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Exam #3

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Politically, the period from 1715 to 1789 witnessed
a)
the rise of the masses in politics as advocated by the philosophes.
b)
the waning of monarchical power.
c)
the continuing process of centralization in the development of nation-state for efficient taxation and building armies.
d)
"enlightened absolutism" establish its deepest roots in France.
e)
a decline in bureaucratic structures and more laissez-faire types of government.
 

 2. 

During the eighteenth century, the idea of Divine Right
a)
remained a strong basis for government.
b)
was gradually replaced by more republican ideas concerning government.
c)
was gradually replaced by the idea of "enlightened absolutism" justified by utilitarian arguments.
d)
was best exemplified by the reign of Joseph II of Austria.
e)
disappeared with the death of Louis XIV in 1715.
 

 3. 

Political developments in eighteenth-century Great Britain included
a)
the monarchy losing its few remaining powers to Parliament.
b)
the redistribution of boroughs to make the electoral system for the House of Commons more fair.
c)
William Pitt the Younger's corrupt power leading to calls for popular reform.
d)
the increasing influence of the king's ministers under George III.
e)
the separation of the Church of England from state involvement.
 

 4. 

As prime minister of Great Britain, Robert Walpole
a)
used the military to further Britain's world empire.
b)
was forced to follow closely the policies of George I and George II.
c)
pursued a peaceful foreign policy to avoid new land taxes.
d)
was a great advocate of Empire.
e)
abolished the House of Lords.
 

 5. 

A continuing trend throughout eighteenth-century Prussia was
a)
the uncontrollable growth of the royal state bureaucracy.
b)
the social and military dominance of the Junker nobility.
c)
an avoidance of military entanglements, especially under Frederick the Great.
d)
social mobility for the peasants through the civil service.
e)
the emergence of the bourgeoisie as the dominant class of society.
 

 6. 

Under the reign of Frederick William I, Prussia
a)
saw the size of its army diminish.
b)
reduced the size and scope of government.
c)
witnessed nobles dominate important administrative posts.
d)
failed to establish an efficient civil bureaucracy.
e)
became a highly centralized European state.
 

 7. 

Frederick the Great of Prussia
a)
was one of the most cultured monarchs of the eighteenth century.
b)
increased Prussian territory.
c)
reduced the size of the Prussian military.
d)
a and b
e)
all of the above
 

 8. 

The Austrian Empire under Joseph II
a)
reversed the enlightened reforms of Joseph's mother, Maria Theresa.
b)
rescinded all of Hungary's privileges.
c)
saw the nobility's power permanently stripped away.
d)
witnessed general discontent due to Joseph's enlightened but radical reforms.
e)
saw Austria turn away from any sort of Enlightened Despotism.
 

 9. 

The enlightened legal reforms expressed by Catherine the Great in her Instruction
a)
succeeded in abolishing serfdom in all of Russia.
b)
succeeded in establishing an equal system of law for all Russian citizens.
c)
instigated changes in Russian government that sapped the power of the old nobility.
d)
accomplished little due to heavy opposition and were soon forgotten.
e)
abolished three-fourths of the Russian army.
 

 10. 

Catherine the Great of Russia
a)
followed a successful policy of expansion against the Turks.
b)
instigated enlightened reforms for the peasantry after the revolt of Emelyn Pugachev.
c)
weakened the nobility with her extensive enlightened reforms.
d)
successfully eliminated the power of the Duma.
e)
established a permanent political and military alliance with revolutionary France.
 

 11. 

Which of the following countries did not participate in the partition of Poland:
a)
Austria
b)
Prussia
c)
England
d)
Russia
e)
a and c
 

 12. 

Labeled as "one of the most enlightened monarchs of his age" and among the most successful in wresting power away from the nobility was
a)
Charles III of Spain.
b)
Joseph II of Austria.
c)
Gustavus III of Sweden.
d)
Frederick William I of Prussia.
e)
George III of Great Britain.
 

 13. 

Enlightened absolutism in the eighteenth century
a)
could never completely overcome the political and social realities of the time.
b)
was most successful in the strengthening of administrative systems.
c)
was limited to policies that did not undermine the interests of the European nobility.
d)
was successful in implementing legal reforms in many European states.
e)
was such a general failure that divine right monarchy soon replaced it.
 

 14. 

European diplomacy during the eighteenth century was predicated on the idea that
a)
sea power was the basis of real power.
b)
in a balance of power, one state should not achieve dominance over another.
c)
a country's empire determined its greatness.
d)
the charisma of a ruler determined a country's success in foreign policy.
e)
the largest army always wins.
 

