Name:     ID: 
 
Email: 

Exam #2

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

When he began to envision his voyage across the Atlantic, Columbus had a copy of
a)
The Travels of John Mandeville.
b)
Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince.
c)
Ptolemy's Portolani.
d)
Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe.
e)
Marco Polo's Travels.
 

 2. 

The religious crusading motive for exploration was strongest in
a)
Spain and Portugal.
b)
Florence and Venice.
c)
the Byzantine Empire.
d)
England and Scotland.
e)
France and the Low Countries.
 

 3. 

The Pole Star as a navigational device was useless
a)
in the Western Hemisphere.
b)
north of the equator.
c)
south of the equator.
d)
in the north Pacific Ocean.
e)
in North America.
 

 4. 

The development of a Portuguese maritime empire encompassing Malacca and the Malay Peninsula was achieved, in part, through
a)
ruthless and murderous attacks on Arab settlers in the region.
b)
the negotiation of four commercial treaties with Arab traders.
c)
scrupulous business practices with local residents.
d)
massive bribery to local Arab overlords.
e)
peaceful diplomacy between equals.
 

 5. 

John Cabot, a Venetian, sailed for
a)
France.
b)
Venice.
c)
Spain.
d)
Portugal.
e)
England.
 

 6. 

The first known circumnavigation of the earth was by
a)
Amerigo Vespucci.
b)
Ferdinand Magellan.
c)
John Cabot.
d)
Christopher Columbus.
e)
Vasco da Gama.
 

 7. 

The Treaty of Tordesillas divided
a)
the Spice Islands between Portugal and the Dutch Republic.
b)
South Africa between the English and the Dutch.
c)
the New World between Spain and Portugal.
d)
the North Atlantic between England and France.
e)
the South Pacific between Spain and the Dutch Republic.
 

 8. 

In reality, the encomienda made the natives of the new world
a)
equal to the Spanish.
b)
slaves of the Spanish.
c)
masters of the Spanish.
d)
local rulers for the Spanish.
e)
irrelevant, as Spanish immigrants solved any necessary labor demands.
 

 9. 

The major critic of the Spanish treatment of the American natives was
a)
Bartolome de Las Casas.
b)
Hernan Cortez.
c)
Alfonso de Albuquerque.
d)
Ignatius Loyola.
e)
Pope Paul III.
 

 10. 

The European nation that established a settlement at Africa's Cape of Good Hope was
a)
Spain.
b)
Portugal.
c)
England.
d)
France.
e)
the Dutch Republic.
 

 11. 

Between the sixteenth and the nineteenth centuries, the number of African slaves shipped to the New World is estimated at
a)
one million.
b)
two million.
c)
five million.
d)
ten million.
e)
twenty-five million.
 

 12. 

The African slave trade
a)
had little impact upon the number of wars in Africa.
b)
reduced the number of wars in Africa because all the African states united against the European slavers.
c)
increased the number of wars in Africa because of the increasing demand for prisoners who could be sold as slaves.
d)
died out with the discovery of the South Asian Spice Islands.
e)
was carried out peacefully as wars or violence would reduce the number of slaves and thus profits.
 

 13. 

The British East India Company official who fought off the French threat in India was
a)
Lord Macartney.
b)
Sir Robert Clive.
c)
Sir Robert Walpole.
d)
Lord Byron.
e)
Lord Amherst.
 

 14. 

The local British population in India's Fort William was imprisoned in the
a)
"bilious swamp of Madras."
b)
"icy Ajanta caves."
c)
"black hole of Calcutta."
d)
"Red Fort of the Mughals."
e)
"swampy sink of Purdah."
 

 15. 

The Chinese dynasty which replaced the Ming in the seventeenth century and which came from Manchuria was the
a)
Tang.
b)
Song.
c)
Yuan.
d)
Qin.
e)
Qing.
 

 16. 

Which of the following was not a result of European expansion and exploration?
a)
the influx of tremendous amounts of precious metals into Europe
b)
the introduction of new foods into Europe
c)
the establishing of the Catholic faith in many areas of the New World
d)
the introduction of smallpox into Europe
e)
the possible introduction of syphilis into Europe
 

 17. 

Before the nineteenth century, which nation(s) or continent was least affected by European power and influence?
a)
China and Japan
b)
Africa
c)
North America
d)
South America
e)
India
 

 18. 

An extensive multiracial society appeared first in
a)
British North America.
b)
Latin America.
c)
Northern Europe.
d)
Southern Europe.
e)
China.
 

 19. 

The most famous map projection in history is
a)
the portolani.
b)
Ptolemy's Geography.
c)
that of Gerardus Mercator.
d)
Galileo's The Starry Messenger.
e)
dead-reckoning.
 

 20. 

European overseas expansion was facilitated by all of the following innovations except the
a)
use of sail power.
b)
caravel.
c)
mounting of cannon on naval vessels.
d)
astrolabe.
e)
galley.
 

 21. 

