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Makeup Exam #4

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

When the American Revolution began,
a.
almost all of the colonists were united in favor of independence.
b.
almost all of the colonists were united against independence, but were soon convinced by the propaganda of a small elite group.
c.
the colonists feared the kind of blood-bath that had engulfed France during the French Revolution.
d.
the Loyalists argued in favor of separation from Great Britain.
e.
the colonials were deeply divided among themselves about revolting against Britain.
 

 2. 

After 1763, the British authorities and colonists came into conflict over
a.
British efforts to raise new revenues through increased taxes.
b.
freedom of trade on the high seas.
c.
freedom of religion.
d.
the expansion of rival French colonies in North America.
e.
the British attempt to abolish slavery throughout its empire.
 

 3. 

The colonists won their war for independence due to
a.
generous military and financial aid from various European states, especially France.
b.
the collapse of the English colonial system.
c.
apathy of the English military.
d.
flaws in the English mercantile system.
e.
b and c
 

 4. 

The defeat of General Cornwallis and his army at Yorktown in 1781, leading to British abandonment of the Revolutionary War, was achieved by
a.
American colonial army and naval forces alone.
b.
a combined American and French army.
c.
a combined force of American, French, Spanish, and Dutch forces.
d.
the Virginia Minutemen.
e.
a combined American and French army supported by a heavily armed French fleet.
 

 5. 

The Constitution of the United States of 1789
a.
was a revision of the Articles of Confederation.
b.
was seen by European liberals as a utopian document that would never last.
c.
created a republic in which the branches of government provided checks on one another.
d.
had no real impact on the French Revolution.
e.
failed, and was soon replaced by the Articles of Confederation.
 

 6. 

A key conduit of "enlightened" American political and moral ideas back to Europe was formed by
a.
returning British prisoners of war.
b.
the hundreds of literate and influential French army and navy officers who had fought on the American side during the Revolutionary War.
c.
European nobles returning from expeditions to the new American frontier.
d.
missionary priests returning from evangelical campaigns deep in the U.S. back country.
e.
official proclamations sent to the governments of Europe by George Washington and other Americans.
 

 7. 

French society on the eve of their revolution
a.
was dominated by the military.
b.
saw a sharp decline in sexual morality.
c.
was still largely dominated by the nobility and clergy.
d.
was rapidly changing, with the middle class becoming vastly more influential.
e.
was in a state of almost complete anarchy.
 

 8. 

The most immediate cause of the French Revolution was
a.
the government's failure to resolve its debts and other economic problems.
b.
the blocking of attempted reforms by the French Parliaments.
c.
the radical calls of the philosophes for reform.
d.
Louis XVI's rejection of the cahiers de doléances.
e.
violent uprisings by the common people who were demanding political and economic equality.
 

 9. 

By the eighteenth century, the French bourgeoisie and nobility were
a.
growing further apart in social status.
b.
increasingly less distinguishable from each other.
c.
rapidly losing social status to the third estate.
d.
openly hostile and frequently involved in street battles.
e.
almost completely dominated by the clergy of the First Estate.
 

 10. 

In 1789, the Estates-General was
a.
Louis XVI's parliamentary body often consulted by the king.
b.
in unanimous agreement that only radical changes could solve France's problems.
c.
dominated by the first estate composed mostly of urban lawyers.
d.
unanimously in agreement about the necessity of immediately creation a "National Assembly."
e.
divided over the issue of voting by "orders" or by "head."
 

 11. 

As one measure of the French crown's terrible financial predicament, by 1788 the interest payments on the state debt alone amounted to
a.
one-fifth of total government spending.
b.
one-quarter of total government spending.
c.
one-third of total government spending.
d.
one-half of all government spending.
e.
two-thirds of all government spending.
 

 12. 

The French revolutionary slogan neatly evoking the ideals of the rebellion was
a.
"Down with the aristocracy!"
b.
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity!"
c.
"Death to the king and queen!"
d.
"Kill all priests and burn all churches!"
e.
"The bourgeoisie will triumph!"
 

 13. 

In 1789, the Bastille was
a.
a royal castle.
b.
an arsenal and prison.
c.
the place where most state executions took place.
d.
a monastery.
e.
Paris' public market area.
 

 14. 

