorenzo de Medici.
e)
Francesco Sforza.
 

 53. 

The Italian Renaissance had as one of its central components
a)
Christian humility.
b)
a concern for the improvement of society in general.
c)
a glorification of individual genius.
d)
the attempt to use art to educate the urban masses.
e)
rejection of Scriptural authority.
 

 54. 

Italian humanists stressed the
a)
study of the classics for what they could reveal about human nature.
b)
study of the classics in order to understand the divine nature of God.
c)
absolute authority of classical texts.
d)
role of the church in the reform of society.
e)
study of Revelation for a clue to the date of the Second Coming.
 

 55. 

Italy achieved unification in
a)
1459.
b)
1870.
c)
1610.
d)
1703.
e)
1945.
 

 56. 

The leaders of the Catholic church
a)
ignored the Renaissance.
b)
attempted to crush the secularism of the Renaissance.
c)
readily adopted the Renaissance spirit, especially when it came to art.
d)
used Renaissance ideals to promote moral reform.
e)
came to believe that the Renaissance had caused the Reformation.
 

 57. 

Castiglione's manual on gentlemanly conduct
a)
focused on ridding oneself of vermin.
b)
suggested that early choice of a profession was crucial in becoming a gentleman.
c)
asserted that real men need not learn French.
d)
insisted that the real gentleman show Christian humility and kindness toward the downtrodden.
e)
suggested that gentlemen cultivate their abilities in a variety of fields, athletics to music to art to mathematics.
 

 58. 

According to Laura Cereta, the inferiority of women was a consequence of their
a)
biologic reproductive function.
b)
own failure to live up to their potential.
c)
lack of economic rights.
d)
overzealous commitment to religion.
e)
creation from Adam's rib.
 

 59. 

Rich individuals sponsored artists and works of art
a)
because it was good for business.
b)
in order to please God.
c)
to glorify themselves and their families.
d)
to control unemployment.
e)
to enlighten the masses.
 

 60. 

According to studies of the Florentine Office of the Night, the most common form of homosexual relationship between males was between
a)
noble and noble.
b)
noblemen and manual laborers.
c)
noblemen and servants.
d)
adult men and boys.
e)
artist and patron.
 

 61. 

According to Machiavelli, the sole test of “good” government was whether it
a)
provided the necessary public services.
b)
was based on Christian morality.
c)
protected the liberty of its citizens.
d)
was effective.
e)
improved the economy.
 

 62. 

In terms of gender relations, Renaissance humanists argued that
a)
men and women were equals in intellectual pursuits.
b)
the status of women had improved since the Middle Ages.
c)
men and men alone should act in the public sphere.
d)
women should have equal opportunity in marital and extramarital sexual relations.
e)
women lacked immortal souls.
 

 63. 

Moveable type was invented in the West around
a)
1593.
b)
1412.
c)
1502.
d)
1454.
e)
1309.
 

 64. 

The northern humanists believed that human nature
a)
was fundamentally corrupt.
b)
was fundamentally good.
c)
was incapable of improvement.
d)
remained unaffected by Adam and Eve's fall.
e)
was fixed and unchangeable.
 

 65. 

According to the Dutch humanist Erasmus, the key to reform was
a)
education.
b)
control of the papacy.
c)
a pious life.
d)
the concerted effort that only a strong state could afford.
e)
adherence to church dogma.
 

 66. 

The term international style refers to
a)
Italian balance-of-power diplomacy.
b)
the use of movable-type printing in Europe.
c)
the spread of artistic techniques and ideals.
d)
the tactics of the centralizing monarchs.
e)
the increasing use of Latin among scholars to communicate.
 

 67. 

In the fourteenth century, Genoa and __________ dominated the Mediterranean slave trade.
a)
Venice
b)
Rome
c)
Milan
d)
Naples
e)
Pisa
 

 68. 

The Tudors won the support of the upper middle class by
a)
reforming the church.
b)
promoting peace and social order.
c)
restricting the wages of the working classes.
d)
lowering taxes and subsidizing the wool industry.
e)
opening up officerships in the Navy to them.
 

 69. 

Northern European humanists such as Erasmus studiously learned Greek expressly to
a)
comprehend ancient Greek pagan culture more deeply.
b)
read the New Testament in its original Greek version and comprehend better the early writings of Greek church fathers.
c)
avoid use of lowly vernacular languages.
d)
outshine southern civic humanist competitors in public debate.
e)
replace Latin by an older and more authentic language.
 