Prince Henry of Portugal is significant for his
a)
role in subduing the Dutch revolt.
b)
support of exploration.
c)
support of the Protestants in the Thirty Years' War.
d)
opposition to slavery.
e)
rounding of the Cape of Good Hope in 1498.
 

 22. 

Before the Portuguese gained control of the spice trade in the Indian Ocean, the trade had been controlled by the
a)
Muslims.
b)
Venetians.
c)
Spanish.
d)
Byzantines.
e)
Ming Chinese.
 

 23. 

The Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis between France and _________ was signed in 1559.
a)
Spain
b)
the Holy Roman Empire
c)
England
d)
Portugal
e)
the papacy
 

 24. 

At the end of the sixteenth century, the commercial capital of the European world was
a)
Lisbon.
b)
Madrid.
c)
London.
d)
Amsterdam.
e)
Seville.
 

 25. 

The group of people who benefited the most from large price increases in the sixteenth century was the
a)
Spanish bureaucracy.
b)
nobility.
c)
urban working class.
d)
middle class.
e)
upper-level clergy.
 

 26. 

The French royal budget in the first half of the sixteenth century was strained by both the HabsburgValois wars and
a)
loss of feudal dues and rents.
b)
overseas exploration.
c)
extravagant promotion of the arts by the monarchs.
d)
the military defeats of the Thirty Years' War.
e)
the Price Revolution.
 

 27. 

In order to pay for the HabsburgValois wars, the French monarchs
a)
instituted taxes on the nobility.
b)
sold many Renaissance masterpieces.
c)
sold public offices.
d)
confiscated monastic lands.
e)
imposed a salt tax.
 

 28. 

When Charles V abdicated, his son Philip received all of the following except
a)
the kingdom of Sicily.
b)
Austria.
c)
the Low Countries.
d)
Spain.
e)
Milan.
 

 29. 

Philip II shared with Luther and Calvin the belief that
a)
salvation comes by God's gift of grace.
b)
church and civil authorities should destroy heresy.
c)
the state should impose morality on its subjects.
d)
the pope was not infallible.
e)
laypeople ought to read the Bible.
 

 30. 

The Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre
a)
was the event that sparked the Dutch revolt.
b)
resulted in the Concordat of Bologna.
c)
was caused by the Edict of Nantes.
d)
exemplified the hatred between French Catholics and Protestants.
e)
was a mass burning of accused witches.
 

 31. 

Among the hypotheses offered by scholars to explain the great witch-hunts of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are all of the following except
a)
socioeconomic factors, which resulted in an atmosphere of instability and uncertainty in values.
b)
in small, tightly knit communities charges of witchcraft were made against those who did not conform, especially following the fervor of the Reformation.
c)
pervasive beliefs about women's inherent weakness and sexual insatiability.
d)
demographic changes, which caused many single women not to be under the control of men, and thus suspect.
e)
a deliberate papal conspiracy to smear Protestants with charges of witchcraft.
 

 32. 

The most significant changes brought about by the Columbian voyages were
a)
biosocial in nature.
b)
political in nature.
c)
economic in nature
d)
social in nature.
e)
all of the above.
 

 33. 

The Portuguese brought the first African slaves to
a)
Brazil.
b)
Cuba, Hispaniola, and the Lesser Antilles.
c)
Mexico.
d)
Genoa, Venice, and Modena.
e)
Actually, the Spanish were the only people to import slaves to work on plantations.
 

 34. 

Amerindians gave the Spanish
a)
smallpox.
b)
syphilis.
c)
typhoid.
d)
bubonic plague.
e)
the common cold.
 

 35. 

With regard to divorce in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
a)
the Catholic church made some provisions for divorce, while Protestant churches generally made none.
b)
both the Catholics and Protestants categorically rejected divorce.
c)
both the Catholic church and Protestant churches came to accept divorce for men and women in case of irreconcilable differences or adultery.
d)
Protestant churches allowed for divorce in case of infertility of either partner.
e)
the Catholic church did not accept divorce, while Protestant churches tended to accept it in cases of adultery and irreconcilable differences.
 

 36. 

The introduction of slavery into the Americas was conditioned most by the production of
a)
cotton.
b)
spices.
c)
rice.
d)
sugar.
e)
tobacco.
 

 37. 

The European attitude toward blacks derived from Christian theological speculation and
a)
African attacks on European traders and missionaries.
b)
Arab ideas about Africans.
c)
Renaissance racism.
d)
Greco-Roman attitudes about Africans.
e)
English racism against the Irish.
 

 38. 

Michel de Montaigne invented the
a)
one-act play.
b)
history play.
c)
sonnet.
d)
sonata.
e)
essay.
 

 39. 

The Authorized Version of the Bible reflected the efforts of the Anglicans and Puritans to
a)
stamp out Catholicism.
b)
unite their churches.
c)
encourage the laity to read the Bible.
d)
identify themselves with the English throne.
e)
spread the gospel to Africa.
 

