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Make Up Test eXAM 6

 1. 

Between 1935 and 1940, union membership in the United States
a.
doubled.
b.
tripled.
c.
fell by 25 percent.
d.
fell by 40 percent.
e.
increased by 50 percent.
 

 2. 

To resolve the economic problems of Germany and international tensions in Europe, the U.S. developed the
a.
Agricultural Adjustment Act.
b.
Dawes Plan.
c.
League of Nations.
d.
New Deal.
e.
Locarno Pact.
 

 3. 

The parliamentary governments of Germany in the mid- to late 1920s were dominated by
a.
Social Democrats.
b.
right-wing nationalists.
c.
moderate businessmen.
d.
conservative aristocrats.
e.
Christian Democrats.
 

 4. 

The composer Arnold Schönberg is known for
a.
his creation of “twelve-tone” music that abandoned traditional harmony and tonality.
b.
his composition of nationalistic German operas.
c.
his symphonies composed for broadcast to popular audiences on the German Deutsche Welle radio network.
d.
his use of pulsing dissonant rhythms in the ballet Rites of Spring.
e.
his composition of musical background for the first “talkies.”
 

 5. 

At its height during the Great Depression, unemployment in the United States reached
a.
10 percent.
b.
25 percent.
c.
33 percent.
d.
50 percent.
e.
75 percent.
 

 6. 

All of the following artistic styles emerged in the Age of Anxiety except
a.
surrealism.
b.
cubism.
c.
dadaism.
d.
impressionism.
e.
extreme expressionism.
 

 7. 

The British political party that emerged during the 1920s as the champion of the working class and the main opposition to the Conservative party was the
a.
Liberal party.
b.
Labour party.
c.
Social Democratic party.
d.
Communist party.
e.
Christian Democratic party.
 

 8. 

Authors such as Marcel Proust, James Joyce, and William Faulkner wrote about
a.
societal problems.
b.
utopian escapist themes.
c.
romantic themes of love and personal fulfillment.
d.
the complexity and irrationality of the human mind.
e.
Christian salvation.
 

 9. 

One of the earliest full-length feature films produced in the United States was
a.
The Great Train Robbery.
b.
Gone with the Wind.
c.
Birth of a Nation.
d.
What the Butler Saw.
e.
Metropolitan.
 

 10. 

Challenges to the centrality of rational thought to understand the human condition came from all of the following philosophers except
a.
Ludwig Wittgenstein.
b.
Henri Bergson.
c.
Georges Sorel.
d.
Friedrich Nietzsche.
e.
Søren Kierkegaard.
 

 11. 

The Christian revival after World War I depended heavily on which of the following earlier philosophers and theologians?
a.
Friedrich Nietzsche.
b.
Gabriel Marcel.
c.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
d.
Søren Kierkegaard.
e.
Ignatius Loyola.
 

 12. 

In The Decline of the West, Oswald Spengler argued that
a.
rampant homosexuality was destroying Western culture.
b.
the West would soon be conquered by “the yellow race.”
c.
decolonization was a moral imperative for Europe.
d.
traditional Christian morality was weakening the West.
e.
only socialism could save the West.
 

 13. 

With Russia hostile and communist, France turned to a defensive alliance with
a.
the United States.
b.
Italy and Austria.
c.
the Soviet Union.
d.
the “little Entente.”
e.
Spain.
 

 14. 

With the U.S. failure to ratify the Versailles Treaty, many French leaders placed their hopes for future security on
a.
strict implementation of the treaty.
b.
the alliance with Great Britain.
c.
the League of Nations.
d.
a closer relationship with Germany.
e.
Bolshevik pressure on Germany.
 

 15. 

When Germany refused to make its second reparations payment, France and Belgium
a.
declared war.
b.
established a naval blockade of German ports.
c.
appealed to the League of Nations.
d.
declared the Versailles Treaty null and void.
e.
occupied the Ruhr district.
 

 16. 