 15. 

The War of the Austrian Succession
a)
was limited only to Habsburg territory.
b)
made the Prussian king ruler of Austria.
c)
was fought between Austria and France, with France gaining Silesia.
d)
was resolved with the peace treaty of Paris.
e)
was fought between Austria and Prussia, with Prussia gaining Silesia.
 

 16. 

Which of the following statements concerning the Seven Years' War is correct?
a)
Its immediate origins can be traced to the failure of Frederick II's Pragmatic Sanction.
b)
The French defeated the British in India due to their superior forces.
c)
With the defeat of the French navy and the Treaty of Paris, Britain became the world's greatest colonial power.
d)
The continuation of rivalries from the War of the Austrian Succession led to Prussia's overwhelming victory in the European theater.
e)
It immediately led to the French Revolution.
 

 17. 

The Treaty of Paris, which concluded the Seven Years' War
a)
forced France to withdraw from India, leaving it to Great Britain.
b)
left France with the strongest navy in the world.
c)
forced William Pitt the Elder to remove British troops from North America.
d)
left France in control of Canada.
e)
required that Prussia return Silesia to Austria.
 

 18. 

European warfare in the eighteenth century was characterized by
a)
the continued reliance on mercenary armies on the mainland.
b)
ideological fervor leading to bloody battles.
c)
limited objectives and elaborate maneuvers.
d)
massive direct confrontations and pitched battles.
e)
extensive trench warfare and many military casualties.
 

 19. 

Of the great European powers in the eighteenth century, the only one not to possess a standing army and to rely on mercenaries was
a)
Prussia.
b)
Austria.
c)
Russia.
d)
France.
e)
Great Britain.
 

 20. 

The improvements in agricultural practices and methods in eighteenth-century Europe occurred primarily in
a)
France.
b)
the Netherlands.
c)
Britain.
d)
Russia.
e)
Prussia.
 

 21. 

A key financial innovation of the eighteenth century was
a)
the creation of insurance policies.
b)
the circulation of paper banknotes compensating for a lack of coinage.
c)
international currency markets and arbitrage speculation.
d)
deficit spending by enlightened monarchs to pay for vital government reforms.
e)
the increased use of specie in preference to less reliable paper money.
 

 22. 

A favorite type of private charity supported by the rich in eighteenth-century Europe was
a)
the dowry fund for poor women.
b)
neighborhood confraternities to support social welfare programs.
c)
foundling homes for poor and abandoned children.
d)
church schools to teach the poor obedience to authority.
e)
the establishment of safe retreats for prostitutes desiring to leave their profession.
 

 23. 

Europe's unequal social organization in the eighteenth century was
a)
determined by the division of society into traditional orders.
b)
deemed contrary to Christian teaching.
c)
least apparent in Prussia.
d)
abolished in Britain by Parliament in opposition to the king.
e)
became dramatically more equal as the century progressed.
 

 24. 

The Grand Tour
a)
saw French aristocrats travel through Britain to learn good manners and observe a modern economy.
b)
avoided Italy as it diverted young men from the tour's education goals in northern Europe.
c)
was greatly facilitated by more convenient forms of personal travel in the eighteenth century.
d)
generally completed the proper education of an aristocrat's sons.
e)
was reserved for ambitious members of the bourgeoisie.
 

 25. 

Which of the following statements best describes eighteenth-century European cities?
a)
They were remarkably cleaner than the medieval city.
b)
They were decreasing dramatically in population.
c)
They were still filthy and lacked proper sanitation.
d)
They were becoming more democratic in their government.
e)
They were becoming politically and legally independent of monarchial control.
 

 26. 

The problem of poverty in eighteenth-century Europe was
a)
most severe in Great Britain, a country lacking a system of poor relief.
b)
solved largely through the efforts of private and religious charities.
c)
aggravated by the hostile feelings of government officials toward the poor.
d)
solved in France in the 1770's through massive royal public works projects.
e)
entirely the result of the Industrial Revolution.
 

 27. 

Before 1700, the total European population
a)
followed an irregular cycle of slow growth.
b)
always grew too fast.
c)
grew steadily and moderately.
d)
followed a cyclical pattern of steady decline.
e)
had been constant for centuries.
 

 28. 

The agricultural revolution was first manifested in
a)
England.
b)
the Low Countries.
c)
Sweden.
d)
North America.
e)
France.
 

 29. 

At the end of the seventeenth century, at least __________ percent of western Europeans were involved in agriculture.
a)
80
b)
70
c)
60
d)
50
e)
90
 

 30. 