 40. 

Recent scholarship cites which of the following reasons for the witchcraft craze of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?
a)
the outbreak of religious fervor of the same period
b)
social conditions that threatened old communal values
c)
local politicians used "witches" as scapegoats for their own political problems
d)
an indirect result of the Protestant-Catholic struggle
e)
the quest for alternate spiritual experiences other than Christianity
 

 41. 

The Thirty Years' War
a)
was largely confined to agreed upon battlefields.
b)
witnessed the devastation of much of Germany and a loss of population.
c)
was fought according to chivalric codes.
d)
was fought mainly in Italy.
e)
ended with a Habsburg victory over all opponents.
 

 42. 

The "military revolution," or changes in the science and practice of warfare between 1550 and 1650, saw armies
a)
become more disciplined but less flexible.
b)
align in units of blocks rather than lines.
c)
abandon the use of cavalry.
d)
change from mercenaries to conscripts for manpower.
e)
change from conscripts to more reliable mercenary soldiers.
 

 43. 

Jacques Boussuet's Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture
a)
rejected as ungodly Louis XIV's system of absolute rule.
b)
was the fundamental statement of seventeenth-century divine right monarchy.
c)
stressed that a limited monarchy with representative bodies was the most divine form of human government.
d)
claimed that a king's authority and power were revocable under the law of God.
e)
justified a "holy republic."
 

 44. 

Absolutism means
a)
the real power in any state must be religious and exercised by the church.
b)
ultimate authority rests solely in the hands of a king who rules by divine right.
c)
subordinate powers have an absolute right to advise the king on conducting the affairs state.
d)
no matter how humble, male citizens have an absolute right to participate in politics.
e)
rule by a secular dictator, justifying his/her authority by supposedly serving the people.
 

 45. 

The series of noble revolts known as the Fronde resulted in
a)
the assassination of Cardinal Mazarin in 1661.
b)
renewed power for the Parliament of Paris.
c)
a unified noble army securing and increasing its own power.
d)
French citizens looking to the monarchy for stability.
e)
the reappearance of the Estates General as France's law-making body.
 

 46. 

The costly palace built by Louis XIV, that became the envy of all European monarchs, was
a)
Fontainebleau.
b)
Versailles.
c)
Aix-la-Chapelle.
d)
Avignon.
e)
Mont St. Michele.
 

 47. 

Louis XIV's Edict of Fontainebleau
a)
created new ranks of intendants to govern various regions of France.
b)
revoked the earlier Edict of Nantes, curtailed the rights of French Protestants, and caused thousands of highly skilled Huguenot to flee the country.
c)
established new standards of court etiquette and was intended to diminish the power of great nobles.
d)
removed most French bishops from their sees and replaced them with nobles to strengthen Louis' control of the French Catholic Church.
e)
moved the Estates General from Paris to Fontainebleau.
 

 48. 

Scandinavia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries witnessed
a)
Denmark expand so as to dominate the Baltic.
b)
Sweden become a second-rate power after the Great Northern War.
c)
Sweden and Denmark join forces to defeat and occupy Poland in 1660.
d)
the economic dominance of Sweden over the rest of northern Europe.
e)
the conquest of Sweden by Norway.
 

 49. 

The "Golden Age" of the Dutch Republic in the seventeenth century witnessed
a)
William of Orange become king in 1672.
b)
the economic prosperity of the United Provinces ruined by series of wars late in the century.
c)
the temporary weakening of the States General.
d)
a and c
e)
all of the above.
 

 50. 

James I of England alienated most of the members of Parliament by
a)
encouraging an alliance with Spain.
b)
insisting on his right to govern through Divine Right.
c)
persecuting Puritans.
d)
lavishly spending money on the English army.
e)
playing favorites.
 

 51. 

The Parliamentarians were successful in the English Civil War because
a)
they received aid from the French.
b)
their weaponry was superior to that of the King's forces.
c)
of the effectiveness of Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army.
d)
their army was much larger than the Royalist army.
e)
patriotism.
 

 52. 

Thomas Hobbes
a)
felt that man was suited best to be in a pristine state of nature, without government interference.
b)
stated that mankind was animalistic, and needed a strong government to maintain social order.
c)
was a firm believer in democracy.
d)
said that the best form of government was a theocracy.
e)
argued in favor of revolution when the ruler broke the social contract.
 

 53. 

John Locke was responsible for
a)
synthesizing previous doctrines on international law.
b)
the idea of society as being in a constant state of war.
c)
advocating political democracy for the entire populace.
d)
emphasizing the social contract between the people and government.
e)
disestablishing the Church of England.
 

 54. 

The artistic movement Mannerism reached its peak with the work of
a)
Fra Angelico.
b)
Bernini.
c)
Peter Paul Rubens.
d)
El Greco.
e)
Rembrandt.
 

 55. 