 70. 

"As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs" was a German advertising slogan used by the Catholic Church to sell
a)
church offices.
b)
special pilgrimage trips to Rome.
c)
indulgences.
d)
cookies baked by nuns for donation to poor children.
e)
church property to ambitious and greedy businessmen.
 

 71. 

The German university city that served as a center for the diffusion of Luther's ideas was
a)
Hamburg.
b)
Frankenhausen.
c)
Nurenberg.
d)
Berlin.
e)
Wittenberg.
 

 72. 

The Peasants' War of 1524-1525
a)
was led by a radical ex-follower of Luther, Philip Melanchthon.
b)
furthered the spread of Lutheranism throughout all of Europe.
c)
as praised by Luther as it destroyed the great Catholic princes of Germany.
d)
was primarily a revolt by peasants against local lords but was strongly opposed by Luther who saw it as a social revolution from below against God's divine order.
e)
had no connection with any of Luther's ideas and beliefs.
 

 73. 

At its outset, the Reformation in Germany was
a)
a rural phenomenon.
b)
largely an urban phenomenon.
c)
a movement with strong urban and rural backing.
d)
only a minor quarrel among monks.
e)
restricted to southern Germany alone.
 

 74. 

The Habsburg-Valois Wars led to
a)
the defeat of Francis I of France in 1544.
b)
the development of the Lutheranism in Germany.
c)
Charles V's sacking of Wittenberg in 1527.
d)
the final defeat of the Turks in Austria at the Battle of Mohács in 1526.
e)
the sack of Paris.
 

 75. 

The Schmalkaldic Wars fought between Charles V and German Protestant princes resulted in
a)
the complete defeat of the Schmalkaldic League.
b)
the defeat of Charles V at the Battle of Muhlberg.
c)
Charles joining forces with Henry II of France to neutralize the League.
d)
the abdication of Charles V, who failed to reestablish Catholicism in his dominions.
e)
the conversion of Charles V to Lutheranism.
 

 76. 

Luther's ideas were most readily accepted in
a)
England.
b)
France.
c)
Italy.
d)
Spain.
e)
Scandinavia.
 

 77. 

Prior to the Zwinglian Reformation, Switzerland
a)
was unified under the rule of Maximilian in 1499.
b)
was Europe's first unified republic.
c)
became Europe's greatest economic power under the Swiss confederation.
d)
was the principal source of religious books in all of Europe.
e)
was made up of thirteen cantons, under the leadership of wealthy bourgeoisie.
 

 78. 

England's break with the Roman church became official with the passage of the
a)
Act of Union.
b)
Six Articles.
c)
Act of Toleration.
d)
Act of Succession.
e)
Act of Supremacy.
 

 79. 

Which of the following are among the chief characteristics of John Calvin's reform movement?
a)
Calvin's acceptance of "justification by faith alone"
b)
predestination and the absolute sovereignty of God
c)
the belief that humans must obey secular authorities
d)
a belief in congregational church covenant
e)
a tolerance for all forms of Christianity but none for other religions including Judaism
 

 80. 

John Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion
a)
had little popular impact as it was only written in Latin.
b)
was a new and masterly synthesis of Protestant thought.
c)
systematically explained the fundamental difference between Calvinist and Lutheran doctrines.
d)
led to his eviction from France by Francis I.
e)
was the first book published by Guttenberg's printing press.
 

 81. 

In Geneva, the Calvinists
a)
imposed strict penalties for blasphemy and immoral behavior.
b)
reformed the city with little opposition from an enthusiastic populace.
c)
saw their reforms jeopardized by the execution of Michael Servetus.
d)
withdrew the Ecclesiastical Ordinances in 1541.
e)
granted religious toleration to all but Catholics.
 

 82. 

The Reformation changed conceptions of the family by
a)
substantially transforming women's subordinate place in society.
b)
creating new career avenues for women outside the home.
c)
extolling the superior state of marriage over celibacy.
d)
encouraging women to take more dominant roles in religious life.
e)
establishing exclusively Protestant nunneries.
 

 83. 

