Name:     ID: 
 
Email: 

Makeup Exam One

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

What was the main cause of the fourteenth century famines?
a.
a blight that struck the wheat crop
b.
a lack of knowledge of scientific agriculture
c.
droughts throughout most of Europe
d.
a little ice age inducing bad weather with heavy rains
e.
urban pollution that spread into nearby farming regions
 

 2. 

The flagellants
a.
were praised by the Catholic church for their miraculous deeds.
b.
were groups that physically punished themselves to win the forgiveness of God.
c.
were a new phenomenon that arose in response to the Black Death.
d.
would remain a popular religious movement throughout the fourteenth century.
e.
were only to be found in isolated rural areas.
 

 3. 

The persecutions against Jews during the Black Death
a.
were instigated at the calling of the Catholic church.
b.
led to the execution of nearly all of the Jews in eastern Europe.
c.
was the result of the decline in popular religious movements and manifestations.
d.
had little to do with financial motives.
e.
reached their worst excesses in German cities.
 

 4. 

The European aristocracy responded to the adversity of the great plague by
a.
seeking to lower wages especially for farm laborers.
b.
producing only the most basic foodstuffs, such as grain.
c.
petitioning kings to order the relocation of laborers.
d.
forming agricultural cooperatives linking landowners, laborers, and city consumers.
e.
investing in trade and commerce rather than agricultural production.
 

 5. 

A key economic consequence of the plague was
a.
the rapid expansion of European civic banking to rebuild industry.
b.
a decline in manorialism and weakening of feudalism as noble landlords desperate for cash converted peasant labor service to market rents freeing their serfs.
c.
the more frequent bankruptcy of monarchs as they emptied their treasuries trying to provide poor relief.
d.
the very slow enrichment of middling peasant laborers who began to dominate rural communities.
e.
a long-term trend to abandon cities for the more secure rural environment.
 

 6. 

The Jacquerie refers to
a.
a revolt of the peasants in England in 1381.
b.
elite French troops.
c.
the lowest estate in France's Estates General.
d.
a group of French advisors to the king.
e.
a peasant's revolt in France in 1358.
 

 7. 

The English Peasants' Revolt of 1381
a.
was caused by the rising economic expectations of ordinary people.
b.
was brutally crushed by the nobles.
c.
succeeded in getting the government to agree to the peasants' demands.
d.
gained long-term results for the peasants.
e.
led to the end of the Hundred Years' War.
 

 8. 

Among the leaders of the English Peasants' Revolt of 1381 was/were
a.
Wat Tyler and John Ball.
b.
John Froissart.
c.
the archbishop of Canterbury.
d.
Etienne Marcel.
e.
Ned Ludd.
 

 9. 

Merchants and manufacturers responded to the economic tribulations of the fourteenth century by
a.
increasing their prices.
b.
restricting competition and resisting the demands of the lower classes.
c.
blaming the Jews and persecuting them.
d.
pressuring the government to raise the prices of their products.
e.
adopting laissez-faire policies.
 

 10. 

The progress of the Hundred Years' War was characterized by
a.
early French successes.
b.
a steady return to feudal-style armies.
c.
a brief but successful invasion of England by a small French army.
d.
the English political subjugation of much of France.
e.
English use of peasant soldiers and the longbow.
 

 11. 

The first phase of the Hundred Years' War was settled by 1359 with
a.
the decisive Battle of Crecy.
b.
the Peace of Brétigny.
c.
the French capture and execution of England's King Edward III.
d.
superior French battle use of the longbow.
e.
the leadership of Joan of Arc.
 

 12. 

In the conduct of the Hundred Years' War, a sure sign of feudalism's decline was the
a.
inability of feuding kings to raise armies of knights.
b.
reliance of kings on artillery as the main component of royal armies.
c.
decisive role of peasant foot soldiers rather than mounted knights.
d.
clear intention of kings to destroy the estates of their own vassals.
e.
use of heavier armor and larger horses.
 

 13. 

The crucial battle of the Hundred Years' War that was won by Henry V in 1415 and that led to the treaty and apparent victory in the war for Henry and England was the Battle of
a.
Crecy.
b.
Tours.
c.
Poitiers.
d.
Troyes.
e.
Agincourt.
 

 14. 