The Baroque painter who used violent motion, heavily fleshed nudes, and dramatic use of light and shadow, and rich sensuous pigments in his paintings was
a)
Rembrandt van Rijn.
b)
Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
c)
El Greco.
d)
Artemisia Gentileschi.
e)
Peter Paul Rubens.
 

 56. 

The greatest figure of Baroque art was
a)
Rembrandt van Rijn.
b)
Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
c)
El Greco.
d)
Nicholas Poussin.
e)
David Caspar Friedrich
 

 57. 

Baroque art was superseded by which of the following artistic style?
a)
Impressionism
b)
Naturalism
c)
Realism
d)
Romanticism
e)
French Classicism
 

 58. 

The first female painter admitted to the Guild of St. Luke in Haarlem and who painted scenes of everyday life was
a)
Artemisia Gentileschi.
b)
Judith Holofernes.
c)
Mary L'Orange.
d)
Judith Leyster.
e)
none of the above
 

 59. 

The Dutch painter Rembrandt van Rijn was noted for
a)
his formation of the French Academy of Painting and Sculptors.
b)
reflecting the values of the Dutch aristocracy in his works.
c)
being the one great Protestant painter of the seventeenth century.
d)
rejecting the Dutch preoccupation with realism for the Baroque style of French classicism.
e)
his moody paintings of elongated religious figures.
 

 60. 

The French playwright Moliére is noted for all of the following except
a)
Tartuffe.
b)
benefiting from the patronage of Louis XIV.
c)
satirizing French religious and social customs.
d)
perfecting neoclassical tragedy.
e)
producing and acting in a series of comedies.
 

 61. 

A state may be termed __________ when it possesses a monopoly over the instruments of justice and the use of force within clearly defined boundaries.
a)
sovereign
b)
absolute
c)
a monarchy
d)
a nation
e)
a constitutional nation
 

 62. 

The Fronde refers to
a)
the guerrilla warfare that finally won Lorraine for Louis XIV.
b)
Louis XIV's secret office for opening private letters in the Paris post office.
c)
the region of southern France where high-quality linen was produced for export.
d)
the huge garden Louis XIV had constructed at Versailles.
e)
a rebellion by aristocrats and others early in the reign of Louis XIV.
 

 63. 

Political power in the Dutch republic was
a)
held by the central government.
b)
controlled by an oligarchy of wealthy merchants.
c)
held by the stadholder and his royal courtiers.
d)
exercised by a democratically elected States General.
e)
monopolized by members of the Calvinist Consistory.
 

 64. 

The decline of Spain in the seventeenth century can be attributed to all of the following causes except
a)
conflict between the church and the state.
b)
the incredible wealth of South America destroyed what remained of the middle class.
c)
involvement in a number of wars.
d)
a pervasive feeling of pessimism and fatalism among Spanish leaders.
e)
the concept that moneymaking was vulgar and undignified, which resulted in people entering a number of economically unproductive professions (such as priests, monks, and nuns).
 

 65. 

__________, Henry IV's chief minister, was a devout Protestant.
a)
Locke
b)
Colbert
c)
Richelieu
d)
Sully
e)
Marat
 

 66. 

The guiding force behind Cardinal Richelieu's domestic policies was
a)
reform of the church.
b)
a belief in decentralization.
c)
the subordination of all groups and institutions to the monarchy.
d)
the sovereignty of the people.
e)
hostility to the Huguenots.
 

 67. 

Louis XIII's decision to destroy Huguenot independence was based on
a)
the Huguenots' close relationship with England.
b)
Huguenot attempts to resume the religious wars of the previous century.
c)
the king's desire to confiscate Huguenot property.
d)
the Huguenots' refusal to allow Catholics freedom of worship in Huguenot cities.
e)
his desire to settle Canada more rapidly.
 

 68. 

The Edict of Nantes was intended to
a)
establish a permanent policy of toleration.
b)
diminish the importance of Protestants in France.
c)
create an absolute separation of church and state.
d)
raise funds for new wars.
e)
promote temporary religious and civil concord.
 

 69. 

Richelieu's notion of ____________ justified actions on behalf of the state that would be condemned if carried out by private individuals.
a)
raison d'état
b)
absolutism
c)
totalitarianism
d)
sin
e)
esprit de corps
 

 70. 

Mercantilist theory postulated that
a)
government should not interfere in the economy.
b)
imports and exports should be equally balanced.
c)
government should intervene to secure the largest share of limited resources.
d)
overseas colonies were an unwanted drain of valuable gold bullion.
e)
free trade would maximize the wealth of all nations.
 

 71. 

The state that gained the most from the War of the Spanish Succession was
a)
Spain.
b)
France.
c)
the United Provinces.
d)
England.
e)
Prussia.
 

 72. 

Typically, French classicism
a)
challenged existing concepts concerning art.
b)
presented subject matter associated with the Greco-Roman past.
c)
had little support from the royal government.
d)
emphasized individualistic renderings of society.
e)
rejected the Baroque.
 

 73. 