German government printing of money to pay unemployment benefits to workers striking in the Ruhr against the Franco-Belgian occupation of 1923 led to
a.
hyperinflation.
b.
French withdrawal from the Ruhr.
c.
a rise in the Ruhr workers' standard of living.
d.
the crash of the U.S. stock market.
e.
buying up of German currency by French speculators.
 

 17. 

Buying stocks “on margin” refers to the practice of
a.
buying stocks and selling them as soon as any gain is realized.
b.
buying stocks in high-risk businesses.
c.
buying stocks with loans secured against high-risk bonds.
d.
buying stocks with loans from stockbrokers.
e.
buying stocks with retirement funds.
 

 18. 

The most fundamental commitment of the New Deal was to
a.
reform the capitalist system.
b.
concentrate political power in the federal government.
c.
resuscitate free trade economics and balanced budgets as soon as possible.
d.
use the federal government to provide for the welfare of all Americans.
e.
reduce the United States' international trade deficit.
 

 19. 

According to the text, the Great Depression did not hit Britain as hard as the United States or Germany in part because
a.
Britain had a tradition of deficit spending by the government.
b.
the British government followed the recommendations of economist John Maynard Keynes.
c.
the British economy gradually reoriented away from international markets and toward production of consumer goods for the domestic market.
d.
the United States provided Britain with substantial economic assistance.
e.
British colonies served as a constant market for British goods.
 

 20. 

The Popular Front was formed in response to
a.
the occupation of the Ruhr.
b.
U.S. isolationism.
c.
the threat of Soviet intervention in the Spanish Civil War.
d.
the growth of communism.
e.
the growth of fascism.
 

 21. 

Which of the following events occurred last?
a.
French and Belgian armies occupy the Ruhr.
b.
Kellogg-Briand pact signed.
c.
Franklin Roosevelt elected U.S. president.
d.
Popular Front is formed in France.
e.
Germany joins League of Nations.
 

 22. 

Georges Sorel saw Marxian socialism as
a.
the science of history.
b.
an inspiring, but unprovable religion.
c.
the enemy of human freedom.
d.
a dark and sinister fantasy.
e.
the apex of human reason.
 

 23. 

According to Freud, ingrained moral values, the ____________, specify what a person should do.
a.
superego
b.
ego
c.
id
d.
sex drive
e.
irrational mind
 

 24. 

Ulysses is an example of
a.
realism.
b.
expressionism.
c.
naturalism.
d.
post-modernism.
e.
the stream-of-consciousness technique.
 

 25. 

Hitler's Mein Kampf included all of the following basic themes except
a.
living space.
b.
land reform.
c.
race.
d.
the leaderdictator.
e.
the masses were driven by fanaticism, not by knowledge.
 

 26. 

How did real wages for workers and peasants in the Soviet Union in 1937 compare with those in the Russian empire in 1913?
a.
They were far higher.
b.
They were marginally higher.
c.
They were lower.
d.
They were approximately the same.
e.
Available data do not allow comparison.
 

 27. 

Which of the following events occurred first?
a.
Mussolini seizes power in Italy.
b.
Stalin launches first five-year plan.
c.
Collectivization starts in the Soviet Union.
d.
Hitler appointed chancellor in Germany.
e.
Lateran Agreement signed.
 

 28. 

The newer comparative studies of fascism identify all of the following as shared characteristics except
a.
alliance with working-class movements.
b.
extreme, expansionist nationalism.
c.
a dynamic and violent leader.
d.
glorification of war and the military.
e.
alliance with powerful capitalists and landowners.
 

 29. 

The Grand Alliance was cemented by all of the following policies except
a.
a commitment to unconditional surrender.
b.
U.S. adoption of the “Europe first” principle.
c.
postponement of a discussion of the eventual peace settlement.
d.
the decision to exclude France from the Alliance.
e.
the promise of huge U.S. aid to Britain and the Soviet Union.
 

 30. 

In the early 1930s German chancellor Bruning tried to cope with the Great Depression by
a.
spending large amounts on public works projects.
b.
cutting government spending and squeezing down wages and prices.
c.
repudiating the Treaty of Versailles and drastic increases in military spending.
d.
enacting new welfare measures.
e.
instituting free trade policies to attract foreign investment.
 