“Gleaning” of grain refers to
a)
separation of the wheat from the chaff.
b)
selection of seed grain.
c)
grinding of the grain into flour.
d)
collection of single grains that fall to the ground during the harvest.
e)
sowing of the grain.
 

 31. 

All of the following contributed to increased agricultural production in western Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries except
a)
increased use of animal fertilizers
b)
the elimination of the “fallow.”
c)
programs to distribute land to the people who farmed it.
d)
drainage of marshlands.
e)
the introduction of new crops to rotate, such as turnips, potatoes, and clover
 

 32. 

The leadership of the Dutch people in farming can be attributed primarily to
a)
the exceptional fertility of their lands.
b)
the necessity to provide for a large densely populated country.
c)
the leadership of the Dutch scientific community.
d)
their strong nobility.
e)
their Calvinism.
 

 33. 

The increase in fertilizer supplies during the agricultural revolution of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was due in part to
a)
the import of guano from Pacific islands.
b)
systematic collection and sale of human waste.
c)
increased fruit consumption in European diets.
d)
discovery of the effectiveness of rotten fish as fertilizer.
e)
increased numbers of livestock, which provided more manure.
 

 34. 

Jethro Tull's contributions to English agriculture were the product of
a)
good luck.
b)
empirical research.
c)
deductive reasoning.
d)
speculative reasoning.
e)
university study.
 

 35. 

The social group on which the success of the English agricultural revolution depended was the
a)
landowning aristocracy.
b)
landless peasants.
c)
tenant farmers.
d)
independent peasant farmers.
e)
Dutch agronomists.
 

 36. 

The major reason for the disappearance of the bubonic plague from western and central Europe after the early 1700s was probably
a)
the discovery of an effective vaccine against the disease.
b)
the breakdown in trade between Europe and India, where the plague was endemic.
c)
the brown rat's displacement of the black rat from ecological niches in Europe.
d)
rat extermination campaigns by urban governments.
e)
widespread quarantining of plague victims.
 

 37. 

According to the text, the French government tried to improve living standards for the rural poor by
a)
paying a stipend to poor families.
b)
encouraging cheap English imports.
c)
hiring the poor on major public works projects.
d)
establishing a national network of free public elementary schools.
e)
encouraging the growth of cottage manufacturing.
 

 38. 

All of the following were shortcomings of the putting-out system from the capitalists' point of view except
a)
inability to enforce quotas.
b)
rigid production techniques.
c)
poor quality control.
d)
disputes with workers over weights of materials delivered.
e)
difficulty making workers produce steadily.
 

 39. 

Plantations in the Virginia lowlands, by 1730, were worked entirely by
a)
indentured servants.
b)
Native Americans.
c)
African slaves.
d)
tenant farmers.
e)
hired white labor.
 

 40. 

Typically, the puttingout industry employed
a)
only women.
b)
rural families.
c)
urban workers.
d)
men and older boys.
e)
older women in the countryside.
 

 41. 

__________ led the revitalization of Spain in the eighteenth century.
a)
Philip V
b)
Louis X
c)
Charles II
d)
Ernesto V
e)
Juan VI
 

 42. 

The Navigation Acts were a form of economic warfare that initially targeted the
a)
Dutch.
b)
French.
c)
Spanish.
d)
American colonists.
e)
Swedes.
 

 43. 

The decisive round in the colonial conflict between England and France was the
a)
Seven Years' War.
b)
Thirty Years' War.
c)
War of the Austrian Succession.
d)
War of the Spanish Succession.
e)
American War of Independence.
 

 44. 

___________'s Wealth of Nations argued for the value of free markets.
a)
Jethro Tull
b)
Lord Townsend
c)
Adam Smith
d)
Olaudah Equiano
e)
David Ricardo
 

 45. 

By the 1770s, the biggest increase in British foreign trade was with
a)
France.
b)
the British colonial empire.
c)
Africa and the Middle East.
d)
the European continent.
e)
China.
 

 46. 

According to Adam Smith, government should limit itself to all of the following except
a)
defense against foreign invasion.
b)
maintenance of civil order with police protection.
c)
sponsoring of indispensable public works and institutions.
d)
providing a court system.
e)
regulation of trade.
 

 47. 

From 1600 on, the typical system of labor control in Spanish America was
a)
race-based slavery.
b)
sharecropping.
c)
forced labor.
d)
indentured servitude.
e)
debt peonage.
 

 48. 