Which country had the highest living standards in Europe in the mid-seventeenth century?
a)
England.
b)
France.
c)
Sweden.
d)
Spain.
e)
the Netherlands.
 

 74. 

The final collapse of Spain as a great military power was symbolized by the defeat at the Battle of Rocroi, and the resulting Treaty of
a)
Utrecht.
b)
the White Mountain.
c)
the Pyrenees.
d)
Olivares.
e)
Westphalia.
 

 75. 

___________'s plays include Tartuffe and Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme.
a)
Racine
b)
Molière
c)
Sully
d)
Charpentier
e)
Couperin
 

 76. 

According to the text, what values consonant with business success did Calvinism promote?
a)
Self-interest and greed.
b)
Obsession with detail.
c)
An inquisitive spirit.
d)
Hard work, thrift, and postponement of gratification.
e)
Generosity, open-mindedness, and sociability.
 

 77. 

French foreign policy under Richelieu focused primarily on the
a)
prevention of the Habsburgs from unifying the territories surrounding France.
b)
destruction of English naval power.
c)
destruction of the economic power of the Low Countries.
d)
protection of Burgundy.
e)
winning back of Alsace-Lorraine.
 

 78. 

Oliver Cromwell's Protectorate is best described as a
a)
popular democracy.
b)
cabinet-style parliamentary government.
c)
constitutional monarchy.
d)
Puritan, military dictatorship.
e)
proletarian dictatorship.
 

 79. 

The Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century
a)
was stimulated by a revived interest in Galen and Aristotle.
b)
directly resulted from reaction and revolt against the social and historical conditions of the Middle Ages.
c)
was largely due to a monastic revolution.
d)
although an innovative phase in western thinking, was based upon the intellectual and scientific accomplishments of previous centuries.
e)
was a complete break with the past.
 

 80. 

According to Leonardo da Vinci, what subject was the key to understanding the nature of things?
a)
astronomy
b)
art
c)
biology
d)
the Bible
e)
mathematics
 

 81. 

Scholars devoted to Hermeticism
a)
believed that the world was a very recent creation still imperfect.
b)
credited the devil with control over the dark secrets of nature.
c)
saw the world as a living embodiment of divinity where humans could use mathematics and magic to dominate nature.
d)
retreated from study of the natural world to concentrate on mastery of theories of magic.
e)
a and d
 

 82. 

The general conception of the universe before Copernicus was that
a)
it was orderly with heaven at the center and the earth circling around it.
b)
the earth was the stationary center and heavenly spheres orbited it.
c)
the earth rested on the shell of a giant tortoise.
d)
it could not be revealed according to God's will.
e)
the world was flat.
 

 83. 

The Ptolemaic conception of the universe was also known as
a)
God's master plan.
b)
the geocentric conception.
c)
the lunacentric conception.
d)
the expanding universe.
e)
the pantheistic theory.
 

 84. 

The immediate reaction of the clerics to the theories of Copernicus was
a)
condemnation, especially by Protestant leaders like Luther who condemned the discovery as contrary to their literal interpretation of the Bible.
b)
broad approval motivated by their now higher educational achievements.
c)
confused silence.
d)
the calling of the Council of Dort by Protestants and Catholics to question the astronomer closely prior to trial for blasphemy.
e)
apathy because they could not understand either his theory or his calculations.
 

 85. 

The ideas of Copernicus were
a)
radically different from Aristotle's principle of the existence of heavenly spheres.
b)
nearly as complicated as those of Ptolemy.
c)
were just like the ideas of today.
d)
quite consistent with Biblical ideas.
e)
similar to those of Ptolemy but different from those of Aristotle.
 

 86. 

Kepler's laws of planetary motion
a)
proposed a solution to the riddle about what substances made up planets.
b)
reverted to the Ptolemaic system with the earth at the center.
c)
gained acceptance despite disproving Aristotle's conviction that the motion of planets was steady and unchanging.
d)
showed that planets are constantly gaining speed.
e)
predicted that the earth was slowing down in relation to the sun.
 

 87. 

The Catholic Roman Inquisition attacked Galileo for his scientific ideas with the encouragement of
a)
European monarchs fearful of losing their authority.
b)
even Protestant theologians who hated Galileo, an Italian Catholic scholar.
c)
elements within the church pledged to defend ancient Aristotelian ideas and Catholic orthodoxy.
d)
the pope who refused to believe that the earth and planets really move.
e)
the Greek Orthodox Church, based in Constantinople.
 

 88. 

Galileo's Dialogue on the Two World Systems was really an attempt to
a)
embarrass Copernicus.
b)
support Copernicus through a publication in Italian accessible to a wide audience.
c)
attack Luther and Protestant theological restrictions on scientific inquiry.
d)
apologize to the church for earlier theories he now saw as mistaken.
e)
oppose the dogma and doctrine of the Catholic Church.
 

 89. 

