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Makeup Exam #5

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

In economic matters, Napoleon III
a.
had a laissez-faire attitude.
b.
used government resources to stimulate the national economy and industrial growth.
c.
strove to diminish the power of great industrialists.
d.
worked diligently to establish monopolies for foreign firms possessing more business experience and capital than did French firms.
e.
was completely ignorant and apathetic.
 

 2. 

The immediate origins of the Crimean War involved
a.
French expansionism in the Black Sea.
b.
Austrian expansionism in the Balkans.
c.
Russia's right to protect Christian shrines in Palestine.
d.
the Turks' assassination of a British diplomat.
e.
Russia's seizure of the Dardanelles Straits from the Ottoman Empire.
 

 3. 

Cavour's key strategy to free Italy from Austrian domination required the military and diplomatic support of
a.
England.
b.
Russia.
c.
France.
d.
Prussia.
e.
Hungary.
 

 4. 

The leader of the Red Shirts who helped to unify Italy through his military command was
a.
Prince Napoleon.
b.
Giuseppe Garibaldi.
c.
Victor Emmanuel II.
d.
Camillo di Cavour.
e.
Giuseppe Mazzini.
 

 5. 

The final act of Italian unification occurred in 1870 when
a.
Garibaldi's Red Shirts defeated the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
b.
Savoy was defeated with the aid of Prussian troops.
c.
Rome became the capital city following the withdrawal of French troops.
d.
Piedmont took control of Lombardy as a result of French abandonment of Venice.
e.
the pope renounced any territorial claims in all of Italy.
 

 6. 

Among the key motives prompting England and France to fight Russia in the Crimean War must be counted
a.
the French emperor's ambition to humble the tsar.
b.
Britain's great concern over disruption of the existing balance of power.
c.
Prussian demands that the allies attack Russia at any cost.
d.
Russian efforts to promote revolution in western European nations.
e.
Britain's great desire to control the Christian holy places in Jerusalem.
 

 7. 

Otto Von Bismarck, the Prussian-born leader of German unification,
a.
instituted the Zollverein, the German customs union that drove industrial development.
b.
followed a rigid plan for national unification at all costs.
c.
was a liberal from lower class origins who used politics to achieve his reform goals.
d.
practiced Realpolitik in conducting domestic and foreign policy.
e.
relied upon the diplomatic and military support of the Habsburgs in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866.
 

 8. 

The emergence of a true parliamentary system in Prussia was blocked by
a.
the king's overwhelming executive power.
b.
the political divisions of the industrial middle class.
c.
opposition from the Catholic Church.
d.
a tradition of highly decentralized governmental authority in Germany.
e.
Bismarck's reintroduction of an autocratic divine right monarchy.
 

 9. 

The Zollverein describes
a.
the German states' customs union dominated by Prussia.
b.
a conservative German nationalist group bent on unification of the country.
c.
the lower house of the Prussian parliament.
d.
Bismarck's liberal reform program.
e.
Prussian Black Shirts, who led the German unification movement.
 

 10. 

As a statesman, Bismarck can best be appreciated as
a.
a determined nationalist who planned every move toward German unification.
b.
a conservative but a traitor to his aristocratic class.
c.
a consummate politician and opportunist capitalizing on unexpected events and manipulating affairs to his favor.
d.
a narrow-minded tyrant incapable of mastering the art of negotiation vital to modern European diplomacy.
e.
an enlightened despot.
 

 11. 

During the Franco-Prussian War
a.
Napoleon III successfully defended the French homeland.
b.
the French were decisively defeated at the Battle of Sedan.
c.
Bismarck allowed the Prussian army to fall into a subordinate position.
d.
a military standoff resulted between the two great armies.
e.
a truce was finally agreed to, giving Germany the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, while France gained Schleswig and Holstein.
 

 12. 

As a consequence of her defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, France had to
a.
pay an indemnity to Prussia of five billion Francs.
b.
abandon Nice and Marseilles.
c.
give the eastern frontier provinces of Alsace and Lorraine to Prussia, a loss leaving the French set on revenge.
d.
try Napoleon III for war crimes before a Prussian tribunal.
e.
a and c
 

 13. 