 31. 

The Lateran Agreement indicated that Mussolini had the support of
a.
the pope and the Catholic church.
b.
Italian labor unions.
c.
Nazi Germany.
d.
fascist Spain.
e.
the Greek government.
 

 32. 

The term Final Solution refers to
a.
Stalin's industrialization drive.
b.
the Allies' demand that Germany had to surrender unconditionally.
c.
Hitler's suicide as Soviet troops stormed Berlin.
d.
the attempted extermination of European Jews by the Nazis.
e.
Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union.
 

 33. 

The Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
a.
allied Germany and the Soviet Union against Britain and France.
b.
engaged Germany and the Soviet Union to defend one another should either be attacked.
c.
stated that Germany and the Soviet Union foreswore any further acts of aggression against sovereign states.
d.
stated that if either side became involved in war, the other would remain neutral, and included a secret agreement to divide up Yugoslavia.
e.
stated that if either side became involved in war, the other would remain neutral, and included a secret clause dividing up eastern Europe.
 

 34. 

Hitler's popularity was based on all of the following except
a.
his establishment of equality for women.
b.
growing profits for business.
c.
the perception of greater equality and social mobility for all Germans.
d.
his successes in foreign policy.
e.
high employment and rising real wages.
 

 35. 

In Stalin's Soviet Union, women
a.
were relegated to agricultural and domestic labor.
b.
were urged to liberate themselves sexually.
c.
shared family duties equally with men.
d.
were able to pursue professional careers.
e.
lost the right to vote.
 

 36. 

By spring __________, the Bolsheviks had won the civil war.
a.
1921
b.
1919
c.
1925
d.
1926
e.
1928
 

 37. 

According to historian Daniel Goldhagen, most Germans
a.
detested the anti-Semitic policies of the Nazi party.
b.
greeted the outbreak of war with resignation.
c.
were Hitler's willing accomplices in the Final Solution.
d.
were indifferent to the Holocaust.
e.
feared Bolshevism above all.
 

 38. 

Stalin's theory of “socialism in one country”
a.
was originally proposed by Leon Trotsky.
b.
argued that the Soviet Union could build socialism on its own.
c.
maintained that the success of socialism depended on world revolution.
d.
was rejected by the Communist party.
e.
proposed that the Soviet Union should give up trying to catalyze the world proletarian revolution.
 

 39. 

Among the objectives of Stalin's first Five-Year Plan were all of the following except
a.
to stamp out the small-scale private enterprise tolerated under the NEP.
b.
to catch up with the advanced capitalist countries in industrial and military power.
c.
to squeeze out of the peasants the capital needed for industrialization.
d.
to Russify the ethnic minority groups in the U.S.S.R.
e.
to prevent the growth of an independent class of “capitalist” peasants.
 

 40. 

The parliamentary government in Italy was breaking down at the time of the Fascist march on Rome in October 1922 largely because
a.
socialist workers were seizing control of factories.
b.
of the violence perpetrated by Mussolini's own black-shirted militants.
c.
of mass unemployment.
d.
of mutinies in the Italian fleet.
e.
of the general strike against the government declared by the Catholic church.
 

 41. 

One of the most important consequences of the Great Purges was the
a.
creation of a new generation of communists loyal to Stalin.
b.
destruction of the Red Army's ability to fight.
c.
elimination of foreign spies and saboteurs.
d.
decline in the international scope of the communist movement.
e.
rise of significant sympathy for Nazi Germany inside the U.S.S.R.
 

 42. 

Hitler's promise to create “national socialism,” a path between capitalism and communism was directed primarily at
a.
the army officer corps.
b.
the middle and lower-middle classes.
c.
big business.
d.
urban workers.
e.
the intelligentsia.
 

 43. 

By the end of _____________, Italy was a one-party dictatorship under Mussolini's control.
a.
1926
b.
1922
c.
1930
d.
1929
e.
1924
 

 44. 

In Vienna, Hitler learned important political lessons from the city's mayor,
a.
Max Luddendorf.
b.
Frederick Listoff.
c.
Karl Lueger.
d.
Rolf Hess.
e.
Otto Presser.
 