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
a.
was drawn up by the monarchy to limit freedoms.
b.
was rejected by those influenced by the Enlightenment.
c.
owed much to the ideas of the American Declaration of Independence.
d.
allowed for aristocratic privileges to endure in France.
e.
was an anti-Lockean document.
 

 15. 

What type of government was established in France by 1791?
a.
dictatorship
b.
republic
c.
democracy
d.
constitutional monarchy
e.
socialist
 

 16. 

During the early stages of the "Radical Revolution," the National Convention
a.
was controlled by the Mountain, which defeated the less radical Girondins.
b.
successfully resisted the Parisians' radical attempts to control the Convention.
c.
favored ending the disastrous European war.
d.
failed to create any kind of large standing army.
e.
requested that Napoleon become dictator.
 

 17. 

In September of 1792, the National Convention
a.
established a constitutional monarchy.
b.
abolished the monarchy and established a republic.
c.
voted to preserve the life of Louis XVI.
d.
was dismantled by Louis XVI.
e.
was immediately replaced by the Directory.
 

 18. 

The Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror
a.
was headed by Maximilien Robespierre.
b.
implemented a successful series of economic and price controls through France.
c.
attempted to restore the church's influence over politics.
d.
concentrated exclusively upon military matters.
e.
b and c
 

 19. 

During the Reign of Terror, the majority of the victims were
a.
nobles.
b.
clergy.
c.
middle class.
d.
peasant and laboring classes.
e.
the bourgeoisie.
 

 20. 

Which of the following is not true of the French revolutionary republican calendar?
a.
Each month consisted of three ten-day weeks.
b.
Most Christian holidays were kept.
c.
No efforts were made to enforce it.
d.
It was meant to signal a new beginning for the nation.
e.
It was part of the government's dechristianization program.
 

 21. 

The chief accomplishment of the National Convention was
a.
creation of the revolutionary calendar.
b.
preservation of the revolution from being destroyed by foreign enemies.
c.
creation of the Directory.
d.
the establishment of the National French School System.
e.
defeat of the counter-revolutionaries led by the Bourbon family in southern France.
 

 22. 

The government of the Directory in the period of the Thermidorean Reaction
a.
primarily relied on the support of the royalists.
b.
was unicameral and directly elected by active citizens.
c.
was characterized by honest leadership and wise economic plans.
d.
increasingly had to rely on military support for its survival.
e.
abolished the radical reforms of the Public Safety, including the Revolutionary Calendar.
 

 23. 

All of the following are true about Napoleon and his career before 1799 except
a.
he was initially disliked by his fellow soldiers.
b.
he made rapid progress and achieved the status of a general even before the Revolution.
c.
he read a great deal of military history.
d.
he saved the National Convention from the Parisian mob in 1795.
e.
he married the widow of a guillotined general.
 

 24. 

The chief reason for Napoleon's fast rise to power was/were his
a.
series of stunning victories over the enemies of France.
b.
social programs that appealed to the masses.
c.
promises to make France great again.
d.
work with an inner clique of revolutionaries dedicated to the general.
e.
secret support of disaffected members of the Bourbon family.
 

 25. 

Which of the following statements best applies to Napoleon's domestic policies?
a.
Much autonomy was given to the provincial departments as the previous system of prefects was overhauled.
b.
His "new aristocracy" was actually little different from the old, as it was based on privilege and wealth.
c.
His Civil Code reaffirmed the ideals of the Revolution while creating a uniform legal system.
d.
As a devout Catholic, he reestablished Catholicism as the official state religion.
e.
He abolished most of the civilian bureaucracy, preferring to govern by military rule.
 

 26. 

The Concordat
a.
allowed for reforms in the French military.
b.
reestablished the Catholic Church and gave the pope limited authority in France.
c.
was part of Napoleon's Civil Code.
d.
reformed the French civil service.
e.
established an absolute separation of church and state in France.
 

 27. 

Napoleon's Grand Empire
a.
was composed of three different parts but united under the rule of Napoleon.
b.
revived the power of the nobility and clergy in all its states.
c.
included all of Europe with the defeat of Britain in 1805.
d.
had no long-standing impact on the conquered countries.
e.
was abolished by the Directory in 1799.
 

 28. 