Prussian leadership of German unification meant that
a.
a new era of peaceful European interstate relations had begun.
b.
the triumph of authoritarian and militaristic values over liberal and constitutional values in the new German state.
c.
Austrian bureaucrats would have new opportunities to shape the political culture of the new German Empire.
d.
true parliamentary democracy would triumph in the new German state.
e.
a new era of peace had arrived in Europe.
 

 14. 

In 1871, William I was proclaimed Kaiser, or emperor, of the Second Reich in
a.
Berlin.
b.
Frankfort.
c.
Paris.
d.
Versailles.
e.
Rome.
 

 15. 

The Ausgleich or Compromise of 1867
a.
created a loose federation of ethnic states within the Austrian Empire.
b.
freed the serfs and eliminated compulsory labor services with the Austrian Empire.
c.
made Austria part of the North German Confederation.
d.
granted the Czechs and Slovenes home-rule.
e.
created the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
 

 16. 

The reforms of Tsar Alexander II centered around
a.
government sponsorship of popular societies like the Bolsheviks.
b.
improvements in the military.
c.
the abolition of serfdom.
d.
the formation of local, self-governing assemblies called "dumas."
e.
nationalizing all the lands of Russia, putting them under state control.
 

 17. 

The British Liberal responsible for an impressive series of reform acts between 1868 and 1874 was
a.
Henry John Temple.
b.
Lord Palmerston.
c.
Sir Robert Peel.
d.
Benjamin Disraeli.
e.
William Gladstone.
 

 18. 

Among the key political consequences of Disraeli's Reform Act of 1867 was
a.
the outbreak of mass strikes by industrial workers in Britain.
b.
a large increase in the number of voters and tighter organization of Liberal and Conservative political parties.
c.
the emergence of female suffrage movements in other European countries inspired by extension of the vote to British women.
d.
the freeing of the last British serfs on northern landed estates.
e.
the incorporation of India into the British Empire.
 

 19. 

The American Civil War of 1861-65
a.
was ended by the Missouri Compromise.
b.
was highly destructive due to the equal balance of forces between North and South.
c.
was a clear precursor of "total war" in the twentieth century.
d.
did not completely eradicate slavery in all of the states due to local referendums on the question.
e.
led to the adoption of the Bill of Rights.
 

 20. 

The Communist Manifesto of Marx and Engels
a.
was a guidebook for the European workers in their revolutions of 1848.
b.
viewed the bourgeoisie as leading the proletariat in the destruction of the aristocracy.
c.
saw the successful realization of its ideas in the First International.
d.
based all historical development on class struggle.
e.
predicted peaceful compromise between the social classes.
 

 21. 

Karl Marx embraced the German philosopher Hegel's idea of the dialectic, meaning
a.
all change in history is the result of clashes between directly antagonistic elements.
b.
no real changes in society can occur before industrialization.
c.
dictatorship is the central political force in all history.
d.
political diatribes are the highest form of intellectual thought.
e.
there is a world soul, which alternates between democracy and dictatorship.
 

 22. 

According to Karl Marx, the final product of the struggle between bourgeoisie and proletariat would be
a.
equal amounts of property for everyone.
b.
the dictatorship of the proletariat.
c.
all political power transferred to the proletariat.
d.
a utopian society.
e.
a classless society.
 

 23. 

Which of the following statements best applies to Charles Darwin and his evolutionary theory?
a.
His ideas were readily accepted by religious fundamentalists and cultural conservatives.
b.
His works were truly revolutionary in that they were the first to propose a theory of evolution.
c.
His theory emphasized the idea of the "survival of the fit" in which advantageous natural variants and environmental adaptations in organisms determine their survival.
d.
His On the Origin of Species described man's evolution from animal origins through natural selection.
e.
He envisioned utopian evolution, unlike Marx who predicted materialistic revolution.
 

 24. 