 45. 

Heinrich Himmler was the leader of the
a.
Luftwaffe.
b.
Wehrmacht.
c.
Gestapo.
d.
SA.
e.
SS.
 

 46. 

At which conference did U.S. President Harry Truman insist that Stalin immediately allow free elections in the eastern European states under Red Army occupation?
a.
Munich Conference.
b.
Teheran Conference.
c.
Yalta Conference.
d.
Helsinki Conference.
e.
Potsdam Conference.
 

 47. 

The goal of the Truman Doctrine was to
a.
contain communism in areas liberated by the Red Army.
b.
rebuild the European economies.
c.
force the communists out of eastern Europe.
d.
destroy the communist parties in western Europe.
e.
enable cuts in U.S. military spending.
 

 48. 

In November 1943 the Big Three met in _____________ to discuss the shape of the postwar world.
a.
Teheran
b.
Potsdam
c.
London
d.
Istanbul
e.
Helsinki
 

 49. 

Which of the following events occurred first?
a.
Berlin Wall is built.
b.
Common Market is formed.
c.
NATO is formed.
d.
Korean War begins.
e.
NOW is formed.
 

 50. 

Which of the following events occurred last?
a.
Truman Doctrine proclaimed.
b.
Berlin Wall built.
c.
Marshall Plan launched.
d.
De-Stalinization of the Soviet Union begins.
e.
Korean War begins.
 

 51. 

The Manhattan Project was responsible for the development of
a.
jet aircraft.
b.
radar.
c.
the atomic bomb.
d.
computers.
e.
code-breaking algorithms.
 

 52. 

Jews in Palestine proclaimed the state of Israel
a.
when the French gave up their League of Nations mandate over Palestine.
b.
when Germany surrendered in May 1945.
c.
when the British withdrew from Palestine in 1948.
d.
when the United States proclaimed the Truman Doctrine in 1947.
e.
when the U.S. Congress promised economic assistance in 1949.
 

 53. 

The European Common Market was created by the Treaty of
a.
Paris.
b.
Potsdam.
c.
Rome.
d.
Yalta.
e.
Versailles.
 

 54. 

Following his election to the U.S. presidency in 1968, Richard Nixon
a.
immediately withdrew American troops from Vietnam.
b.
gradually reduced American involvement in the Vietnam War.
c.
increased the number of American troops in Vietnam.
d.
halted U.S. bombing of Vietnam.
e.
invaded North Vietnam.
 

 55. 

Changes in the structure of European society after World War II were primarily the result of
a.
economic and technological transformation.
b.
rising birthrates among the lower classes.
c.
the slaughter of World War II.
d.
political and social revolution.
e.
large-scale emigration.
 

 56. 

The wave of social unrest that almost toppled de Gaulle's Fifth Republic was begun by
a.
workers.
b.
peasants.
c.
students.
d.
civil servants.
e.
the army.
 

 57. 

The leveling of European society was a product of all of the following except
a.
social welfare programs.
b.
increased immigration resulting from decolonization.
c.
a rising standard of living and standardized consumer goods.
d.
higher taxes on the rich.
e.
high demand by government and corporations for technologists and managers.
 

 58. 

The leaders of the Czechoslovak reform movement of 1968 attempted to
a.
abolish the Communist party.
b.
remove Czechoslovakia from the Warsaw Pact.
c.
reintroduce capitalism and liberalism.
d.
make communism more humane.
e.
collectivize agriculture.
 

 59. 

How was the Tet Offensive launched by the Vietcong in January 1968 perceived in the United States?
a.
As a decisive American defeat.
b.
As an American victory.
c.
As a sign that the North Vietnamese were at the end of their tether.
d.
As a sign of Soviet direction of the Vietcong and North Vietnamese war effort.
e.
As a sign that more U.S. troops were needed to crush the communist insurgency.
 

 60. 

In 1954, the ____________ were defeated by the forces of Ho Chi Minh.
a.
Portuguese
b.
Dutch
c.
Italians
d.
British
e.
French
 

 61. 