In 1415, the Hundred Years' War was restarted by the English King
a.
Edward II.
b.
Edward III.
c.
Richard II.
d.
Henry IV.
e.
Henry V.
 

 15. 

Politically, France by the end of the fourteenth century saw
a.
the dominance of the Estates-General in determining government policy and administering taxes.
b.
no new forms of government revenue due to royal opposition.
c.
chaos and civil war as rival noble factions fought for control of the realm.
d.
new rights of political participation in the Parliament of Paris for poor townspeople.
e.
strongly unified as a result of the leadership of Joan of Arc.
 

 16. 

Prior to the Golden Bull of 1356, Germany was a land composed of
a.
the four kingdoms of Bavaria, Prussia, Hanover, and Austria.
b.
the papal states and several baronies.
c.
hundreds of virtually independent states.
d.
a and b
e.
all of the above
 

 17. 

Politically, Italy and Germany were similar in the fourteenth century because
a.
the plague had equally devastated both regions.
b.
both regions failed to develop a centralized monarchical state.
c.
local nobles and town governments lost much influence over reigning kings.
d.
mercenary captains usurped royal authority and ruled violently.
e.
both had begun to develop industrial economies.
 

 18. 

The Italian condottieri were
a.
political leaders supporting the pope.
b.
bankers with branch banks throughout much of Western Europe.
c.
merchants working in northern Europe.
d.
reformers within the Catholic Church.
e.
leaders of mercenary bands, occasionally ruling as military dictators.
 

 19. 

Florence was ruled throughout most of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries by the
a.
grandi.
b.
popolo grasso.
c.
popolo minuto.
d.
ciompi.
e.
duce.
 

 20. 

The first of the French popes to reside at Avignon was
a.
Innocent III.
b.
Boniface VIII.
c.
Gregory XI.
d.
John Paul II.
e.
Clement V.
 

 21. 

One overall result of the Great Schism was to
a.
put an end to the church's previous financial abuses.
b.
badly damaged the faith of many Christian believers.
c.
rejuvenate Christianity as it had been on the decline throughout Europe.
d.
end the abuse of pluralism.
e.
reinforce the faith of true rather than false Christians.
 

 22. 

The chief accomplishment of the Council of Constance (1414-1418) was to
a.
set the earliest conditions for ending the Great Schism.
b.
order the sack of Rome by French forces.
c.
end the Great Schism by forcing the resignation or deposing all existing popes and paving the way for election of only one new pope.
d.
to support biblical scholarship revealing clear support in scripture for multiple popes.
e.
to permanently reduce the power of the papacy.
 

 23. 

Mysticism in the fourteenth century
a.
was especially advocated by the nominalist school of William of Occam.
b.
particularly took hold in France and Spain.
c.
emphasized an intensely personal feeling of oneness with God.
d.
was fully endorsed and carefully controlled by the church.
e.
abandoned orthodox Christianity for heterodox pantheism.
 

 24. 

Meister Eckhart
a.
challenged the works of Thomas Aquinas in public disputations.
b.
was a mystic who claimed that one could achieve a union of the soul with God.
c.
was a noted leader of the flagellants who turned to persecution of the Jews.
d.
led the reform of the Franciscan order in Germany.
e.
rejected the leadership of the pope and was burnt at the stake.
 

 25. 

What was Boccaccio's most famous work?
a.
The Divine Comedy
b.
The Sonnets
c.
The Prince
d.
Spiritual Exercises
e.
The Decameron
 

 26. 

Changed urban attitudes in the fourteenth century included
a.
the promotion of equality between men and women in the workplace.
b.
later marriages and increases in the number of extended families.
c.
children being seen as valuable only in their capacity to work and earn money for the family.
d.
the regulation and acceptance of prostitution in most communities.
e.
the abolition of any property requirement for voting and political participation.
 

 27. 

The most revolutionary of thirteenth and fourteenth-century inventions was/were
a.
the printing press.
b.
paper.
c.
eyeglasses.
d.
clocks.
e.
telescope.
 

 28. 

The Italian Renaissance was primarily
a.
a mass movement of the peasants.
b.
characterized by a preoccupation with religion.
c.
a product of rural Italy.
d.
a recovery or rebirth of antiquity and Greco-Roman culture.
e.
a religious reform movement.
 

 29. 