Auguste Comte was responsible for
a.
posing an evolutionary theory akin to Darwin's.
b.
founding the discipline of sociology.
c.
helping to remove theology as a subject from university curricula.
d.
integrating science with religion.
e.
establishing a utopian community just outside Paris.
 

 25. 

In addition to examining everyday life, the literary realists of the mid-nineteenth century were also interested in
a.
completely avoiding romantic imagery, as shown in the works of Charles Dickens.
b.
employing emotional and poetic language to cause social reform.
c.
avoiding sentimental language by using careful observation and description.
d.
showing the positive values of middle-class life.
e.
using "stream of consciousness" techniques.
 

 26. 

Realist art in the mid-nineteenth-century
a.
was praised by critics for showing the beauty of ordinary people.
b.
was best characterized by the urban scenes of Jean-François Millet.
c.
still contained an element of romantic sentimentality, best shown in Gustave Courbet's paintings.
d.
aimed at giving the viewer an "impression" of reality.
e.
was interested in the natural environment and in showing scenes from everyday life.
 

 27. 

The nineteenth century composer associated with the concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk was
a.
Brahms.
b.
Beethoven.
c.
Liszt.
d.
Mozart.
e.
Wagner.
 

 28. 

Between 1860 and 1913, western European steel production went from
a.
5000 tons to 1 million tons.
b.
35,000 tons to 2 million tons.
c.
50,000 tons to 15 million tons.
d.
125,000 tons to 32 million tons.
e.
10 million tons to 100 million tons.
 

 29. 

The first internal combustion engine burning a mixture of gas and air was produced in
a.
1798.
b.
1838.
c.
1858.
d.
1878.
e.
1898.
 

 30. 

The development of markets after 1870 was best characterized by
a.
decreased competition through free trade agreements.
b.
the dismantling of the cartels that hindered free trade.
c.
urban consumers in Europe who desired a growing number of consumer products.
d.
an abandonment of overseas markets, especially by Britain, due to their small profit potential.
e.
a significantly higher rate of growth among developing nations because the raw materials they provided were in greater and greater demand.
 

 31. 

Industrialization in Japan was the result of
a.
private investment and initiative.
b.
European colonization.
c.
socialist planning on the Marxist model.
d.
government planning and initiative.
e.
ambitious former samurai.
 

 32. 

By 1900, which of the following nations was the least advanced industrially
a.
Britain.
b.
Germany.
c.
France.
d.
Belgium.
e.
Spain.
 

 33. 

The Second Industrial Revolution experienced
a.
a drop in agricultural prices.
b.
the shift from a three-field to a two-field crop rotation system due to better chemical fertilizers.
c.
the emergence of a new class of agricultural production leaders called coloni.
d.
a sharp increase in agricultural prices.
e.
to stabilize agricultural prices at the level attained in 1850.
 

 34. 

Employment opportunities for women during the Second Industrial Revolution
a.
changed in quality and quantity with the expansion of the service sector.
b.
declined dramatically as prostitution became illegal.
c.
increased greatly with working-class men pushing their wives to work outside the home.
d.
declined when piece-work was abandoned as inefficient and "sweatshops" were outlawed.
e.
declined because labor unions forced governments to restrict most employment opportunities to men only.
 

 35. 

A rise in female prostitution in European cities during the later nineteenth century can best be attributed to
a.
heavy migration to cities by country women and their increasingly desperate struggle for urban economic survival.
b.
greater public toleration of sex workers and abandonment of all municipal efforts to police the trade.
c.
the acceptance by clergymen of the sex trade as an economic necessity for poorer women.
d.
the declining interest of men and women to form families.
e.
the decline in available husbands due to various STDs.
 

 36. 

The Marxist revisionist Eduard Bernstein stressed the need for
a.
violent overthrow of capitalist governments.
b.
the extermination of all individualists.
c.
working through democratic politics to create socialism.
d.
totally disregarding The Communist Manifesto.
e.
a revolutionary seizure of the commanding heights of the economies.
 

 37. 