The Catholic Reformation's ultimate refusal to compromise with Protestantism was exemplified by
a)
Pope Paul III, who proved to be an ultra-conservative in refusing possible changes within the church.
b)
the Roman Inquisition and the creation of the Index.
c)
the Council of Trent, at which moderate Catholics and Jesuits heard the Protestants proclaim their doctrines.
d)
Pope Paul IV, a moderate pope who proposed to moderate all Catholic-Protestant disputes.
e)
none of the above
 

 84. 

The Council of Trent
a)
compromised with the Protestants on the doctrine of Justification by Faith.
b)
agreed with most Protestants that there were only two sacraments.
c)
reaffirmed traditional Catholic beliefs against the Reformation.
d)
asserted the importance of doctrine over ritual.
e)
placed church councils above the authority of the popes.
 

 85. 

In France, the Protestant minority was known as
a)
Anabaptists.
b)
Huguenots.
c)
Calvinists.
d)
Bourbonites.
e)
Lutherans.
 

 86. 

In France, the politiques were
a)
heads of various religious and political factions during the civil wars.
b)
administrators in provincial towns, appointed by the king.
c)
those who placed politics ahead of religion in an attempt to end the wars of religion.
d)
advisors to Catherine de'Medici.
e)
always the chief ministers to the kings.
 

 87. 

The importation of silver from the New World to Spain resulted in
a)
the Industrial Revolution.
b)
the Commercial Revolution.
c)
deflation.
d)
stagflation.
e)
inflation.
 

 88. 

Victory over the Spanish Armada at the end of the sixteenth century was achieved by
a)
France.
b)
the Holy Roman Empire.
c)
England.
d)
the Ottoman Empire.
e)
the Netherlands.
 

 89. 

Martin Luther's father was a
a)
priest.
b)
minor noble.
c)
poor peasant.
d)
wool merchant.
e)
miner.
 

 90. 

The doctrine of indulgence rests on all of the following principles except
a)
belief that God is both merciful and just.
b)
belief in salvation by faith alone.
c)
belief that Christ and the saints established a treasury of merit.
d)
belief that the church has the authority to grant sinners access to the treasury of merit.
e)
The doctrine rests on all four of these principles.
 

 91. 

Luther's ideas about Roman exploitation of Germany
a)
appealed to the political aspirations of German princes.
b)
were met with dismay by the ruling elite.
c)
led to administrative reform in the Empire.
d)
found an audience only among the peasantry.
e)
are generally considered paranoid by modern historians.
 

 92. 

Luther saw the _________ as the special domain of women.
a)
church
b)
home
c)
public market
d)
convent
e)
pulpit
 

 93. 

According to the text, Catholic historians have tended to view the Reformation as
a)
a radical break with the past.
b)
a wrongheaded return to the kerygma of Paul of Tarsus.
c)
an extension of the Albigensian heresy.
d)
a plot on the part of Henry VIII.
e)
continuous with earlier reform movements that remained within the church.
 

 94. 

John Knox was influential in the Reformation in
a)
Ireland.
b)
Scotland.
c)
Switzerland.
d)
Sweden.
e)
Swabia.
 

 95. 

As a result of the Peace of Augsburg, the people of Germany
a)
remained Catholics.
b)
were able to practice the religion of their choice.
c)
converted to Lutheranism.
d)
became either Lutheran or Catholic depending on the preference of their prince.
e)
threw off the papal yoke.
 

 96. 

Calvin's reform movement
a)
was suppressed by the civil authorities in Geneva.
b)
was restricted to Switzerland and France.
c)
was thoroughly integrated into the civil government of Geneva.
d)
rejected any role in the secular government of Geneva.
e)
was quickly rejected by the citizens of Geneva.
 

 97. 

Ulrich Zwingli attacked all of the following except
a)
indulgences.
b)
monasticism.
c)
the doctrine of the Trinity.
d)
clerical celibacy.
e)
the Mass.
 

 98. 

The decision to burn Michael Servetus at the stake reflected
a)
Calvin's hatred of Roman Catholicism.
b)
the religious intolerance of the Catholic Inquisition.
c)
Luther's rejection of other Protestant theologians.
d)
Calvin's harsh view of religious dissent.
e)
the pan-European persecution of Anabaptists.
 

 99. 

According to the text, the Calvinist doctrine of predestination led to
a)
a mood of fatalism among Calvin's followers.
b)
a withdrawal from the world of business and politics.
c)
a mass exodus from the city of Geneva.
d)
a fashion for astrology.
e)
a confidence among Calvinists in their own salvation.
 

 100. 