Simone de Beauvoir argued that women could become freer through
a.
political revolution.
b.
the abolition of marriage.
c.
refusal to have children.
d.
courageous action and self-assertive creativity.
e.
sexual promiscuity.
 

 62. 

In 1956, Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the ____________, provoking a military conflict with France and Britain.
a.
Egyptian oil industry
b.
Egyptian steel industry
c.
Suez Canal Company
d.
Egyptian energy industry
e.
Egyptian agricultural sector
 

 63. 

Following the failure of his program of nationalization and public investment in the early 1980s, French president François Mitterrand
a.
resigned.
b.
failed to win reelection.
c.
was forced to introduce austerity measures.
d.
declared that socialism was dead.
e.
withdrew France from the Common Market.
 

 64. 

Simone de Beauvoir was
a.
an influential author in the postwar feminist movement.
b.
minister of culture in Charles de Gaulle's government.
c.
a French Resistance fighter executed by the Nazis.
d.
secretary of the French Communist party during the strikes and riots of 1947.
e.
president of the Sorbonne during the student uprising of 1968.
 

 65. 

In Great Britain, Margaret Thatcher's efforts to encourage low- and moderate-income renters to buy their apartments
a.
failed miserably.
b.
led to destructive debt levels for poorer people.
c.
was supported by the Labour party.
d.
created a new class of property owners.
e.
led to accusations that Thatcher was a socialist.
 

 66. 

Between 1981 and 1989, Ronald Reagan and the U.S. Congress
a.
increased taxes on the wealthy.
b.
cut defense spending.
c.
increased taxes and government-provided social services.
d.
cut taxes and ballooned the government deficit.
e.
eliminated the budget deficit by cutting government social services.
 

 67. 

Common goals of the women's movement included all of the following except
a.
eliminating discrimination in the workplace.
b.
elimination of male-dominated governments.
c.
legislation to legalize abortion and divorce.
d.
support for programs to help single parents.
e.
support for affordable day care.
 

 68. 

The essence of Willy Brandt's policies toward the Eastern bloc was
a.
to seek peace and reconciliation.
b.
the reunification of Germany.
c.
to reduce the influence of NATO in Germany.
d.
to establish German neutrality in the cold war.
e.
to reassert German claims to majority-German areas of eastern Europe.
 

 69. 

In 1991, which autonomous republic in the Russian Federation declared independence, prompting an invasion by the Russian Army and a bloody civil war?
a.
Tatarstan.
b.
Karelia.
c.
Tuvia.
d.
Daghestan.
e.
Chechnya.
 

 70. 

The Brezhnev era in the Soviet Union appeared stable for all of the following reasons except
a.
the coercive apparatus of the state and party.
b.
the high rate of growth in the consumer sector of the economy.
c.
the nationalism of ordinary Great Russians.
d.
a gradually rising standard of living.
e.
access to special stores, travel abroad, and other privileges for elites.
 

 71. 

Poland differed from the other Eastern bloc states because
a.
its economy was managed effectively.
b.
it retained an independent military.
c.
of its independent agriculture and vigorous church.
d.
of its native leadership.
e.
of its refusal to borrow from the West.
 

 72. 

Gorbachev's reforms included all of the following except
a.
freer prices.
b.
more independence for state enterprises.
c.
the breakup of collective farms.
d.
the establishment of profitseeking private cooperatives.
e.
a relaxation of state censorship.
 

 73. 

Vladimir Putin
a.
was head of the KGB under Gorbachev.
b.
was leader of the Chechen independence movement.
c.
was elected president of Russia in 2000.
d.
was Yeltsin's chief economic adviser.
e.
headed the coal miner's union in the Russian Far East.
 

 74. 

Terrorism and ____________ have gone hand-in-hand since the beginning of the twentieth century.
a.
civil war
b.
fundamentalism
c.
famine
d.
epidemic
e.
religion
 

 75. 

The German Red Army Faction is an example of the
a.
third wave of terrorism.
b.
first wave of terrorism.
c.
subversion of the West by the Soviet Union.
d.
intersection of religion and terrorism.
e.
second wave of terrorism.
 