What actions did the Catholic Church pursue concerning Galileo and his ideas?
a)
authorities reluctantly agreed to his theories
b)
turned him over to the Papal Curia
c)
allowed Galileo six months to change his mind concerning his theories
d)
forced to recant them in a trial before the Inquisition
e)
turned him over to the Inquisition to be tortured
 

 90. 

Isaac Newton's scientific discoveries
a)
were resisted more in his own country, England, than in the rest of Europe.
b)
although readily accepted in his own country, were resisted on the continent.
c)
were modern in their removal of God from universal laws.
d)
were among the first to be printed in a language other than Latin.
e)
were initially condemned by the Church of England and the Archbishop of Canterbury.
 

 91. 

Benedict Spinoza believed that women
a)
were equal to men.
b)
were little more than animals without a soul.
c)
were "naturally" inferior to men.
d)
could stand on their own, but society functioned far better when men alone ruled.
e)
were superior to men in their intellects but not in their emotions.
 

 92. 

The philosophy of René Descartes
a)
stressed a separation of mind and matter.
b)
stressed a holistic universe of mind and matter devoid of a creator-God.
c)
saw the material world as a living thing containing the human essence.
d)
would not have a wide influence upon Western thought until the nineteenth century.
e)
was condemned by the government of the Dutch Republic.
 

 93. 

Descartes believed that the world could be understood by
a)
the same principles inherent in mathematical thinking.
b)
quiet contemplation and following of the Scriptures.
c)
mystical experiences.
d)
interpreting dreams and applying that knowledge to our everyday lives.
e)
incorporating the mind with the body.
 

 94. 

Francis Bacon was important to the Scientific Revolution for his emphasis on
a)
the separation of mind from matter.
b)
pure theoretical science.
c)
reaching deductive conclusions by moving from general to particular principles.
d)
science's urgent need to catalogue all of nature's diversity.
e)
empirical, experimental observation.
 

 95. 

Showing the disputatious nature of European scientific thinkers, Francis Bacon rejected the
a)
ideas of Copernicus and Kepler and misunderstood Galileo.
b)
theories of Vesalius.
c)
publications of the Royal Society.
d)
political views of John Locke.
e)
mathematical claims of Newton.
 

 96. 

Organized religions in the seventeenth century
a)
conceded the accomplishments of science and separated theology from science proper.
b)
rejected scientific discoveries that conflicted with the Christian view of the world.
c)
contributed greatly to scientific research.
d)
largely ignored science as merely a "toy for the minds of God's children."
e)
rapidly reoriented their theologies to accept the findings of modern science.
 

 97. 

Benedict de Spinoza
a)
believed that humans were created separate from nature in order to rule the earth.
b)
saw his complex synthesis of God and the universe adopted as Catholic doctrine.
c)
was influenced by Descartes, but saw no separation between mind and matter.
d)
rejected all forms of pantheistic belief.
e)
disagreed with the theory of a heliocentric universe.
 

 98. 

The scientific societies of early modern Europe established the first
a)
fund-raising events for medical research.
b)
scientific journals appearing regularly.
c)
code of ethics for experimentation on humans and animals.
d)
college departments for scientific study.
e)
international European institutions for the study of all branches of science and mathematics.
 

 99. 

The key figure of the Scientific Revolution who would inspire the search for natural laws in other fields, including society and economics, was
a)
Galileo.
b)
Bacon.
c)
Descartes.
d)
Pascal.
e)
Newton.
 

 100. 

According to the text, the reason that labor shortages led to freedom for peasants in western Europe and bondage for peasants in eastern Europe was
a)
the labor shortage was worse in western Europe.
b)
the monarchs in eastern Europe were weaker before the seventeenth century and could not restrain the nobles from oppressing the peasants.
c)
eastern Orthodoxy provided strong theological support for serfdom.
d)
eastern European lords needed to export grain to western Europe.
e)
the Germanic heritage of western Europe.
 

 101. 

In response to the problems of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the landlords of eastern Europe
a)
offered better economic terms to their peasants.
b)
used political power to gain control of the peasants.
c)
renounced their traditional control of local justice.
d)
imported labor from western Europe.
e)
imported Turkic slaves.
 

 102. 

The first tactic employed by the landlords to cope with labor shortages was to
a)
destroy town liberties.
b)
employ women and children.
c)
encourage the emergence of small-scale farming.
d)
restrict peasant freedom of movement.
e)
offer peasants lower rents.
 

 103. 

The administration of justice in eastern Europe generally was
a)
in the hands of trained jurists working for the monarch.
b)
controlled by local landlords.
c)
the basis of the monarch's reforms.
d)
relegated to the local clergy.
e)
the business of village headmen.
 

 104. 

Serfdom was established in eastern Europe between
a)
1000 and 1350.
b)
800 and 1150.
c)
500 and 1200.
d)
1550 and 1750.
e)
1400 and 1650.
 

 105. 