A broad-based campaign to abolish slavery began in Britain after
a)
1775.
b)
1815.
c)
1835.
d)
1862.
e)
1882.
 

 49. 

The defeat of General Cornwallis and his army at Yorktown in 1781, leading to British abandonment of the Revolutionary War, was achieved by
a)
American colonial army and naval forces alone.
b)
a combined American and French army.
c)
a combined force of American, French, Spanish, and Dutch forces.
d)
the Virginia Minutemen.
e)
a combined American and French army supported by a heavily armed French fleet.
 

 50. 

The Constitution of the United States of 1789
a)
was a revision of the Articles of Confederation.
b)
was seen by European liberals as a utopian document that would never last.
c)
created a republic in which the branches of government provided checks on one another.
d)
had no real impact on the French Revolution.
e)
failed, and was soon replaced by the Articles of Confederation.
 

 51. 

The American Revolution affected Europeans by
a)
proving that military force was the final diplomatic authority.
b)
ending colonial expansion around the world.
c)
proving that the new United States was the most powerful nation.
d)
proving that the ideas of the Enlightenment could be realized politically.
e)
proving that the patriotic shedding of vast amounts of blood could bring revolutionary change.
 

 52. 

French society on the eve of their revolution
a)
was dominated by the military.
b)
saw a sharp decline in sexual morality.
c)
was still largely dominated by the nobility and clergy.
d)
was rapidly changing, with the middle class becoming vastly more influential.
e)
was in a state of almost complete anarchy.
 

 53. 

The most immediate cause of the French Revolution was
a)
the government's failure to resolve its debts and other economic problems.
b)
the blocking of attempted reforms by the French Parliaments.
c)
the radical calls of the philosophes for reform.
d)
Louis XVI's rejection of the cahiers de doléances.
e)
violent uprisings by the common people who were demanding political and economic equality.
 

 54. 

The French economy of the eighteenth century was
a)
growing due to an expansion of foreign trade and industrial production.
b)
stagnant due to foreign competition in industry and trade.
c)
declining rapidly due to overuse of arable land.
d)
based largely on the silk industry.
e)
was entirely based upon agricultural production.
 

 55. 

The third estate was composed of all of the following except
a)
shopkeepers.
b)
peasants.
c)
the unemployed.
d)
skilled craftsmen.
e)
the clergy.
 

 56. 

Compared to the American Revolution, the French Revolution was
a)
less violent.
b)
less radical.
c)
more influential in Europe as a model of rebellion.
d)
quickly over.
e)
was entirely a movement of the masses, led by faceless individuals.
 

 57. 

By the eighteenth century, the French bourgeoisie and nobility were
a)
growing further apart in social status.
b)
increasingly less distinguishable from each other.
c)
rapidly losing social status to the third estate.
d)
openly hostile and frequently involved in street battles.
e)
almost completely dominated by the clergy of the First Estate.
 

 58. 

Vital fiscal reform of the French state just prior to the French Revolution was impeded by
a)
nobles of the sword who wished to study carefully royal proposals to tax them.
b)
nobles of the robe in the thirteen regional French Parliaments who regularly refused to approve or enforce new royal tax proposals.
c)
peasants who hired lawyers to defend their traditional exemptions.
d)
the clergy unwilling to part with the riches of the church.
e)
opposition from Louis XVI and his ministers.
 

 59. 

As one measure of the French crown's terrible financial predicament, by 1788 the interest payments on the state debt alone amounted to
a)
one-fifth of total government spending.
b)
one-quarter of total government spending.
c)
one-third of total government spending.
d)
one-half of all government spending.
e)
two-thirds of all government spending.
 

 60. 

Just prior to the Revolution in France, the number of the poor in France
a)
actually declined.
b)
went up significantly.
c)
increased very slowly.
d)
remained fairly constant.
e)
a and d
 

 61. 

The controversy over voting by order versus voting by head in the Estates-General saw
a)
the nobles of the robe advocate voting by head.
b)
the "lovers of liberty" effectively block voting by head.
c)
Abbé Sieyès's call for the expulsion of the Third Estate from the Estates-General.
d)
the Third Estate joining the Second Estate in abolished the First Estate of the clergy.
e)
the Third Estate respond by forming a "National Assembly."
 

 62. 

All of the following were accomplished by the National/Constituent Assembly except the
a)
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen.
b)
Civil Constitution of the Clergy.
c)
legal defense of seigneurial rights throughout the country.
d)
reform of French voting procedures.
e)
abolishment of divine right monarchy.
 

 63. 