Not among the factors in the defeat of Napoleon was
a.
the failure of the Continental System.
b.
the defeat of the French navy at the Battle of Trafalgar.
c.
mass reactions to his brutal suppression of local customs in the conquered countries.
d.
the spread of nationalism in the conquered countries.
e.
that most independent European states were united against him by 1814.
 

 29. 

Napoleon's Continental System tried to defeat the British by
a.
a massive invasion of Britain.
b.
preventing British trade.
c.
causing political unrest in Britain.
d.
attacking the British colonies in North America.
e.
isolating India from Britain.
 

 30. 

Napoleon met his final defeat at the Battle of
a.
Leipzig.
b.
Borodino.
c.
Trafalgar.
d.
Austerlitz.
e.
Waterloo.
 

 31. 

The Industrial Revolution had its beginnings in
a.
France.
b.
Belgium.
c.
Prussia.
d.
the United States.
e.
Great Britain.
 

 32. 

The Industrial Revolution in Britain was largely inspired by
a.
the urgent need to solve the great poverty in the eighteenth century.
b.
the failure of the cottage industry.
c.
entrepreneurs who sought and accepted the new profitable manufacturing methods.
d.
the industrialization of the Dutch and French.
e.
the economic and technological needs engendered by the French Revolution.
 

 33. 

The first step toward the Industrial Revolution in Britain occurred within its
a.
cotton textile industry.
b.
wool textile industry.
c.
iron industry.
d.
railroad industry.
e.
mining industry.
 

 34. 

Britain's cotton industry in the late eighteenth century
a.
could not keep up with French textile production.
b.
was inspired by the textile industry found in the United States.
c.
declined due to the lack of technical innovation.
d.
immediately declined with the success of the Industrial Revolution.
e.
was responsible for the creation of the first modern factories.
 

 35. 

The development of the steam engine during the Industrial Revolution
a.
was the work of Edmund Cartwright.
b.
proved disastrous to Britain's mining industry.
c.
made factories dependent upon the location of rivers.
d.
made Britain's cotton goods the cheapest and most popular in the world.
e.
major large factories irrelevant.
 

 36. 

The Englishman Henry Cort was responsible for the process in iron smelting known as
a.
puddling.
b.
cottling.
c.
the open hearth.
d.
skimming.
e.
corking.
 

 37. 

The development of such superior locomotives as the Rocket, used on the first public railway lines, is attributed to
a.
Timothy Faulkner.
b.
George Stephenson.
c.
Richard Trevithick.
d.
Walter Zofrin.
e.
Ian Botham.
 

 38. 

The development of the railroads in the Industrial Revolution was important in
a.
increasing British supremacy in civil and mechanical engineering.
b.
increasing the size of markets and the price of goods.
c.
bringing about the demise of joint-stock companies.
d.
defeating Napoleon.
e.
making London a great port city.
 

 39. 

The new set of values established by factory owners during the Industrial Revolution
a.
was rejected by evangelical religions as being "unchristian."
b.
was basically a continuation from the cottage industry system.
c.
was never adopted by the working class.
d.
relegated the worker to a life of harsh discipline subject to the rigors of competitive wage labor.
e.
was inspired by the examples of Belgium and France.
 

 40. 

One of the chief reasons why Europe initially lagged behind England in industrialization was a lack of
a.
banking facilities.
b.
roads and means of transportation.
c.
manpower.
d.
capital for investment.
e.
lack of ambition.
 

 41. 

To keep their industrial monopoly, Britain attempted to
a.
export fewer goods to continental countries.
b.
prohibit industrial artisans from going abroad.
c.
limit financial investment overseas.
d.
increase tariffs to keep out foreign manufactured goods.
e.
permanently dismantle its empire.
 

 42. 

The Industrial Revolution expanded from Western Europe and the United States only after
a.
1800.
b.
1825.
c.
1850.
d.
1880.
e.
1900.
 

 43. 

The initial application of machinery to production in the United States was
a.
entirely the result of American inventors and inventions.
b.
by borrowing from Great Britain.
c.
by learning from the mistakes made in France and doing the opposite.
d.
to use only adult males as factory workers.
e.
to employ slaves in the new southern cotton mills.
 

 44. 

By 1850, all of the following countries were close to Britain in industrial output except
a.
Germany.
b.
Belgium.
c.
the United States.
d.
France.
e.
Russia.
 

 45. 