The trade union movement prior to World War I
a.
was strongest in France after the dissolution of the Second International in 1890.
b.
occurred despite trade unions being banned by most state governments.
c.
varied from state to state, but was generally allied with socialist parties.
d.
was primarily for unskilled laborers, especially the New Model unions.
e.
focused entirely on wages and working conditions negotiated directly with employers without any government involvement in the process.
 

 38. 

Initially, trade unions in the first half of the nineteenth century functioned primarily as
a.
political parties.
b.
militant anarchist societies.
c.
supporters of middle-class liberalism.
d.
vehicles for leisure activities.
e.
mutual aid societies.
 

 39. 

Anarchist movements were most successful in
a.
industrialized countries like Great Britain and Germany.
b.
toppling national governments through assassinations.
c.
restoring legitimacy to radical movements through peaceful dialogue with political opponents.
d.
less industrialized and less democratic countries where ordinary people could see no hope of peaceful political change.
e.
countries with revolutionary traditions like France.
 

 40. 

Some of the most powerful of the nineteenth-century labor unions were to be found in
a.
England.
b.
Germany.
c.
France.
d.
Italy.
e.
Russia.
 

 41. 

Between 1850 and 1910, European population
a.
increased from 270 million to 460 million.
b.
actually decreased slightly.
c.
increased from 45 to 60 million.
d.
stagnated, causing severe problems for the development of leisure industries.
e.
declined significantly because of the pollution engendered by increasing urbanization.
 

 42. 

The driving force behind immigration to the cities was
a.
job opportunities.
b.
a desire for culture.
c.
curiosity.
d.
masochism.
e.
entertainment.
 

 43. 

Reforms in urban living included all of the following except
a.
the development of pure water and sewerage systems.
b.
model homes built for the poor by wealthy philanthropists.
c.
the demolition of old, unneeded urban defensive walls, replaced by wide avenues.
d.
a concerted effort to clean up all polluted rivers and lakes.
e.
some increases in governmental regulations.
 

 44. 

Octavia Hill's housing venture was designed to
a.
give the poor an environment they could use to improve themselves.
b.
give the poor charity since they could never help themselves.
c.
let the wealthy know what it was like to be poor.
d.
break down class barriers in London.
e.
make the upper classes feel better and improve their self-esteem by doing something for the downtrodden of society.
 

 45. 

The largest segment of European society in the nineteenth century was composed of
a.
skilled artisans such as cigar makers and cabinet makers.
b.
peasant landholders, unskilled day laborers, and domestic servants who worked for very low wages.
c.
semi-skilled laborers such as carpenters and bricklayers.
d.
urban workers in eastern Europe and peasants in western Europe.
e.
middle-class urbanites.
 

 46. 

European middle-class families during the late nineteenth century
a.
were more concerned with displaying the work ethic than in displaying wealth and following proper decorum.
b.
stressed functional knowledge for their children to prepare them for their future roles.
c.
prided themselves on doing the housework and cooking for their families.
d.
increasingly became less cohesive as togetherness was no longer an important value.
e.
increased in numbers but were weakened structurally as men abandoned their family focus in order to advance their lives professionally.
 

 47. 

The domestic ideal of the nineteenth-century middle-class family was
a.
everyone working outside the home for the common good.
b.
togetherness with leisure time being very important.
c.
an almost military environment with the husband as commander.
d.
for girls and boys to grow up to be merchants and bankers.
e.
to have large and extended families united in the same household.
 

 48. 

Daughters in European working-class families
a.
were fully expected to work until marriage.
b.
by long custom, were kept at home until of age to marry.
c.
were barred from working by state law in many countries.
d.
had traditionally never shown an interest in working either before or after marriage.
e.
enrolled in vocational schools until marriage and then entered the work-place.
 

 49. 

By 1900, most European educational systems
a.
were free and compulsory at least at the primary level.
b.
were expensive to operate, and charged high tuition.
c.
were backward and lacked good teachers.
d.
still taught a "medieval" variety of subjects.
e.
had declined because of lack of governmental interest and support.
 

 50. 