The word "Renaissance" means
a.
rebirth.
b.
new world.
c.
maturation.
d.
escape.
e.
culture.
 

 30. 

Economic developments in the Renaissance included
a.
a revival in trade.
b.
increased employment due to the change from wool to luxury manufacturing.
c.
a boom rivaling that of the High Middle Ages.
d.
new trade routes made possible by the Ottoman Turks.
e.
the Industrial Revolution.
 

 31. 

The Medici controlled the finances of the Italian city-state of
a.
Venice.
b.
Rome.
c.
Milan.
d.
Florence.
e.
Naples.
 

 32. 

Two key areas of Renaissance technological innovation were
a.
fireworks and glass making.
b.
mill construction and hydraulics.
c.
mining and metalworking, including manufacture of firearms.
d.
optical instruments and lens grinding.
e.
the use of the vault and the arch.
 

 33. 

The aristocracy of the sixteenth century was
a.
to dominate society as it had done in the Middle Ages.
b.
largely surpassed by the upcoming merchant class.
c.
still powerful, but with little new blood to keep it vital.
d.
extremely uneducated compared to the nobility of the Middle Ages.
e.
to disappear by the early seventeenth century.
 

 34. 

Slavery in Renaissance Italy
a.
reached its height in the early sixteenth century.
b.
was universally condemned by the Catholic Church.
c.
disappeared entirely by the early fifteenth century.
d.
experienced a slow decline.
e.
saw slaves from Africa and the eastern Mediterranean used mostly as courtly domestic servants and as skilled workers.
 

 35. 

The reintroduction of slavery in the fourteenth century occurred largely as a result of
a.
continued warfare and the capture of foreign prisoners.
b.
the shortage of labor created by the Black Death.
c.
papal decrees encouraging a paternal relationship with pagans.
d.
movements for Italian naval domination of the Mediterranean and the attendant need of manpower.
e.
the importation of slaves from Africa.
 

 36. 

Which of the following statements best describes marriage in Renaissance Italy?
a.
Young men asked women for their hand in marriage, after a lengthy courtship.
b.
Husbands were generally the same age as their spouses.
c.
Marriages were usually arranged, to strengthen familial alliances.
d.
Men and women waited longer to get married than in the Middle Ages.
e.
Men and women married earlier than in the Middle Ages because of increased economic opportunities.
 

 37. 

Marriages in Renaissance Italy
a.
were based on love and mutual affection.
b.
were easy to dissolve or annul.
c.
were an economic necessity of life involving complicated family negotiations.
d.
were often worked out hastily with little thought.
e.
declined as the sanction of the church and religion grew weaker.
 

 38. 

By the fifteenth century, Italy was
a.
a centralized state.
b.
dominated by the Papal States exclusively.
c.
the foremost European power.
d.
dominated by five major regional independent powers.
e.
made up of hundreds of independent city-states.
 

 39. 

Perhaps the most famous of Italian ruling woman was
a.
Battista Sforza.
b.
Isabella d'Este.
c.
Christina of Milan.
d.
Catherine de Medici.
e.
Christine de Pizan.
 

 40. 

Federigo da Montefeltro of Urbino was
a.
an example of a skilled, intelligent, independent Italian warrior prince.
b.
an outspoken advocate of Italian unification.
c.
a callous, disloyal prince, loathed by the papacy.
d.
strictly opposed to the proliferation of condottieri in Italy.
e.
a pious subject of the papacy.
 

 41. 

The Peace of Lodi in 1454 exemplifies what key Italian Renaissance political concept?
a.
rule through intimidation
b.
peace at any price
c.
a balance of power between multiple, competing territorial states
d.
the useless nature of paper treaties
e.
the inevitably of war and violence
 

 42. 

Machiavelli's ideas as expressed in The Prince achieve a model for
a.
a republican state in Italy.
b.
a new attitude of moral responsibility among politicians.
c.
a modern secular concept of power politics.
d.
a deeply religious conception of the religious sanctity of the state.
e.
the justification of divine right monarchy.
 

 43. 

In the late fifteenth century, Italy became a battleground for the competing interests of
a.
France and England.
b.
England and Spain.
c.
the Ottoman Empire and Spain.
d.
Spain and Germany.
e.
Spain and France.
 

 44. 