The Industrial Revolution on the continent
a.
was a generation behind Britain in cotton manufacture.
b.
neglected coal and iron technology in favor of the progress in the textile industry.
c.
benefited from the discovery of vast coal deposits in Germany in the 1820's.
d.
would remain far behind the British until the twentieth century.
e.
surpassed the production of British industry by the 1840s.
 

 46. 

The first Continental nations to complete establish a comprehensive railroad system were
a.
France and Italy.
b.
Belgium and Germany.
c.
Prussia and Poland.
d.
Russia and Austria.
e.
the Scandinavian countries.
 

 47. 

The Industrial Revolution in the United States
a.
never matched Great Britain's due to a lack of internal transportation.
b.
employed large numbers of women in factories, especially the textile mills.
c.
utilized a labor-intensive economy with many skilled workers.
d.
occurred predominantly in the southern states.
e.
never resorted to the use of child labor.
 

 48. 

By 1860 what percent of the population in cities held 70 to 80 percent of the wealth in America?
a.
10 percent
b.
25 percent
c.
40 percent
d.
60 percent
e.
80 percent
 

 49. 

Compared to Britain, American industrialization was a capital-intensive endeavor because
a.
Britain had more unskilled laborers.
b.
there was a labor shortage in the U.S.
c.
there was a skilled labor surplus in Britain.
d.
there was a far larger pool of unskilled laborers in the U.S.
e.
there was a labor surplus in the U.S.
 

 50. 

The so-called American System was
a.
high tariffs to protect new industries.
b.
the use of interchangeable parts in manufacturing.
c.
a common market for the western hemisphere.
d.
free trade and the absence of tariffs.
e.
wage and price controls.
 

 51. 

The European population explosion of the nineteenth century
a.
is mainly explained by the increased birthrates across Europe.
b.
was largely attributable to the disappearance of famine from western Europe.
c.
was due to the lack of emigration.
d.
was due to increased immigration.
e.
occurred despite the preponderance of major epidemic diseases.
 

 52. 

The only European country with a declining population in the nineteenth century was
a.
Russia.
b.
Italy.
c.
Austria.
d.
France.
e.
Ireland.
 

 53. 

Urbanization in the first half of the nineteenth century
a.
was more dramatic for the Continent than Great Britain.
b.
caused over fifty percent of the Russian population to live in cities by 1850.
c.
was a phenomenon directly tied to industrialization.
d.
accounted for widespread poverty in rural areas of Europe.
e.
reduced the cost of the central governments.
 

 54. 

Demographic changes that resulted from industrialization saw
a.
the aristocracy move from cities to escape the ill effects of factory development.
b.
the new middle class move to the suburbs of cities to escape the urban poor.
c.
laboring classes become more affluent and varied in their places of residence.
d.
rich and poor more commonly living together in new suburban housing developments.
e.
the abandonment of the central city.
 

 55. 

Members of the new industrial entrepreneurial class in the early nineteenth century
a.
particularly excluded aristocrats.
b.
were responsible for the predominance of giant corporate firms by 1850.
c.
were usually resourceful individuals with diverse social backgrounds.
d.
were more often from the lower classes than the bourgeoisie.
e.
were always from the bourgeoisie.
 

 56. 

The Industrial Revolution's effect on the standard of living
a.
especially benefited the middle classes.
b.
led to much increased disparity between the richest and poorest classes in society.
c.
eventually led to an overall increase in purchasing power for the working classes.
d.
a and c
e.
all the above
 

 57. 

The Luddites
a.
received little support in their areas of activity.
b.
destroyed industrial machines that destroyed their livelihood.
c.
were composed of the lowest unskilled workers in Great Britain.
d.
was the first movement of working-class consciousness of the Continent.
e.
demanded the establishment of a socialist economy.
 

 58. 

After Napoleon's defeat, the Quadruple Alliance
a.
sent troops to sack Paris.
b.
restored the old Bourbon monarchy to France in the person of Louis XVIII.
c.
returned Corsica to Italian control.
d.
delivered an ultimatum to the pope demanding full control over all of Italy.
e.
declared war against the Ottoman Empire.
 

 59. 

The Congress of Vienna
a.
gave Prussia complete control over Polish lands.
b.
created policies that would maintain the European balance of power.
c.
failed to achieve long-lasting peace among European nations.
d.
treated France leniently following Napoleon's One Hundred Days.
e.
sanctioned the political power of the bourgeoisie.
 