 76. 

Western nations joined forces with the Afghani _____________ in the 2001 attack on the Taliban and al-Qaeda.
a.
Mujahideen
b.
Freedom Fighters
c.
underground
d.
Northern Alliance
e.
Pashtun Alliance
 

 77. 

The Maastricht treaty of 1991
a.
ended the cold war.
b.
reunited Germany.
c.
recognized Croatian independence.
d.
recognized Slovenian independence.
e.
set up a plan for creating a European monetary union with a single currency.
 

 78. 

The attempted coup by the communist old guard in the Soviet Union in August 1991 failed because of
a.
massive popular resistance, rallied around Boris Yeltsin.
b.
Gorbachev's use of the Red Army to crush the rebels.
c.
the threat of NATO intervention.
d.
the inability of the old guard to decide on a new leader.
e.
the United States' threat to intervene.
 

 79. 

In 2002, the Bush administration ____________ new Security Council resolutions requiring Iraq to accept the return of weapons inspectors.
a.
eagerly agreed to
b.
rejected
c.
refused to be part of
d.
reluctantly agreed to
e.
pushed hard for
 

 80. 

In 1997, which three countries were accepted to membership in NATO?
a.
Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.
b.
Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary.
c.
Austria, Sweden, and Switzerland.
d.
Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina.
e.
Greece, Turkey, and Bulgaria.
 

 81. 

In the days after the collapse of Saddam's dictatorship, British and American troops __________ looting of government buildings and hospitals.
a.
actively prevented
b.
encouraged
c.
could do nothing to stop
d.
used violence to stop the
e.
turned a blind eye to
 

 82. 

Slobodan Milosevic's plan, which hastened separatism and civil war in Yugoslavia, was known as
a.
Greater Serbia.
b.
the Third Way.
c.
the League of Communists.
d.
the Commonwealth of Independent States.
e.
Titoism.
 

 83. 

The event which finally galvanized NATO action against the Bosnian Serbs was
a.
the discovery of ethnic cleansing policies.
b.
the slaughter of several thousands citizens in Srebrenica.
c.
the invasion of Bosnia by elements of the regular Serbian army.
d.
Milosevic's ditching of his Bosnian Serb allies.
e.
the fear of Russian intervention on the Bosnian Serb side.
 

 84. 

Which of the following events occurred first?
a.
Solidarity gains power in Poland.
b.
First War with Iraq begins.
c.
Glasnost leads to greater freedom of speech in the Soviet Union.
d.
European Union is created.
e.
Maastricht treaty sets criteria for European monetary union.
 

 85. 

The text argues that the decline of western European birthrates is due to
a.
the entrance of married women into careers and the related drive for gender equality.
b.
increasing rates of homosexuality.
c.
state policies discouraging childbearing.
d.
environmental degradation.
e.
the decline of religious belief.
 

 86. 

Gorbachev's encouragement of reform movements in Poland and Hungary was a repudiation of the ____________ doctrine.
a.
Brezhnev
b.
Truman
c.
Stalin
d.
Glasnost
e.
Detente
 

 87. 

French reaction to the austerity reforms introduced to meet Maastricht criteria featured
a.
massive protest marches and a national strike.
b.
grumbling resentment.
c.
waves of political violence.
d.
lukewarm acceptance.
e.
large-scale emigration.
 

 88. 

_____________'s Velvet Revolution ousted the communist government from power.
a.
Czechoslovakia
b.
Poland
c.
Hungary
d.
Romania
e.
Lithuania
 

 89. 

When ___________ broke away from the Soviet Union, Alma-Ata became its capital.
a.
Georgia
b.
Tajikistan
c.
Azerbaijan
d.
Uzbekistan
e.
Kazakhstan
 

 90. 

The ___________ of 1990 was a general peace treaty that brought an end to World War II and the cold war.
a.
Helsinki Accord
b.
Dayton Accord
c.
Paris Accord
d.
Washington Accord
e.
Berlin Accord
 



 
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