Although several motives drove European states to develop systems of mass public education for their citizens, the chief reason for which they did this was
a.
economic, to produce a more educated workforce.
b.
military, to produce better trained army conscripts capable of learning how to use modern weapons.
c.
political, to produce more informed voters in expanding electorates and to heighten patriotism producing more integrated nations.
d.
religious, so as to teach the poor obedience to authority.
e.
moral, to solidify the family as the basic structural unit of society.
 

 51. 

The "father" of tourism in England was
a.
David Lloyd-George.
b.
Thomas Cook.
c.
John Boothe.
d.
Frederick Cartwright.
e.
W. G. Grace.
 

 52. 

Which of the following was a major development in British politics before 1914?
a.
the continual growth of political democracy
b.
the peaceful and successful settlement of the "Irish question"
c.
the transformation of the Fabians into the Conservatives
d.
the reduction of the House of Commons' power
e.
the strengthening of the monarchy after the death of Queen Victoria
 

 53. 

The Irish parliamentary leader who demand home-rule for Ireland in the 1880s was
a.
William Gladstone.
b.
William Butler Yeats.
c.
Edward Fitzgerald.
d.
Wolfe Tone.
e.
Charles Parnell.
 

 54. 

The English Reform Bill of 1884
a.
enfranchised women.
b.
gave English agricultural workers the right to vote.
c.
did not dramatically increase the size of the electorate.
d.
increased the total number of members in the House of Commons.
e.
increased middle-class representative in Parliament.
 

 55. 

Louis Napoleon's Second Empire was brought to an end by
a.
France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War.
b.
the emperor's financial policies.
c.
his choice of poor administrators.
d.
his defeat by the Austrians.
e.
the unpopularity of his marriage to Empress Eugenie.
 

 56. 

Splits between the French working and middle class
a.
were largely solved by the liberal reforms of the Third Republic.
b.
enabled the Third Republic to elect a new monarch in 1875.
c.
led to a strong parliamentary system of government.
d.
were further widened by the brutal suppression of the Paris Commune in 1871.
e.
ended in the light of continued Prussian threats to France's national survival.
 

 57. 

The Boulanger Crisis in France had the end result of
a.
strengthening the monarchists.
b.
rallying French citizens to the cause of the Republic.
c.
splitting the support and allegiance of the army.
d.
causing the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871.
e.
toppling the Third Republic.
 

 58. 

In 1867 Austria-Hungary was theoretically a constitutional government; in reality it was a/an
a.
autocracy.
b.
democracy.
c.
government similar to Great Britain.
d.
very corrupt and inefficient.
e.
federal republic.
 

 59. 

Which statement best applies to the Germany under chancellor Otto Von Bismarck?
a.
Prussia lost much of its influence on state politics.
b.
Coalitions were used by Bismarck to get what he wanted and then he dropped them.
c.
Socialism was almost completely stamped out by the Prussian army.
d.
Almost all regional differences disappeared under the charismatic leadership of Bismarck.
e.
The emperor became merely a figurehead and lacked any political power and influence.
 

 60. 

Which of the following statements best applies to Austria-Hungary before World War I?
a.
Both Austria and Hungary had working parliamentary systems.
b.
The Magyars dominated politics in Austria under Emperor William II.
c.
The nationality problem remained unresolved and led to strong German as well as other nationalist movements.
d.
Prime minister Count Edward Von Taafe was ousted in 1893 by the Slavic minorities for his failure to make concessions to them.
e.
By 1900 it had become a federal state, with seven different constitutional regions enjoying domestic self-rule.
 

 61. 

The policy pursued by Russia's Alexander III and Nicholas II after the assassination of Alexander II was a policy of
a.
liberalism.
b.
nationalism.
c.
socialism.
d.
militarism.
e.
autocracy.
 

 62. 

Just prior to World War I, the European intellectual community was marked by
a.
boundless enthusiasm, confidence, and optimism about the future.
b.
a sense of confusion and anxiety leading to feelings of imminent catastrophe.
c.
total complacency on the part of a self-satisfied mass public.
d.
grim determination among nationalists to adopt and enforce international peace treaties.
e.
a retreat into scientific materialism.
 

 63. 