In the aftermath of the siege of Vienna in 1683, the Habsburgs
a)
were forced to relinquish Bohemia.
b)
reestablished the parliaments of Bohemia and Styria.
c)
pursued a peaceful relationship with the Ottoman Empire.
d)
conquered most of Hungary and Transylvania.
e)
fortified Prague.
 

 106. 

Each nation, or ________, in the Ottoman Empire enjoyed autonomous self-government under its religious leaders.
a)
janissary
b)
millet
c)
sultan
d)
harem
e)
stan
 

 107. 

Charles XII of Sweden scored a major victory over Peter the Great at the Battle of
a)
Poltava.
b)
Narva.
c)
St. Petersburg.
d)
Karlsruhe.
e)
Fontenoy.
 

 108. 

According to the text, which power had the most efficient military in Europe, man for man, in the early 1700s?
a)
Russia.
b)
Prussia.
c)
France.
d)
The Ottoman Empire.
e)
Britain.
 

 109. 

After the death of ____________ in 1566, Ottoman monarchial absolutism gave way to palace intrigue.
a)
Suhas the Great
b)
Saladin the Wise
c)
Shajaran the Unready
d)
Suleiman the Magnificent
e)
Attaturk II
 

 110. 

The most enduring legacy of Frederick William I was
a)
the establishment of a first-rate bureaucracy.
b)
the abolition of the Brandenburg Estates.
c)
his decision to transform the peasants into serfs.
d)
the acquisition of the royal title.
e)
molding the most militaristic country of modern times.
 

 111. 

Alexander Nevsky, prince of __________, was adept at serving the Mongols.
a)
Kiev
b)
Cracow
c)
Moscow
d)
the Urals
e)
the Rus
 

 112. 

How was the emergence of large Cossack bands in the Ukraine in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries related to political and economic developments to the north in Russia?
a)
Many Cossacks were peasants fleeing enserfment in Russia.
b)
Many Cossacks were religious dissenters who left the official Orthodox church following the schism.
c)
Cossacks were gentry dispossessed by Ivan the Terrible who sought new lands.
d)
Cossacks were Turkic tribesmen who persistently raided the north.
e)
Cossacks were an elite military force created by the newly powerful tsars.
 

 113. 

During the reigns of Ivan III and Ivan IV, Muscovite society
a)
was dominated by the landed nobility, the boyars.
b)
was strongly influenced by the West.
c)
featured relative equality between men and women.
d)
converted to Orthodox Christianity.
e)
saw the rise of the service nobility.
 

 114. 

After the Time of Troubles, the Romanov tsars
a)
increased the obligations of the nobility.
b)
relaxed the obligations of the serfs.
c)
relaxed the obligations of the nobility.
d)
fostered the growth of an urban middle class.
e)
liquidated the Cossacks.
 

 115. 

The Baroque palaces of central and eastern European princes were modeled on
a)
Notre Dame de Paris.
b)
the Louvre.
c)
Versailles.
d)
the Kremlin.
e)
the Winter Palace.
 

 116. 

The ___________ state was composed of three separate and distinct territories.
a)
Habsburg
b)
Russian
c)
Prussian
d)
Ottoman
e)
Polish
 

 117. 

The scientist-philosopher who provides a link between the scientists of the 17th century and the philosophes of the next was
a)
Voltaire.
b)
Diderot.
c)
Hume.
d)
Beccaria.
e)
Fontenelle.
 

 118. 

European intellectual life in the eighteenth century was marked by the emergence of
a)
anti-Semitism and sharper persecution of minorities.
b)
secularization and a search to find the natural laws governing human life.
c)
sophism and the mockery of past traditions.
d)
monastic schools and medieval modes of training religious thinkers.
e)
the complete separation of church from state.
 

 119. 

A major inspiration for travel literature in the eighteenth century were the Pacific Ocean adventures of
a)
James Cook.
b)
Ferdinand de Lesseps.
c)
Zheng He.
d)
David Hume.
e)
Ferdinand Magellan.
 

 120. 

The recognized capital of the Enlightenment was
a)
Geneva.
b)
Berlin.
c)
London.
d)
Vienna.
e)
Paris.
 

 121. 

A key new type of enlightened writing fueling skepticism about the "truths" of Christianity and European society was
a)
psychological autobiography.
b)
travel reports and comparative studies of old and new world cultures.
c)
ribald stories of peasant ignorance.
d)
aristocratic joke books showing the bad humor of supposed social elites.
e)
scientific treatises based upon philosophical induction.
 

 122. 

The leader of the Physiocrats and their advocacy of natural economic laws was
a)
Denis Diderot.
b)
Adam Smith.
c)
Francois Quesnay.
d)
Cesare Beccaria.
e)
David Hume.
 

 123. 

Voltaire was best known for his criticism of
a)
the German monarchical system.
b)
the separation of church and state.
c)
religious intolerance.
d)
Plato and the Greeks.
e)
Chinese civilization.
 

 124. 