 60. 

The foreign minister and diplomat who dominated the Congress of Vienna was
a.
Klemens Von Metternich.
b.
Prince Talleyrand.
c.
Tsar Alexander I.
d.
Napoleon.
e.
Duke of Wellington.
 

 61. 

Klemens Von Metternich
a.
supported much of the revolutionary ideology after Napoleon's defeat.
b.
thought that a free press was necessary to maintain the status quo.
c.
had little influence because of his extreme conservatism.
d.
was anti-religious and supported atheistic causes.
e.
believed European monarchs shared the common interest of stability.
 

 62. 

At its most elementary level, conservatism
a.
sought to preserve the achievements of previous generations by subordinating individual rights to communal welfare.
b.
became the most popular political philosophy in Russia.
c.
sought above all else the achievement of individual rights.
d.
was never popular among the political elite of Europe.
e.
championed individual rights and laissez-faire government.
 

 63. 

When protestors of high bread prices in England clashed with government authorities, the resulting conflict was known as the
a.
St. Paul's Massacre.
b.
Charing Cross Incident.
c.
Peterloo Massacre.
d.
Trafalgar Spectacle.
e.
Battle of King's Cross.
 

 64. 

By 1815, following the Congress of Vienna, the Italian peninsula
a.
was entirely unified as a single country.
b.
remained divided into several states subject to the domination of other European powers.
c.
had been devastated by the last campaigns of Napoleon.
d.
had been completely annexed by Austria, a move confirmed by the Congress.
e.
sunk into complete anarchy and chaos.
 

 65. 

The growing forces of liberalism and nationalism in central Europe were exemplified by the
a.
increased liberal reforms of Frederick William III of Prussia between 1815 and 1840.
b.
national affinity and unity felt by the many Austrian ethnic groups under Frederick II.
c.
liberal constitutions of the states of the German Confederation.
d.
Burschenschaften, the student societies of Germany.
e.
the enlightened leadership of central European political elites.
 

 66. 

The Karlsbad Decrees of 1819 did all of the following except
a.
disband the Burschenshaften.
b.
impose censorship on the German press.
c.
placed most German universities under close government supervision.
d.
dissolved several smaller German states.
e.
placed restrictions upon university activities.
 

 67. 

Tsar Alexander I of Russia did all of the following except
a.
become more reactionary after the defeat of Napoleon.
b.
grant a constitution, freeing the serfs.
c.
reform the Russian education system.
d.
revert to a program of arbitrary censorship as a tool of governing.
e.
was the leader of Russian during the Napoleonic Wars.
 

 68. 

Following the death of Alexander I in 1825, Russian society under Nicholas I became
a.
the most liberal of the European powers.
b.
rapidly industrialized.
c.
an industrial power after the abolition of serfdom.
d.
increasingly influenced by ultra-conservative societies, such as the Northern Union.
e.
became a police state, as the czar feared both internal and external revolutionary upheavals.
 

 69. 

The argument that population must be held in check for any progress to take place was popularized by
a.
Adam Smith.
b.
David Ricardo.
c.
Joseph de Maistre.
d.
Edmund Burke.
e.
Thomas Malthus.
 

 70. 

Which of the following statements best applies to David Ricardo?
a.
He was an advocate of a social welfare system.
b.
He believed that the poor should best be ignored.
c.
He believed that individual effort could always overcome industrial and urban poverty.
d.
He developed the idea of the "iron law of wages."
e.
He argued that the population would always outrun the food supply.
 

 71. 

The foremost social group embracing liberalism was made up by
a.
factory workers.
b.
the industrial middle class.
c.
radical aristocrats.
d.
army officers.
e.
the landed gentry.
 

 72. 

Among J.S. Mill's most provocative writings was his On the Subjection of Women in which he argued that
a.
women should be kept in the home to improve men's chances of finding work.
b.
the legal subordination of females to males is wrong since men and women did not possess different natures.
c.
Parliament should admit women members immediately.
d.
female convicts be shipped out to colonize Australia.
e.
God and nature had ordained the permanent inferiority of women.
 

 73. 

Central to the liberal ideology in the nineteenth century was
a.
child labor laws.
b.
the preservation of law and order.
c.
an emphasis on individual freedom.
d.
the buildup of a nation's military.
e.
the creation of a socialist community.
 