The experimental work of early twentieth-century physicists challenged and ultimately invalidated
a.
the chemical theories of Paracelsus.
b.
the rational, mechanical conception of the universe posited in the physics of Newton.
c.
the heliocentric theory of Galileo.
d.
Harvey's arguments on circulation.
e.
Kepler's theory on elliptical orbits
 

 64. 

Friedrich Nietzsche
a.
supported the Theory of Relativity.
b.
felt reform was needed in a healthy Catholic Church.
c.
believed that Christianity had deeply undermined the creative power of western civilization.
d.
was an advocate of Darwin's theories.
e.
was a major influence on Freud and the latter's theories of psychoanalysis.
 

 65. 

Which of the following philosophers advocated violence, if necessary, as a means of achieving socialism?
a.
Georges Sorel
b.
Henri Bergson
c.
Friedrich Nietzsche
d.
William James
e.
Eduard Bernstein
 

 66. 

Freud maintained that a human being's inner life was a battleground between all of the following except the
a.
id.
b.
ego.
c.
alterego.
d.
superego.
e.
unconscious.
 

 67. 

Social Darwinism was
a.
applying the ideas of Darwin to society.
b.
an effort to explain the problems of society by psychological means.
c.
an explanation, sociologically, of Darwin's biological ideas.
d.
advocated by Nietzsche.
e.
condemned by Freud.
 

 68. 

Using Darwin's terminology, Herbert Spencer argued that
a.
no progress in human society was now possible and decadence had set in everywhere.
b.
no rational justification could be given to "natural selection."
c.
peaceful progress was inevitable.
d.
evolution could never be reversed.
e.
human societies were organism evolving through time by struggling with their environments.
 

 69. 

The urbanization of Europe brought religion under attack from all of the following except
a.
new migrants to cities without connections to urban churches.
b.
advocates of more scientific inquiry.
c.
parliaments and legal societies.
d.
Marxist political movements of the nineteenth century.
e.
Biblical higher criticism.
 

 70. 

The best example of naturalistic literature can be found in the novels of
a.
Victor Hugo.
b.
Charles Dickens.
c.
Albert Camus.
d.
Emile Zola.
e.
Gustave Faubert.
 

 71. 

The higher criticism of the Bible championed by the French Catholic scholar Ernst Renan
a.
confirmed the accuracy of the Bible as a guide to Christian history.
b.
questioned the historical accuracy of the Bible and denied the divinity of Jesus.
c.
found the New Testament to be far more recent in composition than previously believed.
d.
cast doubt on the authenticity of the letters of Paul.
e.
gave intellectual support for the divine authorship of the Bible.
 

 72. 

The Catholic Church took a rigid stand against modern ideas including religious toleration, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press under the direction of conservative popes such as
a.
Leo XIII.
b.
John Paul II.
c.
John XXIII.
d.
Paul XII.
e.
Pius IX.
 

 73. 

In art, modernism found its beginnings in the work of Pissarro called
a.
Surrealism.
b.
Abstract Realism.
c.
Baroque.
d.
Expressionism.
e.
Impressionism.
 

 74. 

Which of the following was not a pioneer in the field of nursing?
a.
Clara Barton
b.
Florence Nightingale
c.
Amalie Sieveking
d.
Emmeline Pankhurst
e.
c and d
 

 75. 

To advance the cause of women's suffrage, the Women's Social and Political Union founded by Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters
a.
took a moderate approach to the problem seeking to demonstrate first that women were intelligent and could use political power wisely if given the vote.
b.
took a conservative approach to the problem and strongly recommended that only upper-class and educated women be considered as potential voters.
c.
took a radical, public, and well publicized approach to the movement, employing different media and provocative public actions, like pelting male politicians with eggs.
d.
considered the political situation of women in Europe to be hopeless and advised women seeking the vote to move to other countries, like the U.S., where the chances of gaining political equality were greater.
e.
formed a peaceful alliance with Britain's Communist Party.
 

 76. 