In 1789, the Bastille was
a)
a royal castle.
b)
an arsenal and prison.
c)
the place where most state executions took place.
d)
a monastery.
e)
Paris' public market area.
 

 64. 

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
a)
was drawn up by the monarchy to limit freedoms.
b)
was rejected by those influenced by the Enlightenment.
c)
owed much to the ideas of the American Declaration of Independence.
d)
allowed for aristocratic privileges to endure in France.
e)
was an anti-Lockean document.
 

 65. 

The Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen
a)
became law by popular vote of the National Assembly.
b)
was ignored entirely by the males in the National Assembly who did little to improve the lot of women in French society.
c)
caused massive riots in its defense by ordinary men and women, especially in cities.
d)
was fully accepted by the crown and its ministers and then became enforceable law.
e)
was harshly criticized by Mary Wollstonecraft as not being sufficiently revolutionary.
 

 66. 

In regard to the Catholic Church, the National Assembly
a)
left the institution alone.
b)
increased its power slightly in France.
c)
passed legislation that secularized church offices and clergymen.
d)
abolished the faith in France.
e)
recognized the Catholic Church as France's only legal religion.
 

 67. 

What type of government was established in France by 1791?
a)
dictatorship
b)
republic
c)
democracy
d)
constitutional monarchy
e)
socialist
 

 68. 

What group emerged as the most important radical element in French politics, at the beginning of the French Revolution?
a)
Bonapartists
b)
Papists
c)
Communards
d)
Loyalists
e)
Jacobins
 

 69. 

In September of 1792, the National Convention
a)
established a constitutional monarchy.
b)
abolished the monarchy and established a republic.
c)
voted to preserve the life of Louis XVI.
d)
was dismantled by Louis XVI.
e)
was immediately replaced by the Directory.
 

 70. 

The Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror
a)
was headed by Maximilien Robespierre.
b)
implemented a successful series of economic and price controls through France.
c)
attempted to restore the church's influence over politics.
d)
concentrated exclusively upon military matters.
e)
b and c
 

 71. 

The French Republic's army in the 1790s
a)
received little backing from the home front.
b)
was small, but effective in battle.
c)
fueled modern nationalism and was raised through total mobilization of the population.
d)
was totally defeated by foreign aristocratic forces.
e)
got weaker and smaller as the decade went by.
 

 72. 

During the Reign of Terror, the majority of the victims were
a)
nobles.
b)
clergy.
c)
middle class.
d)
peasant and laboring classes.
e)
the bourgeoisie.
 

 73. 

In regard to religion, the National Convention
a)
took measures to strengthen the Roman Catholic Church.
b)
issued an edict allowing for total religious freedom.
c)
took measures to dechristianize the republic.
d)
made the republic completely atheistic.
e)
expelled the Jews from France.
 

 74. 

Which of the following is not true of the French revolutionary republican calendar?
a)
Each month consisted of three ten-day weeks.
b)
Most Christian holidays were kept.
c)
No efforts were made to enforce it.
d)
It was meant to signal a new beginning for the nation.
e)
It was part of the government's dechristianization program.
 

 75. 

A successful slave rebellion against French rule occurred in
a)
the Vendee.
b)
Batavia.
c)
Jamaica.
d)
Haiti.
e)
the Cameroons.
 

 76. 

All of the following are true about Napoleon and his career before 1799 except
a)
he was initially disliked by his fellow soldiers.
b)
he made rapid progress and achieved the status of a general even before the Revolution.
c)
he read a great deal of military history.
d)
he saved the National Convention from the Parisian mob in 1795.
e)
he married the widow of a guillotined general.
 

 77. 

The chief reason for Napoleon's fast rise to power was/were his
a)
series of stunning victories over the enemies of France.
b)
social programs that appealed to the masses.
c)
promises to make France great again.
d)
work with an inner clique of revolutionaries dedicated to the general.
e)
secret support of disaffected members of the Bourbon family.
 

 78. 

Which of the following statements best applies to Napoleon's domestic policies?
a)
Much autonomy was given to the provincial departments as the previous system of prefects was overhauled.
b)
His "new aristocracy" was actually little different from the old, as it was based on privilege and wealth.
c)
His Civil Code reaffirmed the ideals of the Revolution while creating a uniform legal system.
d)
As a devout Catholic, he reestablished Catholicism as the official state religion.
e)
He abolished most of the civilian bureaucracy, preferring to govern by military rule.
 

 79. 

Napoleon's Grand Empire
a)
was composed of three different parts but united under the rule of Napoleon.
b)
revived the power of the nobility and clergy in all its states.
c)
included all of Europe with the defeat of Britain in 1805.
d)
had no long-standing impact on the conquered countries.
e)
was abolished by the Directory in 1799.
 