 74. 

The utopian socialists of the first half of the nineteenth century were best characterized by
a.
Charles Fourier, who worked out detailed plans for cooperative communities called "phalansteries."
b.
Flora Tristan, who rejected the programs for female equality proposed by other socialists.
c.
Louis Blanc, who wished for the demise of government in favor of individuals providing for their own welfare.
d.
Henri de Saint-Simon, who established a cooperative community in the U.S. that failed.
e.
Karl Marx, in The Communist Manifesto.
 

 75. 

The French socialist, Flora Tristan
a.
demanded absolute equality of the sexes.
b.
established a cooperative socialist community at New Harmony, Indiana.
c.
felt that the greatest evil in society was the profit motive in business and economics.
d.
started the international "Women's Social and Political Union."
e.
condemned Karl Marx as being too revolutionary.
 

 76. 

The most successful nationalistic European revolution in 1830 was in
a.
Poland.
b.
Germany.
c.
Italy.
d.
the United Provinces.
e.
Belgium.
 

 77. 

The primary driving force in the revolutions of Belgium, Poland, and Italy in 1830 was
a.
nationalism.
b.
religion.
c.
racism.
d.
socialism.
e.
romanticism.
 

 78. 

Which of the following statements best applies to Thomas Macaulay's thoughts on reform in Britain?
a.
He opposed giving political concessions to the middle class.
b.
He was convinced that reforms were largely unnecessary due to Britain's democratic heritage.
c.
He supported reforms chiefly as a means of prevent the outbreak of more radical revolutionary movements.
d.
He was afraid reforms would cause the collapse of the current Parliament and the political domination of the landed elite.
e.
He adamantly opposed any and all political and social reforms.
 

 79. 

The Reform Bill of 1832 in Britain primarily benefited the
a.
landed aristocracy.
b.
peasants.
c.
working class.
d.
clergy.
e.
upper middle-class.
 

 80. 

Giuseppe Mazzini's nationalist organization, Young Italy,
a.
liberated Italy's northern provinces from Austrian control.
b.
failed to achieve his goal of "resurgence" by 1849.
c.
helped inspire successful liberal constitutions throughout Italy.
d.
used the liberals in governments to extend suffrage to Italy's working classes.
e.
allied itself with the papacy to drive France out of Italy.
 

 81. 

Which of the following statements best applies to European agencies of social control in the nineteenth century?
a.
Military units increasingly played a large role in maintaining urban social order.
b.
Capital punishment was increasingly used as a means of dealing with crime and discouraging others from committing crimes.
c.
German police forces never matched the British police in power and social acceptance.
d.
The British and French adopted the American system of solitary confinement for prisoners.
e.
Capital punishment was abolished in favor of the rack and thumbscrew.
 

 82. 

Professional civilian police forces known as serjents first appeared in 1829 in
a.
Germany.
b.
Russia.
c.
Italy.
d.
Bavaria.
e.
France.
 

 83. 

Regular police forces and prison reform were geared toward
a.
the creation of more disciplined and law-abiding societies.
b.
appeasing the public outcry against the barbarism of the ordeal.
c.
protecting the poor from exploitation by businessmen and the rich.
d.
adding an element of fear to society for psychological manipulation of mass populations.
e.
ensuring the continuance of oligarchic government.
 

 84. 

The Romantic movement had many of its roots in
a.
Turkey.
b.
Ireland.
c.
Italy.
d.
France.
e.
Germany.
 

 85. 

The romantic movement can be viewed as a(n)
a.
reaction against the Enlightenment's preoccupation with reason.
b.
continuation of Enlightenment ideals and practices.
c.
attempt to create a socialist society.
d.
movement of lower-class, less literate people.
e.
fascination with war and conflict.
 

 86. 

The American romantic author of The Fall of the House of Usher was
a.
Ralph Waldo Emerson.
b.
Thomas Carlyle.
c.
Edgar Allan Poe.
d.
Herman Melville.
e.
Henry David Thoreau.
 

 87. 

In architectural styles, the Romantics were particularly attracted to the
a.
Gothic.
b.
Baroque.
c.
Neo-classical.
d.
Post-Modernist.
e.
Renaissance.
 



 
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