An early female philosophe who published a translation of Newton's Principia and who was the mistress of Voltaire was
a)
Mary Wolstonecraft.
b)
Marie Antoinette.
c)
Mary Astell.
d)
Catherine the Great.
e)
the Marquise du Chatelet.
 

 125. 

Which of the following statements best applies to Denis Diderot?
a)
His materialistic, atheistic beliefs became tempered by his adoption of deism.
b)
His Encyclopedia had considerable impact, particularly after its price was greatly reduced.
c)
His Encyclopedia had little impact due to its limited elitist appeal.
d)
The core of his educational beliefs expressed his devotion to sexual monogamy and chastity.
e)
He was an advocate of the social contract and the general will.
 

 126. 

Montesquieu's Persian Letters
a)
expressed his admiration of Islam and the East.
b)
was a translation of a great literary work from ancient Persia.
c)
was a method that allowed him to criticize the Catholic Church and the French monarchy.
d)
was first written Latin but later translated into French.
e)
was published first in Italy.
 

 127. 

In Rousseau's The Social Contract, he expressed his belief that
a)
government was an evil that should be eliminated.
b)
the individual's will is the most important.
c)
freedom is achieved by being forced to follow what is best for all or the "general will."
d)
a child was a small adult with all the same abilities and obligations.
e)
there is an absolute right of revolution.
 

 128. 

Rousseau's influential novel, Emile, deals with these key Enlightenment themes:
a)
proper child rearing and human education
b)
the best roles for women in making modern society
c)
the necessity of church marriage and reform of church teaching on this sacrament
d)
the abolition of the pope's restrictions on religious practices and the content of sermons
e)
the evils of child abuse
 

 129. 

Of great importance to the Enlightenment were the salons, which
a)
provided social mobility to men but women were excluded.
b)
were usually run by men but allowed female guests.
c)
provided a forum for the serious discussion of the ideas of scholastic philosophy.
d)
provided a forum for discussing the ideas of the philosophes.
e)
were mainly to be found in London.
 

 130. 

The strongest statement and vindication of women's rights during the Enlightenment was made by
a)
Mary Wollstonecraft.
b)
Beatrice Williams.
c)
Mary Astell.
d)
Princess Amelia of Austria.
e)
Maria Cavendish.
 

 131. 

Choose the correct relationship between the Rococo artist and his work.
a)
Antoine Watteau-Bishop's Palace at Würzburg
b)
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo--Plurality of Worlds
c)
Balthasar Neumann--pilgrimage church of the Vierzehnheiligen
d)
Domenikus Zimmermann--the salon
e)
Bernini--Versailles
 

 132. 

European music in the later eighteenth century was well characterized by
a)
Haydn and Mozart, who caused a shift in the musical center from Italy and Germany to the Austrian Empire.
b)
Handel, the most religiously inspired of the period's composers.
c)
the strictly elitist, aristocratic works of Haydn.
d)
the innovative, secular compositions of Bach.
e)
the neoclassical works of Wagner.
 

 133. 

The establishment of the modern fictional novel is generally attributed to the
a)
French.
b)
Russians.
c)
Germans.
d)
Italians.
e)
English.
 

 134. 

The French Rococo painter who portrayed the aristocratic life as refined, sensual, and civilized was
a)
Antoine Watteau.
b)
Balthasar Neumann.
c)
Madam Geoffrin.
d)
Rembrandt.
e)
Caspar David Friedrich.
 

 135. 

Great Britain led the way in the eighteenth century in producing
a)
magazines.
b)
newspapers.
c)
coffee houses.
d)
a and b
e)
all of the above
 

 136. 

The eighteenth century musical composition that has been called one of those rare works that appeal immediately to everyone, and yet is indisputably a masterpiece of the highest order is
a)
Bach's St. Matthew's Passion.
b)
Haydn's The Seasons.
c)
Handel's Messiah.
d)
Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro.
e)
Wagner's The Ring cycle.
 

 137. 

The punishment of crime in the eighteenth century was often
a)
carried out by mobs after the criminals were charged in court.
b)
less severe than the crime would merit.
c)
the responsibility of the army.
d)
public and very gruesome.
e)
carried out privately so as not to inflame the general populace.
 

 138. 

The Carnival of the Mediterranean world was
a)
a period of intense sexual activity and gross excesses.
b)
strictly a secular event with no spiritual function.
c)
a popular, lower-class event seldom characterized by acts of violence or aggression.
d)
restricted by law and custom to only the educated classes.
e)
condemned and eliminated by most local governments.
 

 139. 

A cheap and popular alcoholic drink in eighteenth century England was
a)
beer.
b)
whiskey.
c)
wine.
d)
porter.
e)
gin.
 

 140. 

In reaction to significant elements of rationalism and deism, in what two countries did some ordinary Protestant churchgoers chose new religious movements?
a)
Scotland and Ireland.
b)
France and Austria.
c)
Italy and Spain.
d)
Sweden and Poland.
e)
England and Germany.
 



 
         Start Over