 80. 

Not among the factors in the defeat of Napoleon was
a)
the failure of the Continental System.
b)
the defeat of the French navy at the Battle of Trafalgar.
c)
mass reactions to his brutal suppression of local customs in the conquered countries.
d)
the spread of nationalism in the conquered countries.
e)
that most independent European states were united against him by 1814.
 

 81. 

The first European state to mandate compulsory elementary education was
a)
Prussia.
b)
the Netherlands.
c)
England.
d)
France.
e)
Sweden.
 

 82. 

Which of the following events occurred last?
a)
Attendance in elementary schools made mandatory in Prussia.
b)
Louis XV orders Jesuits out of France.
c)
Edward Jenner performs first smallpox vaccine.
d)
John Wesley begins preaching.
e)
Maria Theresa ascends Austrian throne.
 

 83. 

In seventeenth- and early eighteenthcentury Europe, most couples
a)
married in their teens.
b)
lived together before marriage.
c)
included an older husband and young wife.
d)
married in their late twenties.
e)
had three or fewer children.
 

 84. 

The pattern of late marriage in early modern Europe resulted primarily from the
a)
puritanism of rural society.
b)
prevalence of the extended family structure.
c)
fear of overpopulation.
d)
availability of premarital sex.
e)
necessary precondition of economic independence.
 

 85. 

Prior to 1750, premarital sex
a)
was nonexistent.
b)
occurred only among the upper classes.
c)
was commonplace.
d)
resulted in a high percentage of illegitimate children.
e)
was punishable by a prison term.
 

 86. 

According to the text, one reason for the abusive treatment of young children working in early English factories was probably
a)
the lack of laws against corporal punishment of children.
b)
the fact that this was normal treatment for children of the time.
c)
the absence of children's mothers from the factory shop floor.
d)
the Anglican clergy's endorsement of such treatment.
e)
the great stress that their foremen experienced.
 

 87. 

The almanacs popular among European peasants were
a)
pamphlets that made weather predictions for the coming year.
b)
calendars.
c)
pamphlets advertising local businesses and services.
d)
compendiums of astrology, jokes, weird facts, and calendars of religious, astronomical, and agricultural events.
e)
agronomical texts.
 

 88. 

In the eighteenth century, the basic religious unit in Europe was
a)
the nation.
b)
the individual believer.
c)
the archdiocese.
d)
the episcopate.
e)
the parish church.
 

 89. 

In foundling homes, babies
a)
had a better chance of survival on average than in a family setting.
b)
died at the rate of 50 to 90 percent per year.
c)
were safer from infectious diseases than outside.
d)
were deliberately starved in large numbers.
e)
were prepared for careers in the clergy.
 

 90. 

St. Vincent de Paul is most famous for his
a)
efforts to outlaw the Society of Jesus.
b)
perfection of the smallpox vaccination.
c)
establishment of foundling homes.
d)
establishment of churches in new, working-class neighborhoods in cities.
e)
creation of hospitals for lepers.
 

 91. 

According to the text, one danger that threatened young girls living away from home in domestic service was
a)
increased risk of contracting infectious diseases.
b)
reduced chances of marriage on returning home.
c)
risk of sexual attack by males in the household she served.
d)
malnutrition due to subsisting on a city diet.
e)
higher risk of death or injury in street or kitchen accidents.
 

 92. 

All of the following help explain the appeal of pietism except
a)
its call for a warm, emotional religion.
b)
its stress on the priesthood of all believers.
c)
its belief in the practical power of Christianity.
d)
its insistence on the authority of the pope.
e)
its enthusiasm in prayer, worship, preaching, and life itself.
 

 93. 

According to the text, the diet of wealthy Europeans in the eighteenth century
a)
was much more healthy than that of common folk.
b)
included large amounts of meat and sweets.
c)
was far better than that of the rich today.
d)
was high in vitamins A and C.
e)
was mostly “pasta et fromage.”
 

 94. 

The diet of the poorer classes consisted largely of bread and
a)
meat and eggs.
b)
dairy products.
c)
vegetables.
d)
wild game.
e)
mead.
 

 95. 

A severe deficiency in vitamin C results in the disease known as
a)
anemia.
b)
gout.
c)
dysentery.
d)
scurvy.
e)
beri beri.
 

 96. 

The American crop that became an important dietary supplement by the end of the century was
a)
winter wheat.
b)
rye.
c)
rice.
d)
potatoes.
e)
lima beans.
 