The dissolution of the English monasteries
a)
resulted from Henry VIII's desire to confiscate their wealth.
b)
resulted in a more equitable distribution of land.
c)
deeply disturbed the English upper classes.
d)
was the result of rebellious activities by the monks.
e)
was reversed by Elizabeth I.
 

 101. 

The Reformation in England was primarily the result of
a)
dynastic and romantic concerns of Henry VIII.
b)
the missionary activity of the Lollards.
c)
the terrible conditions then existing in the English churches.
d)
efforts by Luther and his followers.
e)
Elizabeth I's conversion to Presbyterianism.
 

 102. 

The Pilgrimage of Grace attested to
a)
the continued strength of Catholicism in southern Europe.
b)
the popularity of John Calvin.
c)
popular opposition in northern England to Henry VIII's Reformation.
d)
popular support of Luther in his conflict with the pope.
e)
the piety of Teresa of Avila.
 

 103. 

The parliamentary acts that removed the English church from papal jurisdiction
a)
were probably misunderstood by most members of Parliament.
b)
were passed unanimously.
c)
made the archbishop of Canterbury the leader of the church.
d)
also forbade all Catholic ritual and doctrine in the new Anglican church.
e)
were applied also to Scotland.
 

 104. 

In religious affairs, Elizabeth I of England followed a policy that
a)
supported the efforts of the Puritans.
b)
emphasized personal and public religious conformity.
c)
was a middle course between Catholic and Protestant extremes.
d)
favored Catholics over Protestants.
e)
imported Scottish Presbyterianism into England.
 

 105. 

__________'s Institutes of the Christian Religion laid out the core elements of his theology.
a)
Luther
b)
Calvin
c)
Zwingli
d)
Knox
e)
Servetus
 

 106. 

The Quakers trace their origins, in part, to
a)
the Anabaptists.
b)
Lutheranism.
c)
Calvinism.
d)
Zwinglism.
e)
Lollardism.
 

 107. 

France supported the Protestant princes of Germany in order to
a)
spread Protestantism.
b)
prevent English influence from increasing in Germany.
c)
contain Protestantism east of the Rhine.
d)
facilitate the Turkish attack on the Habsburgs.
e)
keep Germany politically fragmented.
 

 108. 

_________ factors proved decisive in shaping the course of the Reformation in eastern Europe.
a)
Religious
b)
Political
c)
Economic
d)
Social
e)
Ethnic
 

 109. 

The overriding goal of the Catholic religious orders established in the sixteenth century was
a)
institutional reform.
b)
reconciliation with Protestantism.
c)
to combat heresy and Protestantism.
d)
to uplift the spiritual condition of both clergy and laity.
e)
conversion of Asians and Africans.
 

 110. 

The new religious order for women that emerged in the sixteenth century was the
a)
Ursuline Order.
b)
Society of Jesus.
c)
Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office.
d)
Colloquy of Marburg.
e)
Evangelines.
 

 111. 

The Index was
a)
a list of official doctrines of the Catholic church.
b)
a list of individuals condemned by the Roman Inquisition.
c)
the cardinals who directed the Roman Inquisition.
d)
a catalog of forbidden reading.
e)
Luther's commentaries on the Scriptures.
 

 112. 

How did medieval Arab chroniclers tend to describe people from sub-Saharan Africa?
a)
As their equals in intellect and civilization.
b)
As primitive people who nonetheless had the same intellectual and cultural potential as Arab Muslims.
c)
As an inferior race.
d)
As descendants of Cain.
e)
As physically repulsive, mentally inferior people with few cares and no worries.
 

 113. 

In the seventeenth century, the Dutch East India Company
a)
established outposts in New York (New Amsterdam) and elsewhere in the Americas.
b)
handled the shipment of gold and silver bullion from Spanish America to Spain.
c)
took over the Philippines from Spain.
d)
established bases in the Caribbean.
e)
took over much of the East Indies from Portugal.
 

 114. 

The primary motivation for European explorers was
a)
material profit.
b)
population pressure.
c)
crusading zeal.
d)
Renaissance curiosity.
e)
fear of the Black Death.
 

 115. 

The quinto was
a)
the general term for the Spanish colonial administration.
b)
a Spanish tax on all precious metals mined in its colonies.
c)
the term for African slaves in Portugal.
d)
the term used to describe the decimation of the natives of Hispaniola.
e)
the forced labor duty imposed on all natives in some viceroyalties.
 