Pico della Mirandola's Oration on the Dignity of Man stated that humans
a.
were fallen creatures, but regain their place by following God's will.
b.
were nothing more than undifferentiated animals.
c.
were divine and destined to spiritual life.
d.
were destined to survive because they were the fittest animals.
e.
could be whatever they chose or willed.
 

 45. 

The development of printing in the fifteenth century
a.
pertained predominantly to secular works, as theological works were still done by hand.
b.
saw the invention of movable type by Nicholas Fabian.
c.
ensured that literacy and new knowledge would spread rapidly in European society.
d.
made communication and collaborative work between scholars more difficult due to competition.
e.
had little impact until the eighteenth century.
 

 46. 

The major practitioner of the new architecture of the Renaissance as exemplified by the dome of the Cathedral of Florence and the city's Church of San Lorenzo was
a.
Donatello.
b.
Ghiberti.
c.
Michelangelo.
d.
da Vinci.
e.
Brunelleschi.
 

 47. 

Which of the following groups of Italian artists dominated the High Renaissance?
a.
Donatello, da Vinci, Mirandola
b.
Raphael, Donatello, da Vinci
c.
da Vinci, Botticelli, Raphael
d.
de Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo
e.
Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, and Donatello
 

 48. 

The painter of the Rome's Sistine Chapel ceiling was
a.
Raphael.
b.
da Vinci.
c.
Botticelli.
d.
Michelangelo.
e.
Brunelleschi.
 

 49. 

What was the name of the Renaissance painter who achieved early fame for his beautiful madonnas?
a.
Titian
b.
Raphael
c.
Leonardo
d.
Donatello
e.
Brunelleschi
 

 50. 

Which of the following is not true of Northern Renaissance artists?
a.
They had less mastery of the laws of perspective than many Italian painters.
b.
The most influential artist was Jan van Eyck.
c.
There was an emphasis on illuminated manuscripts and wooden panel painting.
d.
They valued the secular human form as the primary subject of painting.
e.
They never portrayed the human body.
 

 51. 

The "new monarchs" of the late fifteenth century in Europe
a.
continued the trend toward decentralization.
b.
were focused upon the acquisition and expansion of power.
c.
attempted to build up the nobility for support.
d.
accepted the domination of the church as a matter of course.
e.
were generally illiterate.
 

 52. 

The results of the Hundred Years' War
a.
reinvigorated and strengthened the French monarchy.
b.
caused economic turmoil in England.
c.
temporarily strengthened the nobility in England.
d.
a and b
e.
all of the above
 

 53. 

The Habsburg dynasty ruled in
a.
Poland.
b.
Italy.
c.
Yugoslavia.
d.
Russia.
e.
the Holy Roman Empire.
 

 54. 

The Byzantine Empire was finally destroyed in 1453 by the
a.
crusaders.
b.
Persians.
c.
Russians.
d.
Seljuk Turks.
e.
Ottoman Turks.
 

 55. 

The Ottoman Turkish sultan who captured Constantinople in 1453 was
a.
Ali.
b.
Murad III.
c.
Lazar I.
d.
Mehmet II.
e.
Ibrahim Pasha.
 

 56. 

John Wyclif condemned the Church for all of the following except that
a.
the Bible should be made available in the vernacular rather than just in Latin.
b.
the pope should be given greater power to eliminate heresy and unbelief.
c.
there was no basis in Scripture for papal claims of temporal authority.
d.
veneration of saints should be abolished.
e.
popes should be stripped of their authority and their property.
 

 57. 

The Renaissance popes did all of the following except
a.
patronize Renaissance culture.
b.
participate in temporal authority at the expense of their spiritual responsibilities.
c.
attempt to return to the papacy to more humble times.
d.
combat church councils.
e.
involved themselves in politics and war.
 

 58. 

The Renaissance papacy
a.
was exemplified by the "spartan" and humble existence of Leo X.
b.
saw popes build legal familial dynasties over several generations to maintain power.
c.
was little concerned with war and politics, as shown by Julius II.
d.
was often seen as corrupt and debauched, as evidenced by Alexander VI.
e.
gave little support to the arts.
 

 59. 

The northern Christian humanists
a.
felt pessimistic about the future of humanity.
b.
were sophisticated and realistic in their expectations.
c.
totally rejected the primacy of the Catholic Church.
d.
doubted that education could solve the world's problems.
e.
championed the study of classical and early Christian texts to reform the Catholic Church.
 