Maria Montessori exemplifies the "new woman" of modern times in that
a.
she became a leading advocate of the vote for women.
b.
she entered Italian politics as a liberal.
c.
she created the International Women's League for Peace and Freedom.
d.
she obtained a professional degree and applied her expertise to new fields of inquiry like early childhood development.
e.
she was the first professional woman who received equal pay for equal work.
 

 77. 

Theodor Herzl, the leader of the Zionist movement,
a.
advocated the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine.
b.
advocated the development of separate Jewish communities European cities.
c.
argued that Jewish assimilation into western European society would only be complete when Jews renounced their religious beliefs.
d.
argued that living conditions for Jews were better in eastern Europe than in western Europe.
e.
demanded that war be declared against the Ottoman Empire.
 

 78. 

In order to implement the Liberal Party's social reform program, David Lloyd George radically curtailed the power of the
a.
army and navy.
b.
Bank of England.
c.
monarchy.
d.
House of Commons.
e.
House of Lords.
 

 79. 

Among the notable achievements of the British Liberals under Lloyd George was
a.
unilateral British disarmament and world peace proposals.
b.
passage of the National Insurance Act of 1911 providing sickness and unemployment benefits to workers with state aid.
c.
the nationalization of all private industry in Britain.
d.
reductions in the size of the British colonial empire.
e.
to implement a policy of laissez-faire in economic and welfare matters.
 

 80. 

The event which exemplified renewed anti-Semitism in France in the late nineteenth century was the
a.
Boulanger coup.
b.
Sorel uprising.
c.
Dreyfus affair.
d.
Zola capitulation.
e.
the fall of the Third Republic.
 

 81. 

Growing tensions in modern German society were exemplified by
a.
rapidly rising suicide rates especially in cities.
b.
refusals by German leaders to enact new welfare legislation.
c.
the use of military forces to put down urban riots.
d.
the proliferation of ultra-nationalist right-wing political pressure groups with anti-Semitic, racist, and imperialist beliefs.
e.
peasant rebellions, particularly in the Rhineland region.
 

 82. 

The Pan-German League advocated
a.
German withdrawal from world affairs and concentration on internal political reforms.
b.
anti-liberal policies including the development of a global German colonial empire to unite all different classes of citizens at home.
c.
German leadership in the development of international pacifist organizations.
d.
strict limitations on development of German industry including far heavier corporate taxation to pay for new state social welfare programs deemed essential by the group.
e.
a German takeover of eastern France, western Poland, and the Germany-speaking part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
 

 83. 

The Fabian Socialists in Britain advocated
a.
class war and the immediate revolutionary destruction of parliamentary government following Marxist principles.
b.
the use of political terrorism to win concessions from wealthy political leaders.
c.
the necessity of workers using their new voting rights to elect a new House of Commons wherein legislation favorable to the working classes could be passed in democratic fashion.
d.
the formation of pan-European working class parties to bring democratic reforms to all states especially through disarmament and higher taxation of the rich.
e.
the immediate confiscation of the private wealth of millionaires and the confiscation of all factories and other means of industrial production throughout Britain.
 

 84. 

The Boer War was fought by the British in
a.
Australia.
b.
China.
c.
Zimbabwe.
d.
Botswana.
e.
South Africa.
 

 85. 

The Meiji Restoration in Japan
a.
successfully accomplished the expulsion of all foreigners from the country.
b.
created a political system democratic in form but rigidly authoritarian in practice.
c.
concentrated on the reestablishment of feudal principles of decentralized government and native Japanese values.
d.
sent many Japanese abroad to be educated in the ways of the west and adopted many western reforms in political and military organization.
e.
b and d
 

 86. 

The basis of the Bismarckian System was
a.
the acquisition of a huge overseas empire.
b.
the isolation of France through a series of military alliances.
c.
an enhanced civil service.
d.
the creation of a German war college.
e.
the incorporation of Austria-Hungary into the German Empire.
 

 87. 

The Triple Entente before 1914 included which of the following countries?
a.
Great Britain, France, Russia
b.
Austria, Germany, the Ottoman Empire
c.
Turkey, Russia, Germany
d.
France, Spain, Great Britain
e.
Great Britain, France, and Italy
 



 
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