 116. 

___________ published the Edict of Nantes in 1598.
a)
Francis I
b)
Henry II
c)
Henry IV
d)
Louis XII
e)
Louis X
 

 117. 

The population losses caused by the plague and the Hundred Years' War
a)
greatly benefited the French nobility.
b)
resulted in the virtual disappearance of serfdom in France.
c)
led to foreign invasion of France.
d)
led to the introduction of serfdom in France.
e)
led to the reimposition of serfdom in eastern Europe.
 

 118. 

In order to pay for the HabsburgValois wars, the French monarchs
a)
instituted taxes on the nobility.
b)
sold many Renaissance masterpieces.
c)
sold public offices.
d)
confiscated monastic lands.
e)
imposed a salt tax.
 

 119. 

Philip II shared with Luther and Calvin the belief that
a)
salvation comes by God's gift of grace.
b)
church and civil authorities should destroy heresy.
c)
the state should impose morality on its subjects.
d)
the pope was not infallible.
e)
laypeople ought to read the Bible.
 

 120. 

The Edict of Nantes
a)
ended the Thirty Years' War.
b)
proclaimed religious tolerance for Catholics, Lutherans, and Calvinists throughout the Holy Roman Empire.
c)
liberated all Christian slaves in France.
d)
restored Catholicism in England.
e)
provided conditions for the peaceful coexistence of Calvinism and Catholicism in France.
 

 121. 

Alexander Farnese's strategy against the rebellious Low Countries cities was
a)
patient siege.
b)
political terrorism.
c)
diplomatic negotiation.
d)
pitched battles.
e)
buying off wealthy burghers.
 

 122. 

The fourth, or __________, phase of the Thirty Years' War began in 1635.
a)
Danish
b)
Bohemian
c)
Swedish
d)
French
e)
Dutch
 

 123. 

All of the following were factors in Elizabeth I's decision to intervene in the Dutch revolt except
a)
damage to the English wool industry.
b)
the assassination of William the Silent.
c)
the fall of Antwerp to the Spanish.
d)
the impact of inflation on the Spanish economy.
e)
fear of a Spanish invasion of England.
 

 124. 

Among the hypotheses offered by scholars to explain the great witch-hunts of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are all of the following except
a)
socioeconomic factors, which resulted in an atmosphere of instability and uncertainty in values.
b)
in small, tightly knit communities charges of witchcraft were made against those who did not conform, especially following the fervor of the Reformation.
c)
pervasive beliefs about women's inherent weakness and sexual insatiability.
d)
demographic changes, which caused many single women not to be under the control of men, and thus suspect.
e)
a deliberate papal conspiracy to smear Protestants with charges of witchcraft.
 

 125. 

The Portuguese brought the first African slaves to
a)
Brazil.
b)
Cuba, Hispaniola, and the Lesser Antilles.
c)
Mexico.
d)
Genoa, Venice, and Modena.
e)
Actually, the Spanish were the only people to import slaves to work on plantations.
 

 126. 

With regard to divorce in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
a)
the Catholic church made some provisions for divorce, while Protestant churches generally made none.
b)
both the Catholics and Protestants categorically rejected divorce.
c)
both the Catholic church and Protestant churches came to accept divorce for men and women in case of irreconcilable differences or adultery.
d)
Protestant churches allowed for divorce in case of infertility of either partner.
e)
the Catholic church did not accept divorce, while Protestant churches tended to accept it in cases of adultery and irreconcilable differences.
 

 127. 

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, prostitution
a)
declined dramatically.
b)
was common.
c)
catered to men and women.
d)
was outlawed in Protestant cities.
e)
was legal provided the prostitutes were not Christian.
 

 128. 

Michel de Montaigne invented the
a)
one-act play.
b)
history play.
c)
sonnet.
d)
sonata.
e)
essay.
 

 129. 

The Authorized Version of the Bible reflected the efforts of the Anglicans and Puritans to
a)
stamp out Catholicism.
b)
unite their churches.
c)
encourage the laity to read the Bible.
d)
identify themselves with the English throne.
e)
spread the gospel to Africa.
 

 130. 

Baroque art was
a)
reserved for rich patrons and the educated elite.
b)
intended to kindle the faith of the common people.
c)
banned in Protestant countries.
d)
simple and austere, lacking in emotion.
e)
first developed in the Netherlands.
 



 
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