 60. 

Northern European humanists such as Erasmus studiously learned Greek expressly to
a.
comprehend ancient Greek pagan culture more deeply.
b.
read the New Testament in its original Greek version and comprehend better the early writings of Greek church fathers.
c.
avoid use of lowly vernacular languages.
d.
outshine southern civic humanist competitors in public debate.
e.
replace Latin by an older and more authentic language.
 

 61. 

Popular religion in the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance was marked by
a.
greater popular belief in the spiritual utility of relics and indulgences.
b.
outbursts of church burnings to chase away "devil priests."
c.
efforts to do away with traditional beliefs and practices of the Catholic Church.
d.
the rise of several new neo-pagan, polytheistic cults.
e.
a turning away from religion in favor of Renaissance humanism.
 

 62. 

To Martin Luther, the question of "How can I be saved" was answered through
a.
the doctrine of justification by grace through faith alone.
b.
doing good works for one's universal brotherhood.
c.
a strict devotion to monastic order, as with his own Augustinian order.
d.
the sacramental system.
e.
reading Scripture in the vernacular.
 

 63. 

The event that eventually led to Luther's break with the church was
a.
the Council of Pisa's declaration that maintained the necessity of Purgatory for salvation.
b.
the increase of Papal taxes on the German peasantry.
c.
widespread sale of indulgences by preaching monks.
d.
the declaration that the German clergy must pay taxes.
e.
the papacy's threat to remove the German emperor.
 

 64. 

"As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs" was a German advertising slogan used by the Catholic Church to sell
a.
church offices.
b.
special pilgrimage trips to Rome.
c.
indulgences.
d.
cookies baked by nuns for donation to poor children.
e.
church property to ambitious and greedy businessmen.
 

 65. 

The German university city that served as a center for the diffusion of Luther's ideas was
a.
Hamburg.
b.
Frankenhausen.
c.
Nurenberg.
d.
Berlin.
e.
Wittenberg.
 

 66. 

Concerning the sacraments of the Catholic Church, Luther:
a.
accepted all seven.
b.
rejected all of them except baptism and communion, or the Lord's Supper.
c.
claimed marriage as the only true sacrament.
d.
eliminated extreme unction.
e.
eliminated only clerical celibacy.
 

 67. 

At its outset, the Reformation in Germany was
a.
a rural phenomenon.
b.
largely an urban phenomenon.
c.
a movement with strong urban and rural backing.
d.
only a minor quarrel among monks.
e.
restricted to southern Germany alone.
 

 68. 

The Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation opposed by Luther holds that
a.
clerics could move freely from one church office to another anywhere in Europe.
b.
Angels freely visit the earth.
c.
the devil could take any form or shape he or she pleased.
d.
at communion the bread and wine are miraculously turned into the body and blood of Jesus.
e.
at the mass or communion, the bread and wine merely symbolize the Last Supper.
 

 69. 

Among the other religious innovations championed by Luther were all of the following except
a.
a new worship service conducted in German.
b.
denunciations of clerical celibacy and encouragement that all clerics should marry.
c.
assertions that the authority of scripture must be supplemented by church decrees.
d.
dissolution of all single-sex monastic orders.
e.
the use of two rather than seven sacraments.
 

 70. 

The Habsburg-Valois Wars led to
a.
the defeat of Francis I of France in 1544.
b.
the development of the Lutheranism in Germany.
c.
Charles V's sacking of Wittenberg in 1527.
d.
the final defeat of the Turks in Austria at the Battle of Mohács in 1526.
e.
the sack of Paris.
 

 71. 

The Schmalkaldic Wars fought between Charles V and German Protestant princes resulted in
a.
the complete defeat of the Schmalkaldic League.
b.
the defeat of Charles V at the Battle of Muhlberg.
c.
Charles joining forces with Henry II of France to neutralize the League.
d.
the abdication of Charles V, who failed to reestablish Catholicism in his dominions.
e.
the conversion of Charles V to Lutheranism.
 

 72. 

Prior to the Zwinglian Reformation, Switzerland
a.
was unified under the rule of Maximilian in 1499.
b.
was Europe's first unified republic.
c.
became Europe's greatest economic power under the Swiss confederation.
d.
was the principal source of religious books in all of Europe.
e.
was made up of thirteen cantons, under the leadership of wealthy bourgeoisie.
 