 97. 

In the eighteenth century, faith healers
a)
had disappeared.
b)
usually prescribed herbal remedies.
c)
believed disease was caused by imbalance in the humors.
d)
used exorcism to treat illness.
e)
specialized in psychological illnesses.
 

 98. 

Changes in the food consumption habits of Europeans in the eighteenth century included all of the following except
a)
declining consumption of alcoholic beverages.
b)
the replacement of coarse whole-wheat bread with white bread.
c)
greater variety and availability of vegetables.
d)
increased consumption of sugar.
e)
the appearance of semitropical fruits such as oranges.
 

 99. 

John Wesley founded the movement known as ___________.
a)
Pietism.
b)
Methodism.
c)
Reformism.
d)
Deism.
e)
Anglicanism.
 

 100. 

The term lunatic refers to
a)
someone who drank too much.
b)
traditional village punishments for those who violated local customs.
c)
the popular belief that mental illness was caused by moonlight.
d)
German Protestants who joined the Pietist movement.
e)
the brown rat, bearer of the bubonic plague.
 

 101. 

About __________ percent of European Catholics attended church for Easter Communion.
a)
95
b)
65
c)
50
d)
40
e)
75
 

 102. 

The term territorial churches refers to
a)
Catholic churches still controlled by the pope.
b)
large parish churches of any denomination.
c)
churches outside the control of the state.
d)
churches controlled by the state.
e)
churches on the American and Australian frontiers.
 

 103. 

The dissolution of the Jesuit order in 1773 is a striking indication of the
a)
decline of religious feeling in the eighteenth century.
b)
resurgent power of the papacy.
c)
power of the state over the church.
d)
vitality of the Protestant revival.
e)
obscurantism of the Bourbon monarchs.
 

 104. 

The popular strength of religion in Catholic countries reflected
a)
the desires of secular authorities.
b)
its importance in community life.
c)
the decline of papal and clerical abuses.
d)
the role of the parish clergy in the state bureaucracy.
e)
widespread fear of the outside world.
 

 105. 

Which of the following occurred first?
a)
Frederick the Great ascends throne of Prussia.
b)
American Revolution begins.
c)
French Revolution begins.
d)
Publication of Rousseau's Emile.
e)
Louis XV orders Jesuits out of France.
 

 106. 

All of the following were aspects of the celebration of Carnival except
a)
drinking and dancing.
b)
the chance to release pent-up frustrations and aggressions.
c)
begging forgiveness for one's sins.
d)
masquerading.
e)
inversion of the social hierarchy.
 

 107. 

John Wesley's “Methodism” was particularly appealing because
a)
he favored overthrowing abusive governments.
b)
he advocated tender loving care for children.
c)
he refuted the doctrine of predestination, insisting that anyone who earnestly sought salvation could gain it.
d)
he decorated his churches with Baroque art.
e)
he allowed alcohol consumption, which other sect did not.
 

 108. 

Madame du Coudray's best-known work is
a)
Emile.
b)
Manual on the Art of Childbirth.
c)
Thoughts on the Education of Women.
d)
First Treatise on Pietism.
e)
Anna Jennette: a Novel of Rustic Life.
 

 109. 

During the Hundred Days,
a)
the sans-culottes committed the September Massacres.
b)
Napoleon was driven from Russia.
c)
Napoleon returned from exile to rule France briefly.
d)
the Reign of Terror executed 30,000 people.
e)
the National Assembly wrote France's first constitution.
 

 110. 

All of the following were aspects of the influence of the American Revolution on the French Revolution except
a)
providing young men with a taste of revolutionary action and ideals.
b)
providing a revolutionary role model.
c)
increasing the class conflict between nobility and bourgeoisie.
d)
increasing the financial burdens of the state.
e)
providing the example of a revolutionary government producing a written constitution.
 

 111. 

Mary Wollstonecraft argued that
a)
women were naturally inferior to men.
b)
thorough reform in France would lead to anarchy.
c)
women's place in society was in the private sphere.
d)
men and women would benefit from sexual equality.
e)
children under the age of seventeen ought not to be employed in factories.
 

 112. 

Which of the following occurred last?
a)
Napoleon founds the Bank of France.
b)
Napoleon invades Russia.
c)
Napoleon crowns himself emperor.
d)
France signs the Treaty of Amiens with Britain.
e)
Britain defeats France at the Battle of Trafalgar.
 

 113. 

In 1801 Napoleon signed a Concordat with
a)
King George III.
b)
Alexander II.
c)
King Emanuel III.
d)
Pope Pius VII.
e)
the National Assembly.
 