 73. 

Zwingli's interpretation of the Lord's Supper differed from Luther's in that
a.
Luther held to the Catholic belief in transubstantiation.
b.
Luther said that the ceremony was totally symbolic.
c.
Zwingli said the ceremony was only symbolic and that no real transformation in the bread and wine occurred.
d.
Luther claimed the ceremony was only symbolic and that no transformation in the bread and wine occurred.
e.
Zwingli held to the belief called consubstantiation.
 

 74. 

The Marburg Colloquy of 1529
a.
produced no agreement or alliance between the Lutheran and Zwinglian movements.
b.
was fought over the fundamental issue of baptism.
c.
pitted Martin Bucer against Landgrave Philip of Hesse over the issue of the Lord's Supper.
d.
swayed Ulrich Zwingli to accept Lutheran doctrine.
e.
gave John Calvin political control over Geneva.
 

 75. 

The Reformation in England under Henry VIII
a.
was triggered by Henry's desire to annul his marriage.
b.
witnessed the complete transformation of Catholic doctrine.
c.
nearly ended with Thomas Cromwell's mishandling of the treasury.
d.
led to Parliament's formal leadership over the Church of England.
e.
was revoked by his son and successor, Edward V.
 

 76. 

Millenarianism is the belief that
a.
all Christians go to heaven.
b.
all priests are impious.
c.
the end of the world is imminent.
d.
private property among Christians is immoral.
e.
the first millennium was superior to the second, from the vantage point of the 16th century.
 

 77. 

England's Edwardian Reformation
a.
began with the brilliant regency of the Duke of Somerset.
b.
saw King Edward strip away the powers granted to Parliament by Henry VIII.
c.
witnessed rapid changes to a more Protestant doctrine and liturgy.
d.
ended with the military coup of the duke of Northumberland.
e.
ended with the assassination of Edward V.
 

 78. 

The reign of Queen Mary of England was most noted for
a.
a failed Catholic restoration.
b.
constant war with Spanish territories.
c.
permanently ending the Protestant Reformation in England.
d.
the issuing of the Act of Supremacy and the Treason Act in 1534.
e.
constitutionally establishing the House of Commons as supreme over the House of Lords.
 

 79. 

John Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion
a.
had little popular impact as it was only written in Latin.
b.
was a new and masterly synthesis of Protestant thought.
c.
systematically explained the fundamental difference between Calvinist and Lutheran doctrines.
d.
led to his eviction from France by Francis I.
e.
was the first book published by Guttenberg's printing press.
 

 80. 

The Reformation affected the development of education in Europe by
a.
broadly expanding Jesuit principles of higher education.
b.
aiming Protestant schooling only at the nobility and wealthier urban patricians.
c.
eradicating all humanist influences in schooling.
d.
expanding public access to primary schooling and improving secondary schooling through gymnasiums and ministerial training.
e.
the exclusive use of textbooks in Latin.
 

 81. 

The Reformation successfully abolished all of the following from the lives of Europe's Protestant community except for
a.
indulgences.
b.
the celebrations of religious saints' days.
c.
taverns.
d.
clerical celibacy.
e.
monasteries and nunneries.
 

 82. 

The Council of Trent
a.
compromised with the Protestants on the doctrine of Justification by Faith.
b.
agreed with most Protestants that there were only two sacraments.
c.
reaffirmed traditional Catholic beliefs against the Reformation.
d.
asserted the importance of doctrine over ritual.
e.
placed church councils above the authority of the popes.
 

 83. 

The Edict of Nantes was all of the following except it
a.
was an acknowledgment that Catholicism was the official religion in France.
b.
expelled the Huguenots from France.
c.
recognized the rights of the Protestant minority.
d.
was a political decision.
e.
was an attempt to reduce religious violence in France.
 

 84. 

The greatest advocate of militant Catholicism was
a.
Philip II of Spain.
b.
Henry VII of England.
c.
Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire.
d.
Henry IV of France.
e.
James IV of Scotland.
 

 85. 

Philip II and Spain was unable to ultimately defeat
a.
France.
b.
the Dutch Republic.
c.
the Holy Roman Empire.
d.
the Ottoman Empire.
e.
Portugal.
 



 
         Start Over