 114. 

According to the text, the Directory continued French wars of conquest begun by early revolutionary governments
a)
out of an ideological commitment to liberate all of Europe from aristocratic domination.
b)
out of fear that without French intervention Russia would dominate the continent.
c)
because big, victorious armies kept men employed and could draw sustenance from the conquered areas.
d)
because the nationalistic populace demanded this.
e)
to prevent the French people from asking questions about the Terror of 1793 to 1794.
 

 115. 

Eighteenthcentury liberalism called for all of the following except
a)
individual human rights.
b)
economic equality.
c)
the people's sovereignty.
d)
equality of opportunity.
e)
religious tolerance.
 

 116. 

During the early years of the French Revolution
a)
peasant women were among the most radical revolutionaries.
b)
common Parisian women played key roles in a number of Revolution events.
c)
some French women were elected to posts in the Estates General, the National Assembly, and the Legislative Assembly.
d)
women all over France were politically passive.
e)
Marie Antoinette, wife of King Louis XVI, came out in support of the revolutionaries.
 

 117. 

The first great revolt against the Grand Empire occurred in ___________ in 1808.
a)
Spain
b)
Italy
c)
Holland
d)
Portugal
e)
the Rhineland
 

 118. 

The distinctiveness of North American society included all of the following except
a)
great political equality compared to European societies.
b)
probably the highest living standards in the world.
c)
personal freedom in questions of religion.
d)
a tradition of self-government.
e)
a high degree of social and economic equality.
 

 119. 

Between 1778 and 1780, the former British colonies in North America were joined in their war against Britain by
a)
France.
b)
France and Spain.
c)
France, Spain, and the Netherlands.
d)
France, Spain, the Netherlands, and Sweden.
e)
Russia.
 

 120. 

Opponents of the U.S. Constitution were called
a)
Loyalists.
b)
Federalists.
c)
AntiFederalists.
d)
Liberals.
e)
Republicans.
 

 121. 

The legal definition of the composition of the prerevolutionary Third Estate included
a)
everyone who was not a noble or member of the clergy.
b)
the clergy.
c)
the peasantry.
d)
the nobility.
e)
businessmen and artisans.
 

 122. 

Revisionist historians of the French Revolution stress all of the following except the
a)
fluidity and relative openness of the nobility.
b)
adoption of liberalism by many nobles.
c)
common economic goals of the nobility and the middle class.
d)
conflict between the nobility and the bourgeoisie.
e)
idea that the Old Regime had ceased to correspond with the social reality of the 1780s.
 

 123. 

The grievance petitions from all three estates called for all of the following except
a)
an American-style republic.
b)
a constitutional monarchy.
c)
the guarantee by law of individual liberties.
d)
economic reforms.
e)
improvement in the living conditions of provincial clergy.
 

 124. 

According to the text the string of French military victories after the winter of 1793–1974 was largely due to
a)
superior generalship.
b)
patriotism and the superior numbers supplied by the draft.
c)
superior French technology and tactics.
d)
Austria's withdrawal from the First Coalition.
e)
French control of the seas.
 

 125. 

The life-and-death political struggle between the Girondins and the Mountain resulted mainly from
a)
profound differences on questions of policy.
b)
the Girondins' rejection of war.
c)
the Girondins' radical economic and social policies.
d)
personal hatred and jealousy.
e)
religious differences.
 

 126. 

The Reign of Terror was directed primarily at
a)
the aristocracy.
b)
monarchists and Girondins.
c)
members of the middle class.
d)
any and all enemies of the Revolution.
e)
the clergy.
 

 127. 

The __________ system was meant to exclude British goods from the continent.
a)
continental
b)
blockade
c)
exculsion
d)
French
e)
imperial
 

 128. 

The Committee of Public Safety was
a)
Napoleon's secret police.
b)
the Paris police department.
c)
King Louis XVI's secretariat for roads and public works.
d)
an emergency executive committee appointed by the Convention.
e)
the Parliamentary committee chaired by Sir Edmund Burke.
 

 129. 

Napoleon's invasion of __________ began in June 1812.
a)
Russia
b)
Prussia
c)
Italy
d)
Britain
e)
Sweden
 

 130. 

According to Olympe de Gouges,
a)
women should enjoy special rights and privileges.
b)
men and women should be equal in the eyes of the law.
c)
monarchy was the most oppressive form of government.
d)
it was natural to exclude women from the political process.
e)
the government ought to sponsor free public day care.